Families in later life

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The robustly aging share all of the following characteristics
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more social contact, better health and vision, fewer life events
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the general consensus is that physical losses in old age do not begin taking a heavy toll until after age
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85
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___ of the oldest old need some help in doing personal activities of daily living, such as bathing, eating, dressing, toileting and walking.
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less than half
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Research indicates that for the oldest old, chronic diseases
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often do not create functional limitations
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___ percent of the elderly 85 years and over live alone at home.
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more than 50
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___ percent of the oldest old live in the household of an adult child or other person.
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25
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according to your text, not until elders reach age __ are there more than 50 percent who cannot live independently if they had the resources to do so.
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90
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which of the following activities is included in the Activities of daily living index?
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bathing
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which of the following is an instrumental activity of daily living
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shopping
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the predominant lifestyle for women 75 and over is
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widowed
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research reveals that somewhere between __, individuals become willing to describe themselves as “old”, the spirit is willing but the body is unable to cooperate.
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80 -90
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The preferred living arrangement of elders is
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independently
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The statistically typical caregiver of an elderly parent is characterized by all of the follow
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a 46 – year – old woman, spends 18 hours a week caring for her chronically ill parent, the elderly parent is a mother 77 years of age who lives nearby.
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canadian researchers who studied the obligations adult children felt toward their disabled elderly parents concluded that
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adult children feel strong moral obligations to provide care for their disabled parent
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Using a hypothetical story about a widowed mother, a classic study of three generations of women found
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in general, respondents for each generation recommended that the widowed mother not move in with an adult child.
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A study comparing middle-aged daughters with wives who cared for a frail elderly found
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daughters recorded significantly more distress in interpersonal interactions than did wives.
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What motivates adult children to care for their aging parents?
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guilt, affection, and gratitude
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Which of the following factors contribute to a weakened family support system, according to your text?
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demography, women changing roles, changing inter generational relationships
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the primary predictor of parent-care hours is
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the presence of sisters
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___ percent of all care giving is provided by spouses
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40
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Of the following types of husband caregiving, in which type is the husband most likely to read everything he can about his ailing wives disease.
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worker
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the number of years of caregiving a married person with children might plan for is around 18 years for children and __ for elderly parents.
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20
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__ experience the greatest strain from caregiving to the elderly.
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Middle-age daughters
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Based on a study of 30 women caring for chronically ill parents, in comparison with care managers to parental care providers, the parental care providers
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are more strained
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The Tax Reform Act of 1986 entitles workers who pay for the care of an elderly dependent to a maximum tax credit of ___ percent of care expenses per dependent.
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30
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Compared to elderly with adult children, the childless elderly
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follow the principle of substitution and turn to others for help.
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Three most common stressors for those caring for a person with Alzheimer’s disease.
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memory defects of the infirmed, the unrelenting decline of Alzheimers, the patient’s loss of ability to communicate
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A research study reported that __ of daughter caregivers felt they were not doing enough for their mothers.
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3/4
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Respite care refers to
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time off for the caregiver
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All of the following are psychosocial interventions for caretakers
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individual counseling, caregiver support groups, social workers visit
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According to your text,
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growth in the labor force will come primarily from “women in the middle”
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of people over 65, the highest suicide rates are of
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white males
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which of the following is a common reason prompting suicides of people 65 and over?
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aversion to body changes, social isolation, loss of a loved one
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The Hemlock Society founded by Derek Humphry had a motto of
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good life, good death through control and choice
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In which region of the US is the suicide rate of people over 65 the greatest?
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west
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Most crimes against older adults include
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burglary and theft
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The elderly are most likely to be victimized by crime
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in or near their homes
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The psychological effects of the fear of being a victim results in older adults
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not wanting to leave their homes
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Granny squads are
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older people who patrol neighborhoods and give lectures on how to avoid being a crime victim
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Younger adults are __ times more likely to commit crimes than the elderly.
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10
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Which of the following are likely to be committed by the elderly?
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Aggravated assault
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Elderly shoplifters are most likley to be
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white females
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Which of the following is likely to explain abuse of the elderly by a caregiver?
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excessive demands of an elderly parent, caregiver inexperience, and a family history of violence
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Granny dumping
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refers to caregivers abandoning frail elderly at a hospital and not returning to pick them up
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Under social exchange theory, ___ is most likely to cause abuse of an elder.
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financial dependency of the caregiver
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In the 9-year study of 2,800 all of the following characteristics of the elderly were predictors of elder abuse.
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poverty, race and cognitive impairment
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Which of the following is a sign of possible abuse of an elder?
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abrupt changes in physical appearance, extreme fear or asking to die, deteriorated living quarters
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Elder fraud is thought to be underreported and researchers have concluded that __ percent of cases go unreported.
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80
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Elders have been victims of fraud by
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religious cults, estate planning services and real estate developers
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The vehicle of choice for fraude today is
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telephones
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Astudy of guardianship revealed that
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the overburdened court systems often place individuals under guardianship without evidence than a placement is necessary
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Elders who live under guardianship have the right to
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none of these
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Which of the following con schemes is referred to as the “pigeon drop”?
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The con artist persuades the victim to put up money on the promise of making much more
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The National health Care anti-fraud association found the most common types of health care fraud consists of
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billing for services that were never rendered, accepting kickbacks, falsifying a patients diagnonsis
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The drug Laetrile has been used by many to fight ___ however there is no scientific evidence that it has value in treatment of the problem
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cancer
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A Harvard study found that almost ___ of seniors are prescribed drugs that by themselves or in combination are dangerous or wrong
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1/4
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Of the following over – the -counter drugs ___ is most widely used
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aspirin
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Many individuals get addicted to which over the counter drugs?
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laxatives and sleep pills
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Compared to the early – onset alcoholic, the late-onset alcoholic
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will have fewer chronic health problems
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Treatment for late onset alcoholism is geared towards help for depression and loneliness and includes
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rebuilding social networks
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Risk factors for alcoholism in later life include all of the following
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personal history of excessive alcohol consumption, increased central nervous system sensitivity to alcohol, and discretionary time and money or opportunities to drink
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Which statement is most accurate about consumer action groups?
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the assist individuals of all ages who want to support the creation of stricter consumer protection laws
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By 2030 the population of individuals 65 and older is expected to be
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70 million
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___ are projected to increase 91% in the elderly population between 1990 and 2030
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non-Hispanic whites
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Ethnicity involves the following
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a culture and internalized heritage not shared by outsiders, social status and the composition and function of support systems
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By 2050, roughly __ percent of the elder population will be white
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40
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Women have been judge a minority group in our society because they
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hold a lower status
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All of the following contributed to lower financial status of elderly women than elderly men
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many older women lack financial planning skills, women are more likely than men to leave jobs before vesting in retirement plans, and lower wages mean women often cannot save for retirement
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____ percent of women 65 and older who live alone or with non-relatives live below the poverty level
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more than 25
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Which statement is correct regarding widows
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they suffer about an 18 percent reduction in living standard when their husbands die.
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The consolidated omnibus budget reconciliation act (COBRA)
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allows women to keep their health insurance coverage under their husbands’ plans for up to three years after divorce, separation or widowhood
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Older females who are eligible for marriage outnumber eligible males by a ratio of
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3 to 1
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Current statistics and expected trends in marriage, divorce and widowhood indicate the proportion of
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divorced older women will increase
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by 2050 how many individuals between the ages of 65-67 will not be married?
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1/2 of the total population
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According to the double standard of aging
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the standard of aging for a women progressively destroys her self-worth, whereas it is less wounding for men.
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Age terrorism refers to
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the exploitation of women’s fears of growing older
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All of the following are characteristics of the African American population
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they have poorer quality housing, they have higher unemployment rates than whites, they have health care problems
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A small percentage of retired African Americans are upper class and worked in places such as
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owning large businesses or real estate
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Compared with other minority elders, African American elders
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have poorer quality housing
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All of the following factors have contributed to greater poverty among elderly African Americans than elderly whites
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They did not pay as much into Social Security, they worked predominately in jobs that offered no pensions, they have limited retirement due to limited employment opportunities when they were younger
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compared to white americans, african americans
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most likely to look for work after the age of 65, have had a lifetime of higher unemployment rates, and are more likely to be admitted to a nursing home.
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Your text states that there is a difference in life expectancy between African and white Americans. What has been found to be a correlation with longevity?
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marriage, high income, education and small family
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Compared to white americans, african americans
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are less likely to suffer from heart disease
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which statement is true regarding african american elders?
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they have a more difficult time with the hardships of the aging process
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The two largest hispanic subgroups are
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puerto rincans and mexican americans
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A major reason that some Hispanic elders do not seek out social services is
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they believe to ask for help is shameful
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All of the following characterizes Hispanic elders
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a high percentage live below poverty level, they receive inadequate health care and they have high illiteracy rates
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___ percent of Hispanic elders are not proficient in English
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55
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Cuban American
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people believe in familism and evoke guilt when members do not fulfill expected roles
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Asian american are least likely to be in
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Illinois
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Chinese Americans
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maintain the practice of adult children bringing widowed parents into their households
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Southeast Asian Americans
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have strong extended family ties
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By any social or economic indicator, ___ are possibly among the most deprived of all ethnic groups in the US
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native americans
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Native americans
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have a deep reverence for nature and animals
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The most rural ethnic group is the country is
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native americans
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The native american population is largely
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uncounted
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Native american who leave the reservation tend to be
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scattered in large cities
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Compared to the American population in general, Native americans are less liley to
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have work from which to retire
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____ are most likely to suffer from chronic illnesses and disibilities
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Native Americans
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Native american are more likely than the general population to die from
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alcoholism, suicide and diabetes
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About __ percent of American deaths occur in hospital rooms or convalescent hospitals
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85
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Fear of death appears to be greatest in
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late middle-age
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For older adults, fear of death is associated with
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less time for important life tasks
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Death competency refers to
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our capability and skill in dealing with death
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Death talk with the elderly
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can be therapeutic because it gets concerns out in the open
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Kubler-Ross stages of dying include all of the following
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self-hatred
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Reminiscence
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allows the elderly to make reasonable projections about the future
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A life review differs from reminiscence in that it
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evaluates the past and attempts to resolve conflicts
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The term “interiority” refers to becoming more focused on
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internal messages and stories rather than outside social issues
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In the __ context, patients do not know if they are going to die because the doctor and staff deliberately keep the information from them.
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closed awareness
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A hospice program is characterized by all of the following
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it counsels relatives of the dying, it aids those who want to die at home, and it may operate in a special unit of a hospital
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Palliative care is practiced by hospice provides
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aggressive comfort care
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The happy death movement
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presents the view that dying is a learning, growing and positive experience
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Death with dignitiy
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refers to provide dying people with the greatest degree of choice in their mental preparation for death
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Nearly __ percent of all american will have a “managed death” in a hospital or skilled nursing facility that can lengthen life for up to several years through medical and nursing interventions
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90
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Which of the following illustrates active euthanasia or assisted suicide on a patient with terminal, horribly painful or debilitation illness
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administering a fatal injection of a narcotic
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The patient self-determination act (PSDA) of 1991
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requires all health facilities receiving Medicare or Medicaid funding to recognize the living will and durable power of attorney for health care as advance directives
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According to your text, around __ percent of the general public favors legalization of physician-assisted suicide
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66
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In 1997, ___ was the first state to pass as law allowing physician assisted suicide
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Oregon
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Which of the following segments of the US population are least likely to support physician-assisted suidice
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African Americans, women, and the poor
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What information does the law provide regarding assisted suicide?
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two doctors must rule the patient to be competent and the decision to end ones’ life in voluntary
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If our thoughts of death elicit thoughts of satisfaction with a life well lived, we have reached what psychological Erik Erikson’s stage of psychosocial adjustment called
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integrity
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The broken-heart syndrome refers to the findings that
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some bereaved people die soon after their loved one
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____ movement proposed that the government issue a large amount of special script, the value of which would expire at the end of a year.
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ham and eggs
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Nonprofit nonpartisan organization dedicated to helping people 50+ to have independence, choice and control in ways that are beneficial and affordable to them and society as a whole.
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AARP ( american association of retired persons)
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protect, preserve, promote and ensure the financial security, health and the well-being of current and future generations of maturing.
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The National Committee to Preserve Social Security and Medicare
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support the enactment of medicare legislation
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National Council of Senior Citizens
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designed to alter state and local priorities to ensure that older people’s needs are represented in social services allocations.
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Older American Act (OAA)
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a controversial issue that was first popularized by the media in the mid-1980s.
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generational equity

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