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Exceptional Children Ch 1

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Exceptional Children
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Children with physical attributes and/or learning characteristics which differ from the norm (either below or above) to such an extent that they require an individualized program of special education and services to fully benefit from education. This is an inclusive term that refers to children with learning and/or behavior problems, children with physical disabilities or sensory impairments, and children with superior intellectual abilities and/or special talents.
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Impairment
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The loss or reduced function of a particular body part or organ.
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Disability
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When an impairment limits a person’s ability to perform certain tasks.
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Handicap
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A problem or disadvantage that a person with a disability or an impairment encounters when interacting with the environment.
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At Risk
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Refers to children who, although not currently identified as having a disability, are considered to have a greater than usual chance of developing one.
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Nearly 6 million
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The number of children and youth from birth to age 21 with disabilities who received special education services during the 2009-2010 school year.
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12%
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The percentage of the school age population (6-17years) that are children with disabilities in special education.
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1:6
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Ratio of students with disabilities ages 6-13 who are ‘declassified’ and no longer receiving special education services 2yrs later.
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5-9 years old
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The number of children who receive special education services increases during this range.
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9-17 years old
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The number of children receiving special education services gradually decreases during this range.
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17+ years
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The number of students receiving special education services sharply decreases.
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2:1
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Ratio of male to female (respectively) who receive special education
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3 million
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The approximate number of gifted and talented students pre-K to grade 12 in gifted programs during 2008-2009 school year
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LD
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Learning Disabilities 2,483,391 students in 2009-2010 42.3% of all students (6-21) with disabilities who received special education services
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SLI
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Speech or Language Impairment 1,107,029 students in 2009-2010 18.8% of all students (6-21) with disabilities who received special education services
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OHI
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Other Health Impairment 678,970 students in 2009-2010 11.6% of all students (6-21) with disabilities who received special education services
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ID
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Intellectual Disability 460,964 students in 2009-2010 7.8% of all students (6-21) with disabilities who received special education services
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ED
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Emotional Disturbance 405,293 students in 2009-2010 6.9% of all students (6-21) with disabilities who received special education services
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ASD or Autism
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Autism Spectrum Disorder 333,022 students in 2009-2010 5.7% of all students (6-21) with disabilities who received special education services In 2009-2010 the number of school age students with autism was 10 times what it was 10yrs before
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MD
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Multiple Disabilities 124,380 students in 2009-2010 2.1% of all students (6-21) with disabilities who received special education services
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40%
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The percentage of 11,000 students in special education reported in 2009 who were affected by an additional or secondary disability. This
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Primary Disability Category
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The main or most prominent disability that a student with disabilities has and is therefore grouped into this category
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DD
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Developmental Delay 104,432 students in 2009-2010 1.8% of all students (6-21) with disabilities who received special education services Children ages 3-9 may be identified as Developmentally Delayed and receive special education services without having to use a specific disability label.
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HI
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Hearing Impairment 70,548 students in 2009-2010 1.2% of all students (6-21) with disabilities who received special education services
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OI
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Orthopedic Impairment 57,930 students in 2009-2010 1% of all students (6-21) with disabilities who received special education services
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VI
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Visual Impairment 25,813 students in 2009-2010 0.4% of all students (6-21) with disabilities who received special education services
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TBI
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Traumatic Brain Injury 24,395 students in 2009-2010 0.4% of all students (6-21) with disabilities who received special education services
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DB
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Deaf-Blindness 1,359 students in 2009-2010 <0.1% of all students (6-21) with disabilities who received special education services
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Benefits or Pros. of Labeling
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+ recognize meaningful differences in learning or behavior; is a first and necessary step in responding responsibly to those differences. +A disability label can provide access to accommodations and services not available to people without the label. +May lead to a protective response in which peers are more understanding of atypical behavior of a child with disabilities than they would be of a child without disabilities who exhibited the same behavior +Funding and resources for research and other programs are often based on specific categories of exceptionality +Classification helps practitioners and researchers communicate with one another and classify and evaluate research findings +enable disability-specific advocacy groups to promote specific programs and spur legislative action +Helps make exceptional children’s special needs more visible to policy makers and the public.
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Disadvantages or Cons of Labeling
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-labels used in special education usually focus on disability, impairment, or performance deficits. They may lead some people to think only in terms of what an individual cannot do instead of what (s)he can do or might be capable of doing. -may stigmatize the child and lead peers to reject or ridicule the labeled child. -Teachers may hold low expectations for a labeled student and treat her/him differently as a result, which may lead to a self-fulfilling prophesy. -may negatively affect the child’s self-esteem -often misused as explanatory constructs -There is a tendency to assume that all children in a category share other traits besides the one that placed them in the category. Thereby diminishing the detection an appreciation of each child’s uniqueness -suggest that learning problems are primarily the result of something inherently wrong with the child, thereby reducing the systematic examination of and accountability for instructional variables as causes of performance deficits. -a disproportionate number of children from some minority and diverse cultural groups are included in special education programs and thus have been assigned disability labels -Classification requires the expenditure of a great amount of money and professional and student time that might be better spent in delivering and evaluating the effects of early intervention for struggling students.
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Exclusionary Past
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-Children with disabilities were without exception excluded from any public education -When local public schools began to accept some responsibility for educating certain exceptional students, the practice and philosophy of segregation prevailed -Shortly thereafter, children with mild learning disabilities and behavior problems would be taught in a general education classroom but did not receive any special help. -Children with more severe disabilities were placed in segregated classrooms, institutions, or were kept at home -Gifted and talented children seldom received special attention as it was assumed they could make it on their own without help.
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Separate is Not Equal
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in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka case the US Supreme Court ruled that education must be available to all children on equal terms. Parents of children with disabilities began to question why the same principle did not apply to their children.
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Equal Protection
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in the 1972 class action suit Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, PARC challenged a state law that denied public school education to children considered “unable to profit from public school attendance” The Court ruled that the children were entitled to receive a free, public education. In addition, parents had the right to be notified before any change was made in their children’s educational program.
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IDEA
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‘The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004’ — PL 108-466 Originally passed by Congress as Public Law 94-142 The Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975 Reauthorized and amended 5 times. The 1990 amendments renamed the law the Individuals with Disabilities Act. Which was reauthorized and renamed in 2004
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The Purposes of IDEA
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1) (a) to ensure that all children with disabilities have available to them free appropriate public education (FAPE) that emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet their unique needs and prepare them for further education, employment, and independent living. (b) to ensure that the rights of children with disabilities and parents of such children are protected. (c) to assist States, localities, educational service agencies, and Federal agencies to provide for education of all children with disabilities 2) to assist States in the implementation of a statewide, comprehensive, coordinated, multidisciplinary, interagency system of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families 3) to ensure that educators and parents have the necessary tools to improve educational results for children with disabilities by supporting system improvement activities; coordinated research and personnel preparation; coordinated technical assistance, dissemination, and support; and technological development and media services 4) to asses, and ensure the effectiveness of, efforts to educate children with disabilities
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Zero Reject
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Major Principle of IDEA Schools must educate all children with disabilities. None may be excluded from free public education, regardless of the nature or severity of the disability.
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Child Find System
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Each state’s education agency is responsible for locating, identifying, and evaluating all children, from birth to age 21, residing in the state with disabilities or who are suspected of having disabilities. Requirement IDEA found withing Zero Reject principle
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Nondiscriminatory Evaluation
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Major Principle of IDEA Schools must use nonbiased, multifaceted methods of evaluation to determine whether a child has a disability and, if so, whether the child needs specially designed instruction to benefit from education. Testing and evaluation procedures must not discriminate on the basis of race, culture, or native language. Also Known as Protection in Evaluation Procedures
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Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
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Major Principle of IDEA All children with disabilities, regardless of the type or severity of their disability, shall receive a free appropriate public education. Must be provided at public expense. An individualized education program (IEP) must be developed and implemented to meet the unique needs of each student with a disability.
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IEP
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Individualized Education Program -specifies the child’s present levels of performance -identifies measurable annual goals -descries the specific special education and related services that will be provided to help the child attain those goals and benefit from education
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LRE
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Major Principle of IDEA Least Restrictive Environment -children are taught in general education classrooms unless deemed contradictory and harmful to the child’s education IDEA requires schools to educate students with disabilities with children without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate and that the students with disabilities be removed to separate classes or schools only when the nature or severity of their disabilities is such that they cannot receive an appropriate education in a general education classroom with supplementary aids and services.
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Procedural Safeguards
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Major Principle of IDEA Schools must follow an extensive set of procedures to safeguard and protect the rights and interests of children with disabilities and their parents. -when parents disagree with the results of an evaluation performed by the school they can obtain an independent evaluation at public expense -When the school and parents disagree on the identification, evaluation, placement, or provision of a FAPE and related services for the child the parents may request a ‘due process hearing’
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Parent Participation and Shared Decision Making
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Major Principle of IDEA Schools must collaborate with parents and student with disabilities in the planning and implementation of special education and related services. Parent (and when appropriate student) input and wishes must be considered in determining IEP goals, related service needs, and placement decisions.
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Special Education Services for Preschoolers
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Provision of IDEA Beginning in 1990-1991 PL99-457 required each state to fully serve all preschool children with disabilities ages 3-5 — meaning they were entitled to the same services and protections available to school-age children.
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Early Intervention for Infants and Toddlers
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Provision of IDEA PL 99-457 included an incentive grant program to encourage states to provide early intervention services to infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families. These early intervention services are prescribed and implemented according to an Individualized Family Services Plan (IFSP) written by a multidisciplinary team that includes the child’s parents.
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IFSP
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Individualized Family Services Plan implemented by state and written by a multidisciplinary team that includes the child’s parents provides early intervention services for infants and toddlers (birth-2yrs)
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Assistive Technology
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Provision of IDEA IDEA requires IEP teams to consider whether assistive technology is necessary in order for a child to receive FAPE. Assistive technology is defined as ‘any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of a child with a disability.’
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Scientifically Based Instruction
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Provision of IDEA An important addition made to IDEA 2004 Stipulated that the special education and related services prescribed in a child’s IEP be ‘based on peer reviewed research to the extent practicable’
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Universal Design for Learning
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Provision of IDEA IDEA 2004 defines Universal Design consistent with the Assertive Technologies Act as ‘a concept or philosophy for designing and delivering products and services that are usable by people with the widest possible range of functional capabilities, which include products and services that are directly accessible (without require assistive technologies) and products and services that are interoperable with assistive technologies’
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UDL
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Universal Design for Learning -new curricular materials and learning technologies should be designed from the beginning to be flexible enough to accommodate the learning styles of a wide range of individuals, including children with disabilities.
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3 Principles of UDL
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(1) multiple means of representation to give diverse learners options for acquiring information and knowledge (2) multiple means of action and expression to provide learners options for demonstrating that they know (3) multiple means of engagement to tap into students’ interests, offer appropriate challenges, and increase motivation
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Legal Challenges to IDEA
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-Many different judicial interpretations exist -Many believe they are not defined with sufficient clarity Key issues: -Extended School year (ESY) -FAPE and Related Services -Disciplining Students with Disabilities -Right to Education
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ESY
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Extended School Year -Armstrong v Kline (1979) -Court ordered schools to extend the school year for students IDEA regulations now require school districts to provide extended school years services if an IEP team determines they are necessary for a student to receive FAPE
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FAPE and Related Services
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Highly controversial, creating much disagreement Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson General School District v Rowley (1982) – Supreme court ruled adequate education was being supplied and that the school district did not need a full time interpreter
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Disciplining students with disabilities
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-some cases have resulted from parents protesting the suspension or expulsion of children with disabilities – Stuart v Nappi (1978): Court decided expulsion would deny students right to FAPE -Honig v Doe (1988): Supreme Court ruled schools could not recommend expulsion or suspend a student with disabilities for more than 10 days – IDEA Amendments 1997 contained provisions that enabled districts to discipline students with disabilities in the same manner as students without disabilities, with a few notable exceptions. If the school seeks a change of placement, suspension, or expulsion in excess of 10 days, the IEP team and other qualified personnel must review the relationship between the students misconduct and her disability -IDEA 2004: revised the discipline provisions. under certain circumstances school personnel have the authority to remove a student with disabilities to an interim alternative educational setting for up to 45 school days, whether or not the misconduct was related to the child’s disability
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Right to Education
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Timothy W. v. Rochester School District (1989) -in 1988 it had been ruled that Timothy was ineligible for education services because he could not benefit from special education due to his severe disabilities. – in 1989 Court of Appeals overturned th decision ruling that public schools must educate all children with disabilities regardless of how little they might benefit or the nature or severity of their disabilities.
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Javits Gifted and Talented Student Education Act
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1988 – only federal program that addresses the needs of the nation’s 3 million gifted and talented students. -provides federal support for demonstration programs at a national research center on the gifted and talented – provides support for competitive grants to institutions of higher education and state and local school districts to develop and expand models serving students who are underrepresented in gifted and talented programs -provides support for competitive grants for state agencies and school districts to enhance gifted education curricula and programs *chronically underfunded
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Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1873
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“no otherwise qualified handicapped individual shall…solely by reason of his handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefit of, or be subject to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance’ *is not a federal program and does not provide and federal money to assist people with disabilities
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Americans with Disabilities Act
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ADA -signed into law 1990 -amended in 2008 Extends civil protection rights of people with disabilities to private sector employment, public services and accommodations, transportation, and telecommunication. A person with a disability is: (a) having a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities (b) having a record of such an impairment (c) who is regarded as having such an impairment
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Elementary and Secondary Education Act
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First enacted in 1965 contained criteria and formulas for determining schools’ eligibility for funding for programs serving children from poor families. Reauthorized in 2001 as No Child Left Behind -intention was to improve achievement of all students, with particular emphasis on children from low-income families. -Accountability for student Learning -Scientifically based instruction
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Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
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Annual assessments of at least 95% of all students in each school district in reading/language arts and math grades 3-8 and at least once in grades 10-12 are required. Corrective actions will be taken if districts and schools repeatedly fail. Schools and school districts that repeatedly meet or exceed expectations are eligible to receive achievement awards and public commendations.
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NCLB
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No Child Left Behind
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Implications of NCLB for students with Disabilities
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Students are required to participate in state and district-wide assessments which has resulted in higher expectations for achievement by students receiving special education and increased accountability of schools to help them attain it. Some students with mild to moderate disabilities are provided accommodations. Students with severe disabilities can take alternative assessments if recommended by IEP team.
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Instructionally Based Intervention
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fundamental purpose of special education
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Special Education
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purposeful intervention designed to prevent, eliminate, and/or overcome the obstacles that might keep a child with disabilities from learning and from full and active participation in school and society 3 Basic types of intervention 1) Preventative Intervention 2) Remedial Intervention 3) Compensatory Intervention
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Preventative Intervention
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to keep a potential or minor problem from becoming a disability 3 levels 1) Primary prevention 2) Secondary prevention 3) Tertiary prevention
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Primary Prevention
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designed to reduce the number of new cases (incidence) of disability -efforts to eliminate or counteract risk factors
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Secondary Prevention
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aimed at individuals who have already been exposed to or are displaying specific risk factors intended to eliminate or counteract the effects of those risk factors
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Tertiary Prevention
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aimed at individuals with a disability intended to prevent the effects of the disability from worsening
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Remedial Intervention
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attempts to eliminate specific effects of disability -to teach a person with disabilities skills for independent and successful functioning -special instruction in order for person with disabilities to succeed in typical settings
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Compensatory Intervention
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teaching a substitute skill that enables a person to engage in an activity or perform a task in spite of a disability
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Special Education as Instruction
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Who- -exceptional children whose educational needs necessitate an IEP – IEP Team, general and special education teachers, parents, professionals, and paraprofessionals What – what is taught can differ between special education and general education – Functional Curriculum How – uses specialized, adapted materials and methods – precision, focus, intensity, and frequency of instruction Where – -Regular classroom -Resource room (full-out) -Separate Classroom -Separate School -Residential Facility -Homebound/Hospital
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Functional Curriculum
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the knowledge and skills that some students with disabilities need in order to achieve as much success and independence as they can in school, home, community, and work settings.
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Manifestation Determination
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IF a school seeks a change of placement, suspension, or expulsion in excess of 10 days, then they go through a review process called Manifestation Determination, where the IEP team and other qualified personnel review the relationship between the student’s misconduct and his/her disability.
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Accommodations (NCLB)
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Provided for students with mild to moderate disabilities. ex: additional time Large Print etc.
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Alternative Assessment
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Provision of NCLB for students with severe disabilities for whom standard academic achievement tests would be inappropriate. ex: video portfolio demonstrating improvements in language or behavior
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Educational Environments
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Regular Classroom Resource Room (Pull-Out) Separate Classroom Separate School Residential Facility Homebound/Hospital
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Regular Classroom
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Student spends at least 80% of the school day inside regular class
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Resource Room (Pull-Out)
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Student Spends at least between 40% and 79% of the school day inside regular class
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Separate Classroom
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Student spends less than 40% of the school day inside regular class
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Separate School
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Student receives special education and related services in a public or private separate day school for students with disabilities, at public expense, for more than 50% of the school day
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Residential Facility
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Student receives special education and related services in a public or privately operated residential facility in which children receive care or service 24 hours a day.
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Homebound/Hospital
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Student receives special education and related services in a hospital or homebound program.