The Reconstruction Era (1865″1877) was a period of time in United States history following the Civil War, during which efforts were made to make political and economic reforms in order to fully reunite the nation. This included helping former slaves transition from a life of enslavement into full citizenship rights with equal civil and legal protections as whites. The period began immediately after the Civil War ended in April 1865 and lasted until 1877 when President Rutherford B. Hayes removed federal troops from the South, effectively ending Reconstruction.During this era, Congress passed three major amendments to the Constitution: The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery; The Fourteenth Amendment granted citizenship rights and equal protection under law for all people regardless of race; and the Fifteenth Amendment gave African Americans voting rights by prohibiting states from denying citizens the right to vote based on race, color or previous condition of servitude. These constitutional changes had far-reaching implications for American society but faced bitter opposition from Southern Democrats who sought to limit black freedom and reestablish white supremacy in their region after emancipation.Reconstruction also saw significant shifts at a local level across both North and South with new laws that redefined labor relations, land ownership patterns, educational systems and infrastructure projects such as railroads and bridges being built across both regions. Formerly enslaved Americans took advantage of these opportunities, establishing churches, schools and businesses while advocating for further civil rights reform against Jim Crow segregation laws enacted later in 1888 across many southern states that legally enforced racial discrimination against African Americans until 1965 . While not completely successful in its goals due largely to racism among some Southerners as well as changing presidential administrations over time , Reconstruction laid important groundwork towards establishing greater equality between races throughout America today.

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3263 words 12 pages

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