Early Explanations of learning: contiguity and Classical Conditioning

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How does a neutral stimulus become a conditioned stimulus ?
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A previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological response. Later, the previously neutral stimulus alone evokes the response- that is, the neutral stimulus is conditioned to bring forth a conditioned response. The neutral stimulus has become a conditioned stimulus.
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What is an example of classical conditioning?
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salivating when you smell your favorite foods, tension when you hear a dentist’s drill, nervousness when you step on stage…
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What is contiguity?
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Association of two events because of repeated pairing.
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What is a stimulus?
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Even that activates behavior.
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What is a response?
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Observable reaction to a stimulus
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What is classical conditioning?
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association of automatic responses with new stimuli
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What is a respondent?
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responses (generally automatic or involuntary) elicited by specific stimuli.
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Neutral stimulus
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stimulus not connected to a responses
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unconditionsed stimulus (US)
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stimulus that automatically produces an emotional or physiological response
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unconditioned response (UR)
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naturally occurring emotional or physiological response
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conditioned stimulus (CS)
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stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological response after conditioning.
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conditioned response (CR)
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learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.

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