Europe’s Physical Features & Climate

Flashcard maker : Thomas Owen
glaciationprocess of glaciers forming and spreading
loessfine, wind-blown soil good for agriculture
chernozemrich, black top soil found in Northern European Plain (Ukraine ; Russia)good for agriculture ; high crop yields
dikelarge bank of earth ; stone that holds back water from flooding land
polderlow-lying area from which sea water has been drained to create new farmland (reclaimed from flooding)
fjordlong, steep-sided inlet (glacier valley now filled with sea water) found in Scandinavian countries (Norway,Finland)
permafrostpermanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of ground
timberlinepoint of elevation (line) above which trees do NOT grow due to extreme cold
Strait of Gibraltarnarrow water passage connecting two large bodies of water Atlantic Ocean ; Mediterranean Sea
Iberian Peninsula [Southern Peninsula]*consists of Spain ; Portugal and separates Atlantic Ocean from Mediterranean Sea *plateau rises up to Pyrenees Mountains cutting off Peninsula from rest of Europe
Italian Peninsula*consists of long, boot-like coastline extending into Mediterranean *Apennines runs along spine up to fertile Po valley
Balkan Peninsula*mountain ranges ; valleys in southeastern Europe make travel difficult *surrounded by Aegean ; Black Seas, and, Adriatic ; Ionian Seas *stretches south from Danube River
Jutland Peninsula*extends from Denmark into North Sea *western coast flat plains w/soil deposited by glaciers *eastern coast has fjords
Scandinavian Peninsula*far northern in Norway, Sweden ; Denmark *Ice Age glaciation formed fjords on Atlantic coast *southern coast slopes to Baltic Sea
Name 4 of Europe's IslandsGreat Britain, Iceland, Sicily, Iceland
Describe the Northern European Plain*Highly populated area due to fertile soil and rich coal deposits so good for farming and manufacturing (started Industrial Revolution) *stretches from England up to Russia
Name 2 of Europe's mountain ranges*Alps (runs from S. France to Balkans, has Mont Blanc highest peak in Alps)
*Pyrenees (divides Iberian Peninsula from rest of Europe)
Name 3 European riversRhine, Danube, Seine (are important for trading, transportation and create interdependence between European countries)
Name 3 areas of Europe impacted by air and water pollution*Black Forest (air pollution) *Venice, Italy (water pollution) *Rhine, Danube, Seine Rivers (water pollution)
Name 3 functions of Europe's mountain ranges*tourism *recreation *mineral resources
Describe climate of Northern EuropeSubarctic/Tundra – bitter cold winters ; cool short summers
Describe climate of Eastern EuropeHumid Continental – cold winters ; hot summers
Describe climate of Western EuropeMarine West Coast – mild winters ; cool summers
Describe climate of Southern EuropeMediterranean – hot dry summers ; mild rainy winters
Describe the North Atlantic Drift/CurrentOcean current that carries warm maritime (sea) winds to western/southern coast of Europe-has warming effect on climate

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