Finals- Chapters 1-9

Organic Chemistry
study of chemicals containing carbon
matter
anything that has mass and occupies space
inorganic chemistry
study of chemicals that do not contain carbon
biochemistry
the study of processes taking place in organisms
analytical chemistry
the area of study that focuses on the composition of matter
physical chemistry
the area that deals with the mechanism, rate, and energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes change
pure chemistry
the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake
applied chemistry
research that is directed toward a practical goal or application
biotechnology
applies science to the production of biological products or processes
mass
measure of the amount of matter
extensive property
property that depends on the amount of matter in the sample
intensive property
property that depends on the type of matter in the property, not the amount of matter
substance
uniform and definite composition
vapor
liquid or solid at room temp.
heterogeneous
not uniform composition
homogeneous
composition is uniform throughout
phase
and part of composition with uniform composition or properties
distillation
liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is condensed into a liquid
element
simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties
chemical property
the ability of a substance to undergo a specific change
precipitate
a solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture
accuracy
measure of how close a measurement comes to the true value of whatever is measured
precision
a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another
Error formula
Error= experimental value – accepted value
Percent error formula
(|Error|/accepted value)*100%
weight
the force that measures the pull of a given mass by gravity
Kelvin Formula
K= °C+273
Celcius Formula
°C=K-273
Joule formula
J= .2390 cal
Calorie formula
cal =4.184 J
Conversion Factor
A ratio of equivalent measurements
Dimensional Analysis
a way to analyze and solve problems using the units of measurements
density formula
density=mass/volume
scanning tunneling microscopes
observe atoms
cathode ray
created by j.j. thomson. stream of electron particles moving at a high speed
isotopes
atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Atomic Mass Unit
1/12 the mass of a carbon atom
atomic mass
weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occuring sample of an element
Percent Atomic Mass Formula
(percent*mass)+(percent*mass)
weighted average mass formula
(total number of protons in all atoms + total number of neutrons in all atoms)/number of atoms total
energy levels
the fixed energy levels an electron can have
quantum
the amount of energy needed to move an electron from one energy level to another
quantum mechanical model
determines the allowed energies an electron can have and how likely it is to find the electron in various locations around the nucleus. made by Schrodinger
atomic orbital
region of space in which there is a high probability of finding an electron
aufbau principle
electrons occupy orbitals of the lowest energy first
pauli exclusion principle
an atomic orbital may contain at most 2 electrons
Hund’s rule
electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number with the same spin direction as large as possible
amplitude
a wave’s height from zero to crest
wavelength
distance between crests represented by lambda
frequency
number of wave cycles to pass a given unit of time. represented by Nu, (v)
Hertz
cycles per second
Electromagnetic waves
radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet waves, x-rays, gamma rays
Spectrum
when sunlight passes through a prism
atomic emission spectrum
frequnecies of light emitted by an element that separate into discrete lines
ground state
the lowest possible energy of an electron
photons
light particles!
Heisenberg Uncertainty principle
it is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time
metals
high luster, good conductors, solid at room temperatures, ductile, malleable
nonmetals
poor conductors, brittle
metalloid
behaves like metals or nonmetals
alkali metals
group 1A
Alkaline earth metals
group 2A
halogens
group 7A
Representative elements
1A through 7A
transition metals
group B
inner transition metals
bottom section
atomic radius
1/2 the distance between the nuclei of 2 atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined
ionization energy
the energy required to move an electron from an atom
electronegativity
the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atoms are in a compound
octet rule
discovered by Lewis. in forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas
cation
positively charged
anion
negatively charged
ionic compounds
cations and anions
ionic bonds
electrostatic forces that hold ions together
chemical formula
the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance
formula unit
lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound
coordination number
the number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal
metallic bonds
the attraction of free-floating valence electrons got the positively charged metal ions
alloys
mixtures composed of 2 or more elements, at least one of them being a metal
unshared pair
not bonding pair of electrons. causes molecules to bend
coordinate covalent bond
covalent bond in which one atoms contributes both bonding electrons
polyatomic ion
tightly bound groups of atoms that have a positive or negative charge and behaves as a unit
bond dissociation energy
energy required to break the bond between 2 covalently bonded atoms
resonance structure
a structure that occurs when it is possible to write 2 or more valid electron dot formulas that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion.
VSEPR theory
the repulsion between electron pairs causes molecular shapes to adjust so that the valence-electron pairs stay as far apart as possible.
nonpolar covalent bond
bonding electrons are shared equally
dipole interactions
polar molecules are attracted to one another
dispersion forces
attraction because of motion of electrons
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