Final For PSY 1300

Black and White participants were shown pictures for less than 1 second of White and Black men carrying either guns or cameras. Participants were instructed to “shoot” the men carrying guns by pressing a button. Which of the following statements is TRUE of the obtained results?
Both, black and white participants were most likely to mistake a camera for a gun when it was being held by a black man

We are often not even aware of the stereotypes we are using because they occur:
Unconsciously

Bob is prejudiced against gay people. His best friend, Walter, is gay, but Bob says, “But he’s different from the others.” This rationalization is an illustration of:
Subtyping

When Jimmy was growing up, his parents frequently told him he was “no good” and wouldn’t amount to anything. Jimmy grew up to be a bitter, angry, destructive adult. His parents said, “We always knew this would happen.” This result is an example of:
Self-fulfilling Prophecy

When a person clearly disconfirms an observer’s stereotype, the observer may create a new subcategory in order to retain the stereotype. This behavior is called:
Subtyping

A phenomenon whereby observers bring about what they expect to perceive is called:
Self-fulfilling Prophecy

In a classic study, some participants were paid $1 for saying that a boring task was fun while others were paid $20 for saying the same thing. When participants later rated how enjoyable the task actually was:
$1 group said the task was more enjoyable than the $20 group

What did the experimenter in the Milgram obedience studies do to get the participants to continue shocking the learner?
Calmly instructed them to continue

The classic study on obedience was done by:
Stanley Milgram

The tendency to do what authorities tell us to do simply because they tell us to do it is known as:
Obedience

Inferences about the causes of people’s behavior are termed:
Attributions

When people’s goals are thwarted, they often harm others. This phenomenon is referred to as:
Frustration-aggression Hypothesis

The single best predictor of aggression is:
Men

Behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit is called:
Cooperation

Behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself is called:
Altruism

In choosing sexual and reproductive partners:
Woman tend to be choosier
Small changes in courtship ritual can cause to be choosier
Woman are more selective than men because of the that possibility of commitment

Anthony Philip’s homeroom teacher seats her pupils in alphabetical order. By the end of the school year, Anthony’s best friends had become Jake Parker and Aaron Porter. This is probably best explained by the phenomenon called:
More Exposure Effect

Dutton and Aron’s (1974) suspension bridge study demonstrated that men may misinterpret ________ for ________.
Physiological Arousal for Physical Attraction

Which old proverb best describes the research findings concerning attraction?
“Birds of a feather flock together”

Olivia is college-educated, ambitious, and a political activist who happens to lack a sense of humor. She is most likely to marry:
Someone more like her

The classic study on conformity was done by:
Solomon Asch

The tendency to do what others are doing simply because they are doing it is:
Conformity

Jason’s friend performs poorly on his chemistry test and Jason thinks that he must not be very smart. However, when Jason does poorly on the chemistry test, it’s because the test was not fair. This ties into the
Fundamental Attribution Error

Deindividuation, the tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristic behavior when they are stripped of their usual identities, was studied in
Zimbardo’s Prison

____________ study at the level of the group while ______________study the interaction between the person and the group.
Sociologist
Social Psychologist

You get on an elevator. Everyone is facing to the right. You turn and also face to the right. This is an example of
Conformity

Which of the following persons was the historic example of the bystander effect?
Kitty Genoverse

28. Which of the following is NOT a possible explanation for the bystander effect?
Diffusion of Responsibility, Pluralistic Ignorance, People do not recognize an emergency is taken place

The fundamental attribution error…
Tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on other people’s behavior

People have a tendency to behave in atypical ways when they are stripped or freed of their usual identities (or when they are able to enjoy anonymity). When this happens, which of the following has taken place?
Deindividuation

In the Milgram study, participants believed…
They were being shocked

As discussed in class lecture, ________________________ is where we alter our attitudes because we experience an unpleasant state of tension between 2 or more conflicting thoughts.
Cognitive Dissonance

___________ refers to the tendency of people to alter their behavior because of group pressure, while ___________ refers to adherence to instructions from those of higher authority.
Cognitive
Obedience

Industrial Psychology involves:
Job Analysis, Selection, Training, Performance Evaluations

Organizational Psychology examines:
Motivation, Attitudes, Leadership, Well-being

Industrial/Organization Psychology is the application of psychological theories and
principles to the workplace. (True or False)
True

Human Factors is the science of understanding human capabilities and designing
equipment that enhances efficiency, safety, and quality of humans’ interactions with these machines. (True or False)
True

Trying to act like you feel a certain way to meet a work obligation is known as:
Emotional Labor

Different training methods include:
Lectures, Paired With an Experienced Employee, Simulations, Distance Learning, Understand “Gestalt” AKA Know What Other Team Members Are Doing

The Halo Effect is when one positive or negative attribute leads to inferences about
others. (True or False)
True

Which of the following is NOT related to potential rating errors:
The Following Listed ARE All Related To Potential Rating Errors (if an answer choice do NOT choose)
Halo Effect, Distribution Issues, Employee Reactions

What does Human Factors examine?
Sensation and Perception, Memory, Decision-Making Process Under Stress, and Judgments

Organizational Psychology involves examining personnel/human resource issues such as what a job entails, choosing a good employee for that job, equipping people with necessary job skills, and evaluating their performance. (True or False)
False
The statement is what Industrial Psychology Involves

Defining a job in terms of its duties and tasks, and the knowledge and skills required
to perform those duties and tasks is called:
Job Analysis

Industrial Psychology is more focused on how to keep employees in the proper mental state to be productive. (True of False)
False
The following statement is what Organizational Psychology is focused on

Organizational Psychology focuses on how to improve habits, facilitate learning
job analysis, selection, training, and performance evaluations. (True or False)
False
The following statement is what Industrial Psychology is focused on

Some questions asked by I/O psychologists are:
Who to hire?
How to increase productivity?
How to arrange/resize/expand groups?
How much attention should be paid to the employees?