Speech and communications disabilities final

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2.1 The element of language concerned with how words are put together to make sentences is:
a. syntax.
b. morphology.
c. semantics.
d. pragmatics.
a. syntax.
2.2 Eric’s teacher said to him, “Can you raise your hand?” after Eric called out an answer. Eric answered, “Yes.” Eric’s response violates a rule of which aspect of language:
a. semantics.
b. syntax.
c.pragmatics.
d. morpho-phonology.
(c.) pragmatics.
2.3 The smallest linguistic unit that carries meaning is a:
a. speech act.
b. phoneme.
c. performance.
d. morpheme.
(d.) morpheme.
2.5 Phonology is the study of:
a. how language is used in social interaction.
b. the sound system of language.
c. how meaning is applied to words.
d. how words are put together to form
sentences.
b.) the sound system of language.
2.6 According to semantic theory, the words “colorless” and “green” can not appear together because they violate:
a. phonological rules.
b. phrase structure rules.
c. the relation principle.
d. selection restrictions.
(d.) selection restrictions.
2.7 Which of the following words does not conform to the phonotactic constraints found in the English language:
a. brub
b. rlpx
c. plab
d. drun
(b.) rlpx *there’s no vowel
T/F
2.8 A phoneme may be defined as, “the small linguistic unit that carries meaning.”
F
T/F
Phonology is the study of the sound system of language
T
Morphological rules govern how words are formed.
T
Phrase structure rules are the only kind needed to describe the syntax of a language.
F
Syntax is the study of how meaning is attached to words
F
The study of how people vary their language in different conversational situations is called “speech acts.
F
2.14 The plural “S” is an example of a ______ morpheme.
syllable/bound
2.16 Transformational rules operate on the ____ of an utterance to arrive at the
________________
deep structure
surface structure
When a teacher says, “Can you sit down” to a child who is out of their seat, the teacher is using an ______ speech act.
indirect
According to the semantic component theory of semantics, all words have certain
features and _____ restrictions.
selection
Pragmatics includes the study of _____ and _____
– the rules of conversation
-the use of language for social interaction (the use of lang to express one’s intentions and get things done in the world).
5.1 “Mean length of utterance” is defined as:
a. The average duration (in seconds) of a sentence.
b. The total number of words spoken by a child.
c. The average number of sentences in a language sample.
d. The average number of morphemes in a language sample.
(d.) The average number of morphemes in a language sample.
On a trip to a farm, an 18 month old child saw a cow and said, “doggie.” This is an example of:
a. a protoimperative.
b. lexical overextension.
c. reduction of a consonant cluster.
d. lexical underextension.
(b.) lexical overextension.
Which of the following are most newborn (0-2 months) babies able to do?
a. Discriminate differences between “pa” and “ba”
b. Produce syllable clusters (“ba ba”)
c. Use grammatical morphemes
d. Understand indirect requests
(a.) Discriminate differences between “pa” and “ba”
Put the following language developments in the order in which they occur:
a. use of complex sentences

b. emergence of grammatical morphemes
c. use of babble

1. C
2. B
3. A
According to Brown, the major language development at Stage II is:
a. emergence of complex sentences.
b. use of babble.
c. use of grammatical morphemes.
d. use of figurative language.
(c.) use of grammatical morphemes.
If a child were to be left alone so that she was not exposed to any language input, it is likely that the child:
a. would speak English, the universal language.
b. would develop language in a normal way.
c. would develop little if any language.
d. would develop American Sign Language.
(c.) would develop little if any language.
5.7 Children at the “two word” stage of language development:
a. never say more than two words.
b. are unable to communicate their intentions.
c. often use modifiers and articles in their language.
d. may run words together during their transition to this stage.
(d.) may run words together during their transition to this stage.
T/F
Babies begin to use spoken language shortly after birth.
F
T/F
Research has found that infants are unable to participate in communicative exchanges with their parents
F
T/F
Parents usually speak more slowly and use shorter sentences with their very young children.
T
T/F
Most babies begin to use true words at about 5 months of age
F
T/F
For most children, the first words that emerge are nouns and verbs
T
T/F
Complex sentences are completely developed in most children by the end of Stage IV (40 months).
T
5.14 The stage of communication development in which parents read intentionality into their child’s utterances is called the ________________ stage.
prelocutionary
5.15 For most children, true first words emerge sometime during the period from _________ to _____ months
12
26
Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) is calculated by dividing the total number of _______________ by the number of _________________.
morphemes
utterances
The major language development during Brown’s Stage II is the emergence of _________________.
grammatical morphemes
8.1 According to the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD), intellectual disabilities are defined as a disability characterized by:
a. IQ below 50.
b. limitations in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior.
c. difficulties with social skills.
d. stereotypical and maladaptive behaviors.
(b.) limitations in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior.
8.2. Which of the following represents the best conclusion regarding the syntactic development of children with intellectual disabilities?
a. Follows normal developmental sequence, but with significant delays.
b. No differences between individuals with intellectual disabilities and typically
developing children.
c. Children with intellectual disabilities create unique syntactic structures and deviate
significantly from the typical developmental sequence.
d. Most children with intellectual disabilities do not get beyond the single word stage.
(a.) Follows normal developmental sequence, but with significant delays.
8.3 Research on the conversational competence of individuals with intellectual disabilities has found that:
a. they often fail to take their turn in a conversation
b. they typically do not make a significant contribution to the interaction.
c. they are good at repairing conversational breakdowns.
d. they often extend the conversation by adding new information to what has been said.
(b. ) they typically do not make a significant contribution to the interaction.
8.4 The language of children with Williams Syndrome has been found to differ from that of other children with intellectual disabilities in which of the following ways:
a. significant strengths in vocabulary and syntax.
b. significant strengths in communication skills.
c. slower acquisition of words.
d. more difficulty with the acquisition of sounds (phonology).
(a.) significant strengths in vocabulary and syntax.
8.5 In this approach to language intervention a targeted language skill is inserted in the middle of an already established sequence of behaviors
a. milieu teaching
b. interrupted behavior chain
c. milieu teaching
d. target behavior model
(b). interrupted behavior chain
The word sailboats ____ morphemes
3
8.1 According to the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD), intellectual disabilities are defined as a disability characterized by:
a. IQ below 50.
b. limitations in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior.
c. difficulties with social skills.
d. stereotypical and maladaptive behaviors.
(b.) limitations in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior.
8.2. Which of the following represents the best conclusion regarding the syntactic development of children with intellectual disabilities?
a. Follows normal developmental sequence, but with significant delays.
b. No differences between individuals with intellectual disabilities and typically
developing children.
c. Children with intellectual disabilities create unique syntactic structures and deviate
significantly from the typical developmental sequence.
d. Most children with intellectual disabilities do not get beyond the single word stage.
(a.) Follows normal developmental sequence, but with significant delays.
8.3 Research on the conversational competence of individuals with intellectual disabilities has found that:
a. they often fail to take their turn in a conversation
b. they typically do not make a significant contribution to the interaction.
c. they are good at repairing conversational breakdowns.
d. they often extend the conversation by adding new information to what has been said.
(b. ) they typically do not make a significant contribution to the interaction.
8.4 The language of children with Williams Syndrome has been found to differ from that of other children with intellectual disabilities in which of the following ways:
a. significant strengths in vocabulary and syntax.
b. significant strengths in communication skills.
c. slower acquisition of words.
d. more difficulty with the acquisition of sounds (phonology).
(a.) significant strengths in vocabulary and syntax.
8.5 In this approach to language intervention a targeted language skill is inserted in the middle of an already established sequence of behaviors
a. milieu teaching
b. interrupted behavior chain
c. milieu teaching
d. target behavior model
(b). interrupted behavior chain
T/F
8.6 Research on the prelinguistic development of children with intellectual disabilities has found that they differ from typically developing peers in their development of babble.
T
T/F
8.7 Difficulties with speech production are more common among children with intellectual disabilities than among typically developing children.
T
T/F
8.8 Children with intellectual disabilities deviate significantly from the typical pattern of syntactic development.
F
T/F
8.9 The vocabulary skills of students with intellectual disabilities are generally equivalent to those of typically developing peers of the same chronological age.
F
T/F
8.10 Studies of the referential communication skills of children with intellectual disabilities have generally found that they are better in the listener role as compared to the speaker role.
T
8.11 Cognitive abilities are a good predictor of the language abilities of individuals with intellectual disabilities throughout the age span.
F
8.12 Observations of the interaction between parents and their children with intellectual disabilities have shown that parents tend to use shorter, less complex sentences than would be expected for normally developing children of the same age.
T
Research on the use of sight-word approaches with children with intellectual disabilities has found high rates of generalization of words to real situations.
F
8.14 Research on the syntactic development of children with intellectual disabilities has generally found that there are ____________ in development.
significant delays
8.15 Referential communication tasks have revealed that individuals with intellectual disabilities generally perform better in the ____________ role as compared to the _______________ role.
listener
speaker
8.16 Individuals with intellectual disabilities have been reported to have difficulty with ______________ conversations that break down.
repairing
8.17 With this language intervention technique, the instructor models an appropriate response for the student. ___________________
mand-model
9.1 Which of the following is not a disorder on the autism spectrum:
a. Rett syndrome
b. Williams syndrome
c. Asperger syndrome
d. Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)
(b. ) Williams syndrome
9.2 Current thinking regarding the use of echolalia by autistic children holds that:
a. echolalia may represent an attempt to communicate.
b. echolalia is non-productive and should be discouraged.
c. echolalia could be used as the basis for training communicative interaction.
d. Both A and C
(d. )Both A and C
9.3 All of the following are characteristic of Autistic children except:
a. significant language deficits.
b. hallucinations.
c. withdrawal from interaction.
d. inconsistent responses to stimuli.
(b.) hallucinations.
9.4 Jose often repeats back exactly what was previously spoken to him. Jose is:
a. reversing pronouns.
b. selectively mute.
c. using idiosyncratic language.
d. using echolalia.
(d.) using echolalia.
9.5 Studies that have compared the syntactic development of individuals with autism to that of other individuals with disabilities have found that the individuals with autism:
a. have fewer problems with syntax than do children with Down syndrome.
b. have more difficulty applying their skills in social situations.
c. have a less pervasive language problem than children with dysphasia.
d. have fewer individual differences in development than do children with intellectuall disabilities
b. have more difficulty applying their skills in social situations.
9.6 Children with Asperger Syndrome have been found to be relatively intact in language development except in the domain of:
a. syntax
b. phonology
c. morphology
d. pragmatics
(d.) pragmatics
9.7 This intervention technique utuilizes a stimulus-response format in a highly controlled environment in which the teacher provides the stimulus:
a. pivotal-response model
b. discrete trial training
c. DIR model
d. auditory training
(b.) discrete trial training
9.8 Echolalia is a type of language behavior found only in children with autism spectrum disorders. T/F
F
9.9 Most researchers today agree that autism is caused by parents who interact with their children in a cold, aloof manner. T/F
F
9.10 Research on the phonological development of children with autism has found it to be delayed but following a normal course of development.
T
9.11 Children with Asperger’s Syndrome typically can read words at high levels but have difficulty understanding what they have read. T/F
T
9.12 Research has failed to confirm the effectiveness of the use of auditory training with individuals with autism. T/F
T
9.13 Most children with autism spectrum disorders begin to speak at the same age as typically developing children. T/F
F
9.14 ___________ echolalia occurs within a brief time after the speaker talks. _______________ echolalia occurs when the speaker modifies the original utterance.
immediate
mitigated
9.15 Identify the three categories of symptoms used in DSM-IV to define autistic disorder:
_______________________ ________ ______________ ___________
1.Qualitative impairment in social interaction
2.qualitative impairment in communication
3. restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities
9.16 Although some studies have found the semantic skills of individuals with autism to be relatively intact, other studies have found they use more ____________ and ______________ language in their speech.
-neologisms (invented words
-idiosyncratic (use of conventional words/phrases in an usual way)
9.18 The discrete trial approach to language intervention has been found to be most useful for the training of ________________.
training specific skill sequences (request routines or word endings)
9.19 The pivotal-response model of intervention claims that instruction should focus on “pivotal” areas such as_____________________, ___________________, and ____________________
1.responsivity to multiple cues
2. motivation to initiate and respond appropriately
3. self-regulation of behavior
7.1 The “Response to Intervention” model for identifying students with learning disabilities utilizes:

a. standardized tests to identify students “at risk” for poor responses to learning.

b. neurological evaluation to identify children with brain response dysfunction.

c. student performance to identify students in need of additional instructional support.

d. evaluation of response to drug interventions.

c. student performance to identify students in need of additional instructional support.
7.2 Rashad has difficulty identifying the number of sounds within a spoken word. His problem can be described as one of:

a. phonics.

b. syntax.

c. phonological awareness.

d. reading.

c. phonological awareness.
7.3 Which of the following statements is true of children with learning disabilities?

a. They have trouble taking the lead in conversations.

b. They are generally mute and do not participate in conversations.

c. They have difficulty providing accurate descriptions to a partner

d. All of the above

e. A and C only

e. A and C only
7.4 Research has found that children with phonological awareness difficulties:

a. have no more reading problems than other children.

b. are usually hearing impaired.

c. always have articulation problems.

d. are more likely than others to have reading difficulties.

d. are more likely than others to have reading difficulties.
7.5 Children with learning disabilities have been found to have much more difficulty than typically developing children with:

a. phonological awareness.

b. multiple meaning words.

c. non-literal words.

d. all of the above

e. B and C only

d. all of the above
7.6 Research on the syntactic skills of children with learning disabilities has found that:

a. Few students with learning disabilities have difficulty understanding or using syntax.

b. Students with learning disabilities often have difficulty understanding sentences that
contain relative clauses and use negation.

c. Young children with learning disabilities often do not follow the typical sequence of

syntactic development.

d. Young children with learning disabilities actually develop syntactic skills more quickly

than their peers.

b. Students with learning disabilities often have difficulty understanding sentences that
contain relative clauses and use negation
7.7 Research on older individuals with learning disabilities has found that most:

a. exhibit no learning problems after adolescence.

b. make significant improvements without intervention.

c. continue to have difficulty with academic tasks and social acceptance.

d. catch up with their peers.

c
7.8 Research on phonological awareness instruction has found that:

a. Phonological instruction can improve the phonological skills of students with reading

disabilities.

b.Phonological training programs that use technology (such as Fast ForWord) are clearly

superior to other programs.

c. There is no evidence that phonological training programs can enhance phonological

skills.

d. Phonological skills can only be successfully taught in an intensive, one-on-one format.

a. Phonological instruction can improve the phonological skills of students with reading disabilities
7.9 Children with reading disabilities comprise as much as 80% of the entire learning disabled population.
T
7.10 Definitions of learning disability are highly specific and easily applied.
F
7.11 The IDEA definition of learning disabilities identifies language as the primary disorder in learning disabilities.
T
7.12 Research has generally found that children who are better at phonological awareness tasks are better readers.
T
7.13 Problems with morphological development are likely to show up in students’ writing and reading comprehension skills.
T
7.14 The “Key Word” method has been found to be an effective means of improving phonological awareness.
T
7.15 Students with ADHD are specifically included in the IDEA definition of “Learning Disabled.”
F
7.16 Students with learning disabilities frequently have difficulty with words that have _____________ meanings.
similar
7.18 ____________________ refers to the ability to reflect consciously on the nature and properties of language.
metalinguistic skill
7.19 _______________ programs translate the spoken word into text on the computer screen.
speech recognition
7.20 Students with ADHD have been found to have language difficulties primarily in the domain of _____________.
social interaction
Prelocutionary Stage of language
non intentional communication that relies on a partner for interpretation (mom assigns meanings to babies actions)
Locutionary stage of language
use of words to express communicative intention
Illocutionary stage of language
the stage of communication at which children begin to use intentional communication

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