First Aid/ CPR Study Guide – Flashcards with Answers

question

What are signs that indicate a medical emergency?
answer

unusual noise, sight, odor, appearance, behavior.
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List some barriers to action
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presence of other people, unsure of victim’s condition, type of injury or illness, fear of catching disease, fear of doing something wrong, being unsure when to call 911.
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Name the 3 C’s
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check, call, care.
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Check what?
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scene safety, victims, bystanders, signs and clues, airway, breathing, circulation.
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Call who?
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911 or EMS.
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How long should you check a victim’s breathing?
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10 seconds.
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Define: implied consent
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to assume a victim would give permission to treat them if they were conscious.
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Transmitting diseases key things
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can be airborne, in a fluid, or vector (bite), injured person must be infected, rescuer has to have a break in skin, must be sufficient amount of pathogens.
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Define: pathogens
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a disease causing microorganism.
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Care for first 2 minutes IF:
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unconscious adult, adolescent, or infant, or witnessed collapse.
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Call first FOR:
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cardiac emergencies, drowning victims, unwitnessed collapse.
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Walking assist move
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1 or 2 persons with a conscious person, use your body as a crutch, don’t use if suspected head, neck, or back injury.
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Pack strap carry
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use with conscious person, place person on your back and cross arms in front of you, don’t use if suspect head, neck, or back injury.
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2 person seated carry
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requires 2 people, use with conscious victim not seriously injured, interlock arms and place under knees to carry.
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Clothes drag
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Use on unconscious or conscious person WITH suspected head, neck, or back injuries. keep head, neck, back, stable. grab clothing behind neck, pull to safety while supporting head in your forearms.
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Blanket drag
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used to move unconscious person or conscious, support person on side and place blanket underneath, roll person back onto back and gather blanket at the head and move gently.
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Foot drag
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use when a person is too large, firmly grasp ankles and move backwards in straight line, DO NOT BUMP HEAD, CHECK SCENE!
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Body mechanics to know
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feet shoulder width apart, knees flexed, back straight, work in direction of your efforts, close to load, push and pull DON’T LIFT, get help, work in unison.
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Water victims care
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reach victim BUT KEEP YOURSELF SAFE FIRST, call 911, stablize victim face up place one arm under shoulders and one under hips, support victim in water until EMS arrives. *flip victim over if face down*
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respiratory organs
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airway and lungs.
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respiratory system job
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supplies body with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide by breathing.
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common respiratory problems
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asthma, respiratory distress, respiratory arrest.
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circulatory organs
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heart, blood, blood vessels.
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Which direction do arteries and veins pump blood?
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arteries pump blood away from the heart, veins pump towards.
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circulatory system job
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transports nutrients and oxygen to body cells and removes waste products.
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common circulatory problems
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cardiac arrest, heart attacks, blood clots.
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nervous system organs
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brain, spinal cord, nerves.
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nervous system job
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transmits messages to and from the brain to regulate all of the body and its’ systems.
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common nervous system problems
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paralysis, seizures, strokes, concussions, fainting, loss of consciousness.
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musculo-skeletal organs
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bones, ligaments, tendons.
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What can you sprain and strain?
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sprain ligaments and muscles, strain tendons.
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musculo-skeletal job
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provides framework, protects internal organs, allows movement and heat.
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common musculo-skeletal problems
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breaks, tears, sprains, strains, and fractures.
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integumentary system organs
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skin, nails, hair.
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integumentary system job
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prevents infection, dehydration, and regulates body temperature.
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common integumentary system problems
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breaks, tears, punctures, lacerations, abrasions.
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digestive system organs
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mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, gallbladder.
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digestive system job
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breaks down food to supply body with energy.
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common digestive system problems
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ulcers, choking, allergies, food poisioning.
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endocrine system organs
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glands.
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endocrine system job
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secretes hormones into blood.
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common endocrine problem
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diabetes.
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genitourinary system organs
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uterus, genitilia, kidneys, bladder.
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genitourinary system job
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reproduction, removes waste, and regulates water balance.
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common genitourinary system problems
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dehydration, infections.
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What is the medical term for a bruise?
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ecchymatic.
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List body cavities from head to toe
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cranial, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic.
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common breathing emergencies
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choking, illnesses, asthma, electrocution, shock, drowning, heart attack, allergic reactions, drugs, emphysema, bronchitis, croup, hyperventilating.
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asthma
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a condition that narrows the breathing passages and makes it difficult to breathe, caused by a spasm of the muscle lining in the bronchi.
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asthma signs and symptoms
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wheezing, difficulty breathing, painful breathing.
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asthma treatment
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medications (inhaler, fresh air).
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bronchitis
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a disease resulting in inflammation of the lining of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles.
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bronchitis signs and symptoms
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persistent cough, chest tightness, difficulty breathing.
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bronchitis treatment
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antibiotics.
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anaphylatic shock
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a severe allergic reaction that can restrict and swell a person’s chest cavity and cause death.
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anaphylatic shock causes/symptoms
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caused by insect stings, food, medication. symptons include chest tightness, swelling of throat, face, and neck, difficulty breathing, dizziness, confusion.
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anaphylatic shock treatment
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epipen, call 911.
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croup
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a common viral illness in children that causes swelling of the tissues around the vocal cords, characterized by a “seal bark” type of cough.
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croup treatment
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fresh cool air, steamy bathroom.
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epiglottitis
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a bacterial infection that causes severe inflammation of the epiglottis.
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epiglottitis signs and treatment
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appear ill, fever, sore throat, sitting up to breathe, drooling, difficulty swallowing. treat with antibiotics.
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hyperventilation
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occurs when breathing is faster than normal, imbalance of oxygen and carbon dioxide, occurs in nervous people, people who are in shock and tense.
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hyperventilation treatment
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relax the victim.
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general respiratory distress care
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call 911, help victim rest comfortably, monitor abc’s, keep victim from overheating or chilling, assist victim in taking medications.
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Respiratory distress can lead to…?
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respiratory arrest and body systems deterioration, cardiac arrest, death.
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2 types of choking
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anatomical, mechanical.
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Stopping choking techniques
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5 back blows, 5 abdominal thrusts
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heart attack symptoms
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chest pain, chest heaviness, pale skin, weak pulse, nausea, vomitting, pain radiating to left arm, indigestion, short of breath, sweating.
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heart attack care
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call 911, rest in comfortable posistion, take nitroglycerine under tongue if available (1 every 3 minutes), montior abc’s.
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adult cpr guidelines
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2 hands on sternum, compress 1 1/2 inches-2inches, 30-2 compression to breaths rate, 5 cycles in 2 minutes.
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child cpr guidelines
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1 hand on chest, (rescue breathing is 1 every 3 seconds), compress 1 inch-1 1/2 inches, 5 cycles in 2 minutes.
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infant cpr guidelines
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2 fingers, (rescue breathing is 1 every 3 seconds), mouth covers over mouth and nose, compress 1/2inch-1inch, 5 cycles in 2 minutes.
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cardiac chain of survival
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early recognition, early cpr, early defibrilation, early advanced medical care.
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When do you stop cpr?
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try not to however, if the scene becomes unsafe, victim shows signs of life, aed becomes available, another trained responder arrives, too exhausted to continue.
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causes of cardiac arrest
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drugs, respiratory arrest, drowning, electrocution, weak heart, suffocation, firearm injuries, poison, genetic history factors.
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clotting
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process which blood thickens at a wound site to seal a hole or tear and stop bleeding.
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direct pressure
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pressure applied on a wound to control bleeding
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hemorrhage
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loss of a large amount of blood in a short period of time.
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signs of internal bleeding
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discoloration, tenderness, swollen, hard tissues, anxiety, restlessness, rapid breathing, cool, moist, pale skin, nausea, vomitting, excessive thirst, declining level of consciousness.
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closed wound general care
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apply direct pressure, apply cold pack, call 911 if severe.
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minor open wound general care
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wash out, apply sterile dressing, direct pressure, antiobiotic ointment.
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major open wound general care
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do NOT wash, apply clean dressing, apply direct pressure, bandage, call 911.
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embedded objects wound care
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do NOT remove object unless it’s preventing breathing, use bulky bandages, be careful not to further move object, control bleeding, call 911.
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causes of burns
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heat, chemicals, electricity, solar radiation.
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first degree burns signs and symptoms
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red, dry skin, area is painful, area is swollen (superficial).
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second degree burns signs and symptoms
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red, wet, skin, open and closed blisters, skin spotted and blotchy, painful, swollen, (deep).
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third degree burns signs and symptoms
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brown or charred skin, tissue underneath appear white, painful, may be life threatening*.
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critical burns locations
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face, hands, feet, genitals, airway.
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general burns care
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stop burning process, cool the burned area, cover the burned area with a bandage, minimize shock, call 911 if third degree.
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rocky mountain spotted fever
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a serious tick borne disease caused by wood or dog ticks
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rocky mountain spotted fever signs and symptoms
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spotted rash on ankles or wrists that spreads, fevers, chills, severe headaches, joint and muscle aches. *early treatment important because victim could die of kidney failure!!*
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lyme disease signs and symptoms
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tick bite, red rash in bulls eye appearance, fevers, chills, headaches, fatigue, flu-like symptons. *contracted by deer ticks*
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stings and bites signs and symptoms
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stinger present, bite marks, pain, local swelling, rash, hives, nausea, difficulty breathing, itchiness.
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stings and bites general care
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remove stinger by scraping with fingernail or credit card, never use tweezers (only with ticks), wash wound, cover with bandage, apply ice, watch for allergic reactions.
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spider bites signs and symptoms
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bite marks, black widow bites exhibit sharp pain, brown recluse bites swell and blister, pain, cramping, nausea, vomitting, difficulty breathing/swallowing, sweating, irregular heartbeat.
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spider bites care
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call 911 as soon as possible, antivenin!
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snake bites signs and symptoms
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fang bite marks, pain, burning, swelling, tingling, numbness.
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snake bite care
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wash, apply ice, immobolize, call 911, if pit viper you need antivenin.
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jellyfish sting care
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soak in vinegar, alcohol, or baking soda paste (with water).
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stingray sting care
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immobolize, soak in warm water until pain is gone, call 911 if severe.
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tetanus signs and symptoms
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irritability, headache, fever, painful muscle spasms, symptons occur 3 to 5 days after bites/cuts. call 911.
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head, neck, back injuries causes
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fall from heigh greater than own, motor vehicle accidents, blunt forces, violence, lightning.
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head injury symptoms
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change in level of consciousness, pain, pressure, tingling sensation, partial/complete paralysis, blood from ears/nose, seizures, vomitting, nausea, impaired vision, headache, loss of balance, bruising around head/eyes.
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inline stabilization warnings
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never use if head is severely angled, victim has pain, pressure, or muscle spasms, there is resistance when attempting to move head!
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spine parts from top to bottom
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cervic, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx.
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eye injury general care
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keep on back, do not remove any embedded objects, apply dressing around object, stabilize object with cup, call 911.
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common ear injuries
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soft tissue damage, eardrums, loss of hearing.
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ear injury general care
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do NOT apply direct pressure, cover lightly, call 911.
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scalp injury care
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control bleeding with direct pressure, DO NOT apply direct pressure if skull feels spongy (indicates skull fracture).
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check injury care
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if bleeding inside of the mouth place dressings on inside and apply direct pressure, remove any embedded objects ONLY if impairs breathing, pull object in same direction it entered, apply pressure outside of mouth, sit and lean victim forward.
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concussion causes
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force to head, causes temporary impairment of brain, may lose consciousness, memory, have severe headaches.
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concussion care
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rest, medical help – could be severe!
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nose injury care
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sit victim with head forward, pinch nose, apply ice, call 911 if caused by high blood pressure (bleeding).
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chest injury signs and symptoms
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breathing difficulty, severe pain, obvious deformity, bruising, discoloration of skin, coughing up blood.
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chest injury general care
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posistion in comfortable way to aid breathing, if ribs are broken bind arm to injured side.
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sucking chest wound care
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apply occlusive dressing, treat other life threatening injuries, keep one corner of dressing open.
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abdominal injury signs and symptoms
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severe pain, external bleeding, nausea, vomitting, bruising, pale ashen moist skin, weakness, thirst, rigid abdomen, organs protruding from abs.
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abdominal injury general care
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lie victim on back, bend knees to reduce pain, call 911, control bleeding.
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pelvis injury signs and symptons
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protruding organs, pain, bruising, bleeding, severed body parts… same care as abdominal injuries.
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soft splint
answer

blankets, towels, pillows, slings.
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rigid splints
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boards, metal strips, folded magazines.
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anatomic splints
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refers to the use of the body like arms, legs.
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commerical splint
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traction with pulleys and weights.
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slings and cravats
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triangular bandages used to support arms, forearms, dressings, and bandaids.
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splinting key things
answer

support injured thing in posistion you found it, cover open wounds, check area above and below color/warmth/feeling, apply splint above and below, sling into place not directly over injury, check fingers/toes for circulation, elevate if possible, rest, apply ice, prevent shock.
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upper extremities
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forearm, phalanges, carpals, metacarpals.
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shoulder injuries
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clavicle, scalpula, humerous, sprains, fractures, dislocation of shoulder.
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shoulder injury general care
answer

control bleeding, support in comfortable posistion, if away from body use pillow to support under arm, create sling splint, ice, call 911 if broken.
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arm injuries
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humerous, radius, ulna, fractures.
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arm injury general care
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immobolize from shoulder to elbow, control bleeding, sling, if elbow injured DO NOT MOVE, call 911 if you can’t find pulse.
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lower extremity injuries
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femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsal, metatarsals, phalanges.
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femur fraction key signs
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leg turned outward, muscle contracted, leg appears shorter, swollen, possible external bleeding.
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lower extremity general care
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control any bleeding, immobolize, rest in comfortable posistion, elevate if possible, support leg, monitor color/warmth/feeling, call 911 if suspected broken.
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knee injuries
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sprains, cuts, bruises, fractures, dislocations.
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knee injury general care
answer

control bleeding, support/eleveate knee, ice, rest, splint if it can be straightened.
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ankle and foot injuries
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sprains, fractures, tears, strains.
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ankle and foot injury general care
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control bleeding, immobolize with soft splint, check toes for warmth/feeling/color, elevate, ice, call 911 if suspected broken.
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fainting (syncope)
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temporary reduction of blood flow to the brain.
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fainting signs and symptoms
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complete loss of consciousness, temporary reduction of blood to head, collapse.
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fainting general care
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call 911, posistion on flat surface, monitor abc’s, loosen clothing, elevate legs.
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stroke
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disruption of blood flow to brain that can cause death or serious brain damage by a clotted artery.
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stroke signs and symptoms
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altered level of consciousness, look/feels ill, sudden weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or being understood, blurred vision, unequal pupils, severe headache, ringing in ears, drooling, loss of bladder control.
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stroke general care
answer

call 911 fast, monitor abc’s, clear fluids from mouth, reassure and comfort, don’t give food.
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2 types of strokes
answer

transit ischimic attack and cerebreal vascular accident.
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List ways to prevent a stroke
answer

control blood pressure, diet, do not smoke, exercise regularly, control diabetes.
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diabetes
answer

the pancreas doesn’t produce unsulin that helps with glucose buildup.
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diabetes type 1
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juvenile diabetes, insulin dependent diabetes where the body produces little or no insulin. must inject insulin into the body.
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diabetes type 2
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adult onset diabetes, noninsulin dependent, body produces insulin but no enough, is more common, can be controlled by diet.
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hypo/hyperglycemia
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hypo is when the insulin level is too high and sugar level is too low, hyperglycemia is too low and sugar is too high.
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signs and symptons hypo/hyperglycemia
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flushed skin, hot, dry, skin, looks ill, sweet, fruity, body odor, irregular breathing, abnormal pulse.
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diabetes general care
answer

if conscious give sugary foods or drinks if loss of consciousness call 911.
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seizures
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sudden loss of body control can be chronic called epilepsy, caused by fevers (febrile), preceded by by aura, feels and looks ill.
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seizures signs and symptons
answer

changes in level of consciousness, convulsions, fluids from mouth.
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seizure general care
answer

ALLOW to happen, protect victim from injury self, monitor abc’s, clear mouth of fluids by posistioning ons ide, call 911 (especially if repeated, pregnany, in water, or never had them before).
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Poisons depend on:
answer

type/amount of substance, how and where the poison entered, time elapsed, weight, size, age of victim.
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clues of poisoning
answer

vomit, open drug containers, drug paraphernilia, color of skin, irregular breathing, blue lips, consciousness, alcohol bottles, crushed plants, food.
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poisoning signs and symptons
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nausea, vomiting, chest pain, abdominal pain, dizziness, sweating, seizures, skin discoloration, diarrhea, burns around mouth, headaches.
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What is used to induce vomiting?
answer

syrup of ipecac.
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What does activated charcoal do?
answer

neutralizes stomach and absorbs poisons.
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When should vomitting not be induced?
answer

victim is unconscious, having seizures, pregnant in the last trimester, ingested corrosive substance.
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4 ways to be poisoned
answer

ingested, absorbed, inhaled, injected.
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types of absorbed poisons
answer

poison ivy, oak, sumac, wet and dry chemicals, lawn fertilizers.
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absorbed poisons general care
answer

wash area with calamine lotion, benadryl, corticosteroids.
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ingested poisons
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foods (bacterial and chemical)
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ingested poisons general care
answer

antibiotics, prevent by properly cooking and handling food.
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inhaled poisons
answer

carbon monoxide, paints, glues, gasoline.
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inhaled poison general care
answer

get to fresh air, treat breathing conditions, call 911 if victim becomes or is unconscious.
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frostbite signs and symptons
answer

cold, discolored skin, lack of feeling, waxy look, blisters, can be just nip, superficial, or deep.
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frostbite general care
answer

handle very carefully, do NOT rub area, place in warm waters, bandage loosely, if fingers and toes place gauze in between each phalange.
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hypothermia signs and symptons
answer

anything below 95 degrees, shivering, slow irregular heart beat, numbeness, apathy, numbness, change in level of consciousness, breathing difficulties.
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hypothermia general care
answer

remove wet clothing, call 911, gradually rewarm, use dry blankets, give warm liquid if conscious.
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heat cramps signs and symptons
answer

heavy sweating, rapid onset, pain, muscle spasms.
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heat cramps general care
answer

rest in a cool place, drink cool water, stretch muscles.
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heat exhaustion signs and symptons
answer

cool, moist, pale, skin, headaches, nausea, dizziness, weakness.
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heat stroke signs and symptons
answer

sweating stops, red, hot, dry, skin, rapid rise temperature, rapid or weak pulse, changes in consciousness, body systems fail, can lead to cardiac arrest.
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heat stroke and exhaustion general care
answer

ice packs under knees, wrists, call 911 if condition worsens, fan, cool body in any way.

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