Ethics

In Chapter 6, a six-step ethical practice model for protecting confidentiality rights that places legal mandates in an ethical context is presented. The six steps include all of the following EXCEPT
have your attorney respond to legal requests for disclosure
The Georgia Supreme Court ruled that a physician has a duty to take reasonable care to prevent a potentially dangerous patient from inflicting harm in
Bradley Center v. Wessner
It is illegal and unethical for a therapist to disclose confidential information when
an employer requests disclosure to determine the mental status of an employee without their consent
The following are all major types of elder abuse EXCEPT
protection and positive treatment
The HIPAA Privacy Rule was designed to provide a uniform level of privacy and security on the federal level. This Privacy Rule, which applies to both paper and electronic transmissions of protected health information by covered entities, developed out of the concern that transmission of health care information through electronic means could lead to widespread gaps in the protection of client confidentiality. Which of the following is NOT a

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requirement of The Privacy Rule?
It provides detailed patient information to individuals outside of the health care agency.
All of the following pose a number of potential ethical problems with regard to protecting client privacy EXCEPT
face-to-face interaction
Two processes that offer safeguards against malpractice liability in suicidal cases are
consultation and documentation
There are three types of ______________: health plans, health care clearinghouses, and health care providers who transmit health information by electronic means
covered entities
In _____________, the court expanded the practitioner’s duty to warn those in danger to include the circumstance in which a family member communicates to a mental health practitioner a belief that the client poses a risk of grave bodily injury to another person
Ewing v. Goldstein
The intended victim’s knowledge of a threat does NOT relieve therapists of the duty to protect, as can be seen by the decision in
Jablonski v. United States
Marie is working with a lesbian client who is in a dysfunctional relationship with another woman. She is seeking counseling to sort out her options regarding leaving her emotionally abusive partner. Marie can assist her client by
supporting her client’s attempt to leave the abusive relationship, work on her abuse issues, and eventually enter into a positive lesbian relationship
The concepts of unintentional racism and microaggressions are related and usually involve
demeaning implications perpetrated against clients on the basis of their race, gender, sexual orientation, or ability status
Many ________________ have difficulty acknowledging race-related issues because they stir up guilt feelings about their privileged status and threaten their self-image as moral, fair, and decent human beings
White Americans
In multicultural counseling, one must balance the importance of ________________ in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment
individualism versus collectivism
The _____________’s ethics code indicates that part of competence implies understanding diversity
APA
The standards established by the _______________ require that programs provide curricular and experiential offerings in multicultural and pluralistic trends, including characteristics within and among diverse groups nationally and internationally
Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP)
In the __________’s code of ethics, cultural competence and recognition of social diversity are clearly linked to ethical practice
NASW
___________ is a sense of identity that stems from common ancestry, history, nationality, religion, and race
Ethnicity
People who say they are ___________ usually are trying to communicate that they do not discriminate and that they treat others equally; however, in doing so, they are ignoring a vital part of that person’s identity
color blind
_______________ is a perception of reality based on a very limited set of cultural experiences
Cultural tunnel vision
California enacted a law in 2011 allowing mental health practitioners to treat minors (12 years or older) if
the practitioner determines the minor is mature enough to participate intelligently in outpatient treatment or mental health counseling. However, the statute does require parental (or guardian) involvement in the treatment unless the therapist finds, after consulting with the minor, that this would be inappropriate under the circumstances
Most ethical codes specify that therapists should
inform clients that a diagnosis can become a permanent part of their file and have ramifications in terms of cost of insurance, long-term insurability, and employment
Which of the following is NOT a professional association’s ethical codes or guidelines in regards to technology and online counseling?
Therapists must: (a) determine that electronic therapy is appropriate for clients, taking into account the clients’ intellectual, emotional, and physical needs; (b) inform clients of the potential risks and benefits associated with electronic therapy; (c) ensure the security of their communication medium; and (d) only commence electronic therapy after appropriate education, training, or supervised experience using the relevant technology
Records are
vital to review the course of treatment. The manner in which you document treatment is likely to determine the outcome of the case
The intent of a(n) ___________ is to define boundaries and clarify the nature of the basic counseling relationship between the counselor and the client
informed consent document
Informed consent generally implies that the person
has the capacity to consent and has freely, without undue influence, expressed consent
Disclosures should be given in
plain language in a culturally sensitive manner and must be understandable to clients, including minors and people with impaired cognitive functioning
In regards to unethical behavior of colleagues, the National Association of Social Workers states
“Social workers should take adequate measures to discourage, prevent, expose, and correct the unethical conduct of colleagues.”
Samuel has been planning a two week vacation to Europe for months. He is a private practitioner and has a caseload of clients who have dependency issues. As an ethical practitioner, Samuel should
provide his clients with another therapist in case of need
Generally, the best way to proceed when you have concerns about the behavior of a colleague is to
deal directly with the colleague, unless doing so would compromise a client’s confidentiality
Autonomy refers to
the promotion of self-determination and the freedom of clients to be self-governing within their social and cultural framework
When practitioners weigh multiple and often competing demands and goals, they must use
their professional judgment
The major duties of regulating boards include which of the following?
Determining standards for admission into the profession, screening applicants applying for certification or licensure, conducting disciplinary proceedings involving violations of standards of professional conduct as defined by law, and regulating the practice of psychotherapy for the public good
Practitioners can help expand their awareness and clarify their values in dealing with the challenges of their work through
reading and reflecting on the standards.
Although the ethics codes of the various professional organizations have specific differences, some of the common themes include
being interested in the welfare of clients, avoiding harm and exploitation, and protecting client’s confidentiality and privacy
Obtaining consultation is important because
our prejudices, biases, personal needs, or emotional investment creates an inability to view a situation objectively
Reporting requirements in codes
may not align with state laws or regulations
Ethics codes tend to be
reactive rather than proactive
Elizabeth, a beginning practitioner, counsels in a manner in which she merely acts in compliance with the law and follows minimal ethical standards. She is at the first level of ethical functioning, which is
mandatory ethics
A formal complaint was filed against Harry for sexually harassing a female client. A repeat offender, he was previously warned that a major sanction would be imposed if he continued his unethical actions. The ethics committee of the professional association to which he belongs most likely recommended that Harry
be expelled from the organization
Robert runs into the office, unprepared and frustrated because he is late for his weekly appointment with his first client of the day. He is consistently late for his appointments. His behavior is
unprofessional
When a complaint is lodged against a member of a professional organization, the ethics committee
launches an investigation and deliberates on the case, eventually reaching a disposition
Each major mental health professional organization has its own code of ethics; however, most of these codes are
broad and general and do not provide specific answers to ethical dilemmas
Ethics codes are _____________ for exercising ethical responsibility
necessary, but not sufficient
The highest standards of thinking and a professional’s willingness to reflect on the effects their interventions may have on the welfare of their clients describes what kind of ethics?
Aspirational ethics
Jan, an incest survivor, is covered for six sessions by her insurance. Her counselor is in private practice and knows that Jan needs more sessions. She decides to offer Jan her services pro bono. In making the ethical decision to ensure that her client has equal access to services, the counselor is using the basic moral principal of
justice
Which of the following focuses NOT ONLY on how professionals can harm clients, but also on how therapists can do better at helping clients?
Mandatory ethics
Which of the following is NOT a sign of therapist decay?
Accepting clients within one’s scope of competence
Counselors who have unresolved personal conflicts
need to recognize that their problems may interfere with their effectiveness and refrain from activities that would harm a client
The authors state that, in many ways, therapeutic encounters serve as mirrors in which therapists can see their own lives reflected. As a result
therapy can become a catalyst for change in the therapist as well as in the client
When counselors become overly concerned with meeting their own needs or pushing their own personal agendas, their behavior becomes
unethical
Rhonda is a counselor at a drug and alcohol treatment center. She grew up in an alcoholic home and is not fully aware of the “unfinished business” she has with her parents. She is still angry and resents her parents for having to grow up in an alcoholic family system. It is most likely that Rhonda will
obstruct the progress of her clients as they attempt to move towards recovery
Tanya seems to meet some of her personal needs through counseling her clients. This is
acceptable as long as these needs do not assume priority or get in the way of her clients’ growth
Self-compassion involves
developing attitudes of caring, being nonjudgmental, being accepting, and being kind to ourselves
Client dependence is less of an issue
with the growth of managed care brief treatment and restricted number of sessions
Joanne finds herself wanting to solve her client’s problems, which are similar to the issues her daughter is going through. Joanne gives advice and feels frustrated when her client won’t follow through on her suggestions. Her emotional reactions to her client, which involve her own projections, is based on
countertransference
Empathy fatigue is common in professionals who
treat survivors of stressful and traumatic events; treat people with mood, anxiety, and stress-related disorders; and work in vocational settings with people with mental and physical disabilities
Which of the following is NOT a way you can involve yourself in therapeutic experiences that can increase your availability to clients?
Limiting travel and new experiences
Sexual or romantic feelings toward a client
do not necessarily mean that the counselor cannot effectively work with the client
As therapists, we are often in the role of giver; to preserve our vitality, we need to create spaces in which the “giver” can be supported. A necessary form of ongoing self-care to help in this support is
personal therapy
The presence of chronic illness or severe psychological depletion that is likely to prevent a professional from being able to deliver effective services and results in consistently functioning below acceptable practice standards is called
impairment
Cathy is an eating disorders specialist who has a past history of bulimia. Given her personal experiences with dysfunctional eating patterns, Cathy
can draw upon her life experiences in her work as a counselor
Martina has been working at a crisis intervention center for three years and is starting to have nightmares about her work. Despite having a strong work ethic, she dreads her job because she feels burdened by the lack of power she has in making decisions pertaining to the treatment of her clients. Martina is experiencing
burnout
Therapists who work with violent and suicidal clients
will not feel the effects of stress if they do not experience countertransference
Referring a client for differing religious beliefs, sexual orientation, or cultural background is called
a discriminatory referral
The value system of the counselor
can determine the direction of counseling if it is not monitored
Disagreeing with a client or not liking what a client is proposing can create a
value conflict
Value discrimination could be defined as
when a counselor is too eager to suggest a referral when the client shares differing values on race, religion, national origin, age, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, disability, marital status/partnership, language preference, or socioeconomic status
The authors of this text view referrals
as the last resort
From a legal perspective, mental health professionals are expected to exercise “reasonable care” in working with clients who are considering abortion. If they fail to do so, clients can take legal action against them for
negligence
Ruth is counseling a woman who describes an extremely unhappy marriage. Ruth suggests she consider leaving her husband; however, the client has a deep spiritual conviction that marriage is for life and is not willing to consider divorce as an option. Ruth attempts to change her client’s viewpoint. In this case, Ruth is
imposing her values on the client instead of exploring the client’s reasons for staying in the marriage
If a therapist is secure in his or her own values
he or she will not be threatened by really listening to, and deeply understanding, people who think differently or do not share the same world view
Thomas has AIDS and has decided to end his life rather than continue suffering. The counselor he is working with does not condone rational suicide. In this case, the counselor needs to
work with Thomas rather than referring him, and seek supervision and education to assist the counselor to be more capable of working with Thomas
Marty believes that premarital sex is morally wrong. He has an agenda to convince his single clients to avoid having sexual intercourse before they are married. This is referred to as
value exploration
It is important for the counselor to refrain from self-disclosing
when the self-disclosure will make it more difficult to establish a trusting relationship
The U.S. District Court, in Julea Ward vs. Eastern Michigan University, ruled that
the university was justified in dismissing the student for violating provisions of the code of ethics that prohibit discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, age, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, disability, marital status/partnership, language preference, or socioeconomic status
Which of the following is ethical when referring a client?
When the therapist engages in supervision to diminish the effects of the value conflict, attempting to help the client in every way, but the client requests a referral because of his or her value differences
Which of the following statements on spirituality and religion is true today?
They are both ethically appropriate topics to discuss, can play a major part in the client’s life, and can be a significant source of strength
According to researchers, counselor’s personal religious values
may affect their therapeutic work, directly or indirectly, with clients presenting with end-of-life issuesCounselors practice unintentional racism when they:
Research has provided evidence that therapists’ values influence
every phase of psychotherapy
Which of the following is NOT true about referrals?
Referring clients has been discussed frequently in professional journals
___________ includes factors such as culture, religion, race, ability, age, gender, sexual orientation, education, and socioeconomic level
Diversity
According to the authors, the first step in the process of acquiring multicultural counseling skills in a training program should be that students
become involved in a self-exploratory journey to help identify their cultural and ethnic blind spots
People with chronic medical, physical, and mental disabilities represent
the largest minority and disadvantaged group in the United States
______________ refers to a practitioner’s level of awareness, knowledge, and interpersonal skill needed to function effectively in a pluralistic society and to intervene on behalf of clients from diverse backgrounds
Cultural diversity competence
Counselors practice unintentional racism when they
claim to be free of any traces of racism
____________ influences every facet of our existence, so it is essential that culturally responsive practice be central in all that we do
Culture
The culturally encapsulated counselor is characterized by
define reality according to a narrow set of cultural assumptions and fail to evaluate other viewpoints, making little attempt to understand and accept the behavior of others
Neither the clients’ and therapists’ ____________, nor the interactions between the two, were significantly associated with the clients’ perceptions of their therapists’ level of multicultural competency
ethnicity
People who say they are ___________ usually are trying to communicate that they do not discriminate and that they treat others equally; however, in doing so, they are ignoring a vital part of that person’s identity
color blind
It is the authors’ position that counselors would NOT work well with diverse populations if they
believe that they are free from any racist attitudes, beliefs, and or feelings
Brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities (whether intentional or unintentional) that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults toward people of other races is the definition of
racial microaggressions.
Statements such as “Minority groups need to take responsibility for their own predicament” and “In order to succeed, people need to stop complaining and start working” do not take into account environmental factors. These are examples of
stereotypical beliefs.
A cross-cultural counselor who perceives reality exclusively through the filters of his or her own life experiences is said to be culturally
encapsulated
Frank is a Native American college student who is seeking information about his career choice from a male counselor. The counselor notices that he uses very little eye contact and needs to recognize that Frank
is likely to view direct eye contact as a lack of respect
Regarding counseling with children and adolescents, informed consent of parents or guardians may NOT be legally required when a minor is seeking counseling for
has the capacity to consent and has freely, without undue influence, expressed consent
Fran has decided to start an online counseling practice. Which of the following have the potential to result in unethical behavior?
Refusing to accept psychotic and/or seriously disturbed individuals as clients
___________ are essentially the same as psychotherapy notes. They address the client’s transference reactions and the therapist’s subjective impressions of the client
Process notes
Which of the following situations do NOT justify the use of remote services consistent with ethical practice and in keeping with regulatory standards?
When the client desires remote sessions and the therapist has insufficient information about the client
Inappropriate socialization with clients, burdening clients with a counselor’s personal problems, and putting clients in awkward business situations are examples of
unhealthy transference relationships
Which of the following would be LEAST likely to lead to a malpractice suit?
Engaging in a bartering arrangement with a client
Elena, your client of two years, has just received the news that she is losing her insurance coverage; however, she recently had a breakthrough in therapy and needs to continue working on her issues. As an ethical therapist, you should
determine new payment terms so Elena can continue working with you
Ignoring evidence of peer misconduct is
an ethical violation
_______________ is the practice of focusing on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of problems that may injure clients and lead to filing an ethics complaint or a malpractice action
Risk management
___________ should include a record of client and therapist behavior that is clinically relevant, including interventions used, client responses to treatment strategies, the evolving treatment plan, and any follow-up measures taken
Progress notes
In most cases, therapists will not have advanced warning that a client is dangerous. Therefore, therapists must be prepared for such an eventuality. Which of the following is NOT a suggestion from the authors’ for preparation?
Limit disclosure to all clients until they are deemed safe.
An African-American woman was interacting with her child in a domestic abuse shelter when she is over-heard saying to her child, “Keep touching that and I’m going to whoop you.” The social worker that heard this statement should
recognize that what constitutes abuse in one culture may not be viewed as abuse in another culture and is not reportable until it is determined that the child is in danger
Susan is quite distressed after finding out her husband has been unfaithful. She tells her counselor that she is so angry that she feels like killing him. Upon hearing this, the counselor needs to
question Susan to determine whether she is serious about doing physical harm to her husband
Ethical guidelines regarding confidentiality require that counselors do NOT
use client case studies to teach or write books, even when their clients’ identities are disguised
Jolene tells her counselor that she is depressed about the break-up of her relationship and “just wishes she could go to sleep and never wake up.” In this case, the counselor needs to
recognize that her statement is only a “cry for help” and should not be taken seriously
Even if clients argue that they can do what they want with their own lives, including taking them, therapists with suicidal clients have a legal
duty to warn
Which of the following would be an ineffective way of managing a client’s suicidal ideation?
Attempt to secure a promise from the client that he or she will not try to commit suicide
_______________ extends the duty to warn in California to a foreseeable, identifiable person who might be near the intended victim when the threat is carried out and thus might also be in danger
Hedlund v. Superior Court
In the case of disclosing confidential information when working with an HIV-positive client, several writers state that the therapist has a duty to protect when the following condition exists
clear and imminent danger must exist
In this court case, the court found that school counselors have a duty to use reasonable means to attempt to prevent a suicide when they know about a student’s suicidal intentions. The reasoning of the court was that an adolescent is more likely to share thoughts of suicide with friends than with a school counselor, teacher, or parent. The court found that reasonable care would have included notifying the student’s parents that their daughter was at risk for suicide
Eisel v. Board of Education
Which of the following actions would maximize the risks inherent in dual or multiple relationships?
Becoming romantically involved with the client
APA ethics codes offer three helpful criteria in making decisions about multiple relationships in a small community setting. These include each of the following EXCEPT
prospective multiple relationships fit into a single category
When in conflict with clinical needs, context, competence, or consent, even the most well-intentioned nonsexual physical contact may be experienced as
aggressive, frightening, intimidating, demeaning, arrogant, unwanted, insensitive, threatening, or intrusive
Boundary management is
more challenging in rural areas than in urban areas
Therapists can deal with powerful attractions to clients by
monitoring boundaries by setting clear limits on physical contact, self-disclosure, and client requests for personal information
Joe has a counseling practice and is also teaching psychology part-time at a university. He is well-liked and trusted by students and some have asked for private counseling. Joe has decided to wait until semester break before taking them on as clients. Joe would be
in a dual relationship with his students, which may cause ethical problems
Ted is a counselor educator and also acts as therapeutic agent for his students’ personal development, since personal awareness is considered to be an intrinsic part of developing counselor skills in the program at the university in which he teaches. Ted is
involved in role blending, which is inevitable in the process of educating and supervising counselor trainees
Which one of the following is NOT considered a guideline to minimizing the likelihood of sexual transgressions by clinicians?
Avoid terminating the therapeutic relationship, even when sexual feelings obscure objectivity
Those who are responsible for educating and training mental health professionals are ethically and professionally obligated to
balance their roles as advocate and mentor of trainees with their gatekeeping role
A common reaction of therapists who realize that they have sexual feelings towards their clients is to
feel guilty, anxious, and confused
In ______________, the court held that a faculty may require students to complete special requirements as long as the requirements are not arbitrary
Shuffer v. Trustees of California State Universities and Colleges
____________ statutes determine and govern professional practice
Licensure
____________ is a basic component of practitioner competence
Training
______________ is a voluntary attempt by a group to promote a professional identity
Certification
_____________ is an end point evaluation typically completed at the end of a professional program or when applying for licensure status
Summative assessment
A school counselor was working with Quan, whose presenting problem was anxiety pertaining to academic success in college. This was within the scope of the school counselor’s training. However, during the course of therapy, Quan became very depressed and engaged in self-mutilation and other forms of self-destructive behavior. Quan’s counselor recognized that these symptoms and behaviors reflected a problem area that was outside the scope of his practice. Ethical practice required that the school counselor
make a referral to another professional who is competent to treat Quan’s problems
According to the American Counseling Association, counselors practice only within the boundaries of their competence, based on
their education and training, supervised experience, state and national professional credentials, and appropriate professional experience
The notion that certain actions will inevitably lead to a progressive deterioration of ethical behavior is commonly referred to as
the slippery slope phenomenon
Which of the following models of ethical decision making focuses primarily on the social aspects of decision making and redefines the process as being interactive rather than intrapsychic?
Social constructionist model
The basic purpose of professional codes of ethics is to
educate professionals about sound ethical conduct, provide a mechanism for professional accountability, and serve as a catalyst for improving practice
Virtuous professionals
possess vision and discernment, which involves sensitivity, judgment, and understanding and leads to decisive ethical actions
Expulsion or suspension of members from professional associations
is a major sanction
The counselor who asks the questions “Am I doing what is best for my client?” rather than “Is this situation unethical?” is functioning from which of the following ethical perspectives?
Virtue ethics
Which of the following statements is true with regard to ethical codes?
Conflicts sometimes emerge within ethics codes and among various organizations’ codes
It is believed that countertransference involves
the therapist’s total emotional responses to a client including feelings, associations, fantasies, and fleeting images
Termination of the therapy process
is decided jointly by both the client and the therapist
An ethical obligation that provides a major link between ethics and self-care is
competence
Graduate programs provide insufficient training in
self-care
________ is the process whereby clients place past feelings or attitudes they had toward significant people in their lives onto their therapist
Transference
Informing students prior to entering a training program that self-exploration will be part of their training
only minimally satisfies the requirement for informed consent
Differences in culture, ethnicity, religion, age, gender, and sexual orientation
could have a negative influence on the supervisory relationship if not understood and integrated
Signs of an impaired supervisor include all of the following EXCEPT
availability, accessibility, and being technically competent
Susan is in a counselor training program and is infatuated with her supervisor. She has indicated that she is interested in pursuing an intimate relationship. In order to provide adequate supervision for Susan, her supervisor would need to
clearly define and maintain ethical, professional, and social relationship boundaries with Susan
Professional codes of ethics for supervisors agree that
supervisors occupy a position of power and should not engage in sexual relationships with the student
Kenneth is involved in a specialized professional process that involves sharing expertise with others in the helping professions so they can better serve their own clients. He is functioning in the role of a
consultant
Three legal considerations in the supervisory relationship are
informed consent, confidentiality and its limits, and liability
Which of the following statements is NOT accurate?
Supervisors are not expected to maintain records pertaining to their work with supervisees
Effective supervisors understand that
the supervisory relationship is key to the effectiveness of supervision as well as to the personal development of the supervisee
___________ pertains to the responsibilities supervisors have to oversee the actions of their supervisees
Vicarious liability
Which of the following topics would NOT be appropriate to discuss during the initial supervisory session?
The supervisor’s marital and family issues
____________ is the integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences
Evidence-based practice
____________ is the process of distinguishing one form of mental disorders from another by determining which of two (or more) disorders with similar symptoms the person is suffering from
Differential diagnosis
Empirical research _________the centrality of the therapeutic relationship as a primary factor contributing to psychotherapy outcomes
consistently supports
Which of the following is NOT true concerning therapeutic use of the DSM-5 to diagnose clients?
It is based on a systemic approach that views the source of distress as being within the entire system rather than on the individual
The acronym DSM-5 stands for
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: 5th Edition
Katie has just accepted her first position as a counselor in a community agency. An agency policy requires her to conduct an intake interview with each client, determine a diagnosis, and establish a treatment plan — all in the first session. Once a diagnosis is established, clinicians have a maximum of five more sessions with a given client. What ethical and legal standards are possibly broken?
Ethical and legal standards requiring professionals to carefully assess and accurately diagnose clients before commencing any intervention
____________ were developed for a wide range of psychological disorders. Their success ushered in the movement toward empirically supported treatments and evidence-based practice
Treatment manuals
Maria, a Mexican American woman, will live with her parents until she marries. A culturally competent and sensitive counselor will understand that
this may be a result of gender-role expectations in Maria’s family and not enmeshment
Contemporary theories of counseling
emphasize the uniqueness of the individual, self-assertion, and ego strength
____________ consists of evaluating the relevant factors in a client’s life to identify themes for further exploration
Assessment
If you possess _____________, you are likely to misinterpret patterns of behavior displayed by group members who are culturally different from you
cultural tunnel vision
____________ refers to “the fair and equitable distribution of power, resources, and obligations in society to all people, regardless of race, gender, ability, status, sexual orientation, and religious or spiritual background.”
Social justice
Potential drawbacks to the co-leadership model include all of the following EXCEPT
leaders who complement and balance each other
Voluntary participation is an important beginning point for a successful group experience. _____________ in a group raises a different set of ethical issues and the negative attitudes of some members can contaminate the entire group experience
Mandatory participation
_____________ are basic for group workers who hope to practice ethically and responsibly
Social justice and advocacy competencies
When ______________ in a student arises, the group counselor-educator has multiple responsibilities to limit the risk of harm: to the individual student, to the other students in the experiential group, and to the training program
problematic behavior
The importance of multicultural competence for group psychotherapists has emerged as a
ethical imperative
Research in group counseling and psychotherapy notes that evidence-based practice reflects a commitment to what works, not on what theory applies. Groups should incorporate three pillars, which include all of the following EXCEPT
frequent use of behavioral techniques
____________ is raised in establishing criteria of psychosocial dysfunction, assessing the problems of the identified patient in the family context, and devising treatment strategies
Ethical issues
Family therapy training programs use three primary methods of training. They include all of the following EXCEPT
famogram work
The family systems perspective is grounded on the assumption that a client’s problematic behavior may be
a symptom of dysfunctional patterns handed down across generations
Which of the following statements about differing perspectives on confidentiality with multiple clients is FALSE?
Therapists should inform clients that any information given during private sessions will be divulged as they see fit in accordance with the greatest benefit to the family
In the case of domestic violence, clinicians agree that conducting couples therapy while there is ongoing domestic violence
presents a potential danger to the abused and is unethical
Which of the practitioners described below would NOT be an effective family therapist?
One who downplays the influence of diversity
_____________ is a critical ethical issue in individual psychotherapy and a necessary part of the practice of couples and family therapy
Informed consent
When a practitioner has a license, he or she is
not competent to work with all populations
Marty is counseling with an Asian client who recently returned from a trip to Japan to visit relatives. His client wants to give him an inexpensive souvenir. It is important for Marty to
be aware that accepting the gift may be culturally appropriate with this client
When a client is unable to afford therapy, it is possible that he or she may
offer a bartering arrangement or exchanging goods in lieu of a fee
A counselor is likely to adopt stricter social boundaries and will be concerned about polluting the transference relationship if he or she is
already engaged in an active social life
Clients can file a legal complaint against a therapist for sexual misconduct by all of the following methods EXCEPT
lodging a complaint with the AARP
In the authors’ view, non-erotic touching between counselor and client should be
a spontaneous and honest expression of the therapist’s feelings
Which of the following is NOT a controversy of boundary issues?
Age, diagnosis, life experiences such as abuse, and culture are key elements of the therapeutic relationship
Which of the following statements about giving or receiving gifts is FALSE?
It could be more problematic to accept a gift at a later stage of a counseling relationship
Miguel has been providing couples’ counseling to Saundra and Steven for a couple of years and was recently invited to attend their 20th wedding anniversary party. Attending this event is an example of
a potentially beneficial non-professional interaction
The ethics codes of most professional organizations provide guidelines for the ethical practice of bartering. Some more recent codes (APA, NASW, AAMFT, and ACA)
take a more flexible and less punitive attitude toward bartering
Which of the following is NOT a code of ethics in regards to sexual contact and the therapeutic relationship from various professional organizations?
Psychologists do not engage in sexual intimacies with current clients/patients; however, if a client/patient has not been treated within two years a relationship may become ethically approved
Linda is considering developing a multiple or dual relationship with her client. It’s important for Linda to remember
to consider whether the potential benefit outweighs the potential for harm
Which of the following statements is NOT true with respect to counselor competence?
Only when the therapist completes a doctoral program are they competent to practice with all specialties
If each professional organization developed specific guidelines pertaining to students’ successful completion of a program, faculty in training programs
would then have the backing of their professional association in determining the evaluation procedures to be used when decisions regarding retaining or dismissing students are made
According to the authors, a good training program encourages students to
build on their life experiences and personal strengths and provides opportunities for expanding self-awareness
Referring clients to other professionals is
appropriate when counselors do not have the clinical training or expertise to work with certain clients
___________ is a developmentally informed process that provides useful feedback during one’s training and throughout one’s professional career
Formative assessment
The skills and training required to effectively and appropriately treat clients in a specific area of practice, and is both an ethical and legal concept, is the definition for
therapist competence
A school counselor was working with Quan, whose presenting problem was anxiety pertaining to academic success in college. This was within the scope of the school counselor’s training. However, during the course of therapy, Quan became very depressed and engaged in self-mutilation and other forms of self-destructive behavior. Quan’s counselor recognized that these symptoms and behaviors reflected a problem area that was outside the scope of his practice. Ethical practice required that the school counselor
make a referral to another professional who is competent to treat Quan’s problems
To qualify as a substance abuse counselor, the CACREP (2009) standards identify specific knowledge, skills, and practices in all of the following areas EXCEPT
personal substance abuse experience
Barriers to dismissing a student who demonstrates dysfunctional interpersonal behavior from a training program include all of the following EXCEPT
fear of legal reprisal by the institution
Registry is generally a voluntary listing of individuals who use a title or provide a service. ________ represents the least degree of regulation of professional practice
Registration
When therapists extend the boundaries of their practice, or when they branch out into an area requiring specialty competence, they should
seek consultation with a competent practitioner
_____________ have a position of influence and operate in multiple roles
Clinical supervisors
To ensure an optimal learning experience, a supervisee is responsible for all of the following EXCEPT
establishing flexible boundaries with your clients
Olivia, a new supervisor, is creating a template for a supervisory contract she can use with supervisees. In the contract, she should include information related to all of the following EXCEPT
her personal religious and sexual values
Which of the following is NOT a reason clinical supervisors are increasingly vulnerable and at risk for ethical and legal liability?
There are no formal courses a clinician can take to become a clinical supervisor
Boundary issues in the supervisory relationship for school counselors include all of the following EXCEPT
discussing the evaluation process and procedures during the initial session
A primary aim of supervision is to create a context in which the supervisee can acquire the experience needed to become a
independent professional
_________ is as essential as informed consent in counseling practice. It is beneficial to discuss the rights of supervisees from the beginning of the supervisory relationship in much the same way as the rights of clients are addressed early in the therapy process
Informed consent in supervision
Confidentiality in online supervision is
filled with potential problems such as the possibility of computer-savvy individuals hacking into confidential communications between supervisor and supervisee and the risk of confidential content being sent or forwarded to others in error
____________ encompasses the full range of cultural factors including race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, ability status, privilege, sexual orientation, spirituality and religion, values, gender, family characteristics and dynamics, country of origin, language, and age
Multicultural supervision
____________ believe that many symptoms stem from problems within the system rather than originating in the individual
Family systems therapists
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding evidence-based practice?
It is synonymous with the term “empirically-supported treatments.”
The clinical interview serves all of the following purposes EXCEPT
providing the actual outcome of treatment
____________ is based on a medical model of mental illness that defines problems as residing with the individual rather than in society. It does not take into account the political, economic, social, and cultural factors in the lives of clients
The DSM
A _____________ assigned to clients can have implications for their employment or future employability status
diagnosis
Which of the following factors is NOT a best predictor of treatment outcome?
Cost
A theoretical orientation is best described as
a set of general guidelines that counselors can use to make sense of what they are hearing and what needs to change
Practitioners who argue AGAINST diagnosis
claim that DSM labels stigmatize people
It is important to understand the common ___________ used in your profession, even if you choose not to use them in your practice
assessment tools
Practicing counseling without an explicit theoretical rationale is somewhat like
trying to sail a boat without a rudder 374
Competence in working with couples and families only comes with
years of training and supervision
Which of the following statements is NOT consistent with the values that create the basis for the feminist perspective on family therapy?
Therapists educate clients on the benefits of our patriarchal society and encourage them to continue in these gender roles
Yolanda is an experienced therapist who seems to always feel more compassionate toward the female members of the families she counsels. What are the most salient ethical issues involved in this case?
Because of her bias, Yolanda may be inclined to collude with some family members against others, or otherwise contribute to dysfunctional family system dynamics
Some people are reluctant to engage in family therapy because
they are not qualified for therapy due to minimal symptoms
In working with couples and families, opportunities for ethical practice are increased by combining a systems perspective with traditional approaches. Due to the paradigm shift in the field of psychology to accommodate the changing needs of service recipients
systemic approaches must be taught side-by-side with individualistic approaches because many cultural groups are collectivistic.
Charles, a couples’ therapist, recently met with a new couple seeking his services. During their initial meeting, Charles learned that the wife and husband are both in individual therapy. As an ethical practitioner, he should
ask his new clients’ permission to consult with their individual therapists
In ____________, sexist attitudes and patriarchal assumptions are examined for their impact on family relationships
gender-sensitive couples and family therapy
Most family therapy training programs encourage __________ work and other processes designed to engage students with their own family-of-origin issues
genogram
Which of the following is NOT an essential piece of information the family practitioner must provide before each individual agrees to participate in family therapy?
The individual who will be identified as the source of the problems
____________ views psychological and relational problems as arising from within the individual’s present environment and the intergenerational family system
Systems theory
Feminists remind us that patriarchy has
negative effects on both women and men
The authors believe that some type of screening, which involves interviewing and evaluating potential members, should be employed to select suitable members for a group. What question needs to be pondered when screening prospective group members?
Is it appropriate for this person to become a participant in this type of group, with this leader, at this time?
Groups remain a powerful intervention tool
across the life span, positively impacting childhood, adult, and geriatric disorders
The ethics codes of several professional organizations address a group practitioner’s role in ensuring confidentiality in a group setting. Which of the following is NOT one of these codes?
When working with a group, confidentiality and privacy are impossible to adhere to; therefore, these are both voluntary aspects of a group experience 0000000000000000000
Gail feels like she has not accomplished what she wanted in her therapy group and has decided to leave. Gail’s therapist needs to
encourage her to explain why she wants to leave to other group members
When participation in a group is part of a counseling master’s program, safeguards must be in place to manage boundaries and reduce the risk of harm to students. These safeguards include all of the following EXCEPT
exhibit problematic behaviors
The ___________ phase of group work may be the one that leaders handle most ineptly
final (termination)
The fact that groups can be powerful catalysts for ____________ means that they can also be risky
personal change
With respect to confidentiality, group leaders have a responsibility to do all of the following EXCEPT
explain it is not mandatory, but a voluntary process
Implications of group members and their therapists communicating with each other online, and when group members communicate with other members via the Internet, include all of the following EXCEPT
increased risk of breach of confidentiality
If you are a licensed mental health professional, there is one item that is mandated by the state to be displayed in your office. What is that item?
License
All appointments to the board of Clinical Social Work, Marriage and Family Therapy, and Mental Health Counseling are made by the
Licensed members of the profession by voting
For each renewal period of your license, you must complete ________hours of continuing education credits
30
All of the following except one are areas you need additional training in, in order to hold yourself out as a sex therapist
Height assessment with sex offenders
According to Florida statutes, to become a licensed mental health counselor, you must complete at least __________ year(s) of clinical experience at the post masters level
2
The name of the exam you must pass in Florida to be a licensed mental health counselor is
National Clinical Mental Health Counseling Examination
Sammi Smith, a marriage and family therapist, refers many of his clients to Carl Counselor, L.M.H.C. In return, Carl gives him $50 for each client that comes. This is referred to as a ___________and is _________
kickback; illegal
The Florida statutes state that sexual intimacy between therapists and clients is prohibited for three years following termination
False
Once you are licensed as a Mental Health Counselor, how do you go about getting a Marriage and Family Therapy license?
According to FS. 491.014, what is the term by which you must refer to yourself until you are licensed?
Registered mental health counselor intern
Each person who is seeking licensure in the state of Florida is required to complete an AIDS course. This state gives you ______months to complete the course
6
As a licensed mental health counselor, every two years, you must renew your license at which time you must pay a renewal fee of
$150
The initial fee for licensure as a Mental Health Counselor includes the application fee and the initial licensure fee for a total of
$250
There is one content area the board specifies that you must receive continuing education credits in
Clinical competence
When a client is unable to afford therapy, it is possible that he or she may
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