Exceptional Learners

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Difference between speech disorders and language disorders?
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Speech disorders include problems related to verbal production—that is, vocal expression. Language disorders represent serious difficulties in the ability to understand or express ideas in the communication system being used.
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receptive language disorders
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Difficulties in comprehending what others say.
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expressive language disorders
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have difficulty in language production, or formulating and using spoken or written language.
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Morphology
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The form and internal structure of words. areas such as tense (e.g., present to past tense) and number (singular to plural), and so on.
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Syntax
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The rules governing sentence structure, the way sequences of words are combined into phrases and sentences. ex: Will you help Janice? vs. You will help Janice
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Semantics
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The understanding of language, the component most directly concerned with meaning. whether the speaker’s intended message is conveyed by the words and their combinations in an age-appropriate manner.
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Pragmatics
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Rules for social communication ex: -difficulties with social communication and effective social conversation! -eye -eye contact” –staying on topic” -taking turns” -Start, maintain or close a conversation”
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Stuttering
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A speech disorder that occurs when the flow of speech is abnormally interrupted by repetitions, blocking, or prolongations of sounds, syllables, words, or phrases. .
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language disorders
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difficulty in receiving, understanding, formulating or expressing language based concepts
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articulation disorders
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Sound production process resulting in inaccurate, inappropriate, or abnormal execution of the speaking ac
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Fluency disorders-
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characterized by speech dysfluency -characterized by interruptions in the flow of speech such as poor rate, rhythm
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Voice Disorders:
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Unusual or abnormal acoustical qualities in a person’s speech; Nasality, hoarseness, or breathiness in quality
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Phonological Disorders
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inability to discriminate differences in speech sounds or sound segments that signify differences in words ex. pen for pin”-car for cow”-Share for chair”
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PECS
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Picture Exchange Communication System, or PECS. This system teaches children to initiate a communicative exchange with a partner by using pictures. Research indicates that the use of PECS enhances the communication skills of children with ASD, but few gains are made in speech
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Augmentative and alternative communication
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The use of aided and unaided strategies (such as a communication device, sign language, gestures, written language) to communicate wants and needs and to transfer information.
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applied behavior analysis
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in that they break a large task into small, manageable parts and reinforce successive approximations to the goal.
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Autism IDEA definition
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Developmental disability affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction generally evident before the age of 3, that adversely affects educational performance.
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Autism spectrum disorders
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A range of functioning among many dimensions related to social communicative and social interactive functioning, with impairments in repertoire of behavior. Typically considered to be autism; Asperger’s syndrome; and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified.
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Asperger’s syndrome
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A condition that shares unusual social interactions and behaviors with autism, but historically has included no general language delay.
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Savant syndrome
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A rare and extraordinary condition in which unusual skills are performed, usually in one of five areas: music, art, calculating, mathematics, and mechanical or spatial skills, characterized by obsessive preoccupation with specific items or memorization of facts, trivia, sequences, or patterns that are in stark contrast to the developmental level of the individual, ranging from splinter skills to prodigious savant skills.
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Conductive Hearing loss
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•results from complications in transmission of sound from the outer or middle ear so that sound waves do not reach the cochlear!• Exs. Include Excessive fluid, middle ear infections or wax buildup! •conductive hearing loss – problem in conducting or transmitting sounds to the inner ear!
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Sensorineural Hearing Loss
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refers to damage to the auditory fibers in the inner ear!•Problems related to auditory nerve transmission
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Mixed hearing loss
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Can be a MIXED loss-combination of the two!•Conductive and Sensorineural
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bilateral hearing loss
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both ears are affected by hearing loss
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unilateral hearing loss
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one ear is affected by hearing loss
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IDEA hearing loss qualifications
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must have deafness in both ears (bilateral) to be eligible for hearing impaired category
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Idea definition of deafness
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a hearing loss that adversely affects educational performance and therefore requires special education Difference between deafness and hard of hearing -Deaf: The student is not able to hear even with a hearing aid •A child who is deaf is not able to use hearing to understand speech!•uses vision as primary modality for learning and communication!• IDEA Definition – a hearing impairment which is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing with or without amplification, which adversely affects educational performance.
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Idea definition of hard of hearing
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Significant hearing loss that makes special adaptations necessary
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Prelingual
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hearing loss before speech develops
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Postlingual
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hearing loss after speech develops
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Auditory Approach
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•Emphasizes the use of amplified sound and residual hearing •The auditory channel is considered the primary channel for language development
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Oral/Aural Approaches (Oralism)
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-This approach emphasizes the development of speech, speech-reading and listening with amplification -Training in producing and understanding speech is incorporated into virtually all aspects of the child’s education -these approaches view speech as essential for students who are deaf to function in the hearing world” -Includes Auditory Learning “-Speechreading (lip reading)” -ASL is not emphasized in this approach”
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Bilingual-Bicultural Approaches
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•American Sign Language (ASL) and the Bilingual-Bicultural Approach – Emphasizes ASL as the deaf child’s native language •ASL is a legitimate language in its own right-the language of the Deaf culture in the US! -Both ASL and English are valued but English is considered a second language” -May use finger spelling- involves 26 different finger hand positions to denote each letter of the alphabet” -May use Cued Speech – which involves the use of 36 manual cues to aid in distinguishing the 44 sounds of the English language -The goal of the bilingual-bicultural approach is to help deaf students become bilingual adults who can read and write with competence in their second language
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Total Communication
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Simultaneous presentation of language by speech and manual communication -uses a variety of forms of communication to teach English to students with hearing loss” -Relies on the studentsĘĽ preferred mode of communication• Can include 0ral and auditory approaches as well as ASL, speech-reading, sign language, and other manual systems
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O & M Training: Orientation and Mobility
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skills required to know where they are in their environment and the ability to move around in the environment including school, home and community” -crossing streets! -getting from class to class! -Distinguishing salt and pepper shakers
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visual acuity
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how sharp images are perceived
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IDEA definition of totally blind
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receives no useful information through sense of vision
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IDEA definition of functionally blind
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learns primarily through the auditory channel
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IDEA definition of partial sight
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uses vision as primary means of learning

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