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chapter three lifespan

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embryo
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ovaries
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two walnut sized organs located deep inside her abdomen.
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fallopian tubes
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ovaries are drawn into one of two ——— or long, thin structures that lead to the hollow, soft lined uterus.
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corpus leteum
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while the ovum is traveling, the spot on the ovary from which it was released, now called the ——— secretes hormones that prepare the lining of the uterus to receive a fertilized ovum.
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corpus leteum
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if pregnancy does not occur, the ———- shrinks and the lining of the uterus is discarded two weeks later with menstruation.
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300 million
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the average male produces sperm in vast numbers , an average of ——- a day. in the testes
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testes
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two glands located in the scrotum, sacs that lie just behind the penis.
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cervix
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opening of the uterus
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fallopian tube
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fertilization typically takes place in the
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ovum
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the largest cell in the human body
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ovum
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the —– is a tiny sphere, but in its microscopic world, it is a giant–the largest cell in the human body, making it a perfect target for the much smaller sperm, which measures a lot smaller.
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zygote
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as the —- moves down the fallopian tube, it duplicates at first slowly and then more rapidly
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blastocyst
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by the fourth day the zygote forms a hollow, fluid-filled ball called a ———-. the inner cells, called the embryonic disk, will become the new organism. the outer cells, or trophoblast, will provide protective covering.
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embryonic disk
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by the fourth day the zygote forms a hollow, fluid filled ball called a blastocyst. the inner cells, called the ——- will become the new organism.
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trophoblast
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by the fourth day the zygote forms a hollow, fluid-filled ball called a blastocyst. the inner cells, called the embryonic disk, will become the new organism. the outer cells, or ——— will provide protective covering.
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implantation
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at the end of the first week, the blastocyst begins to implant in the uterine lining. this is called ——-
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period of the embryo
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the ——————- lasts from implantation through the eighth week of pregnancy. during these brief six weeks, the groundwork is laid for all body structures and organs.
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ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
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during the period of the embryo, in the first week of the period the embryonic disk forms three layers of cells 1) the ——– which will become the nervous system and skin, 2) the ——— from which will develop the muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs. and 3)the ——– which will become the digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands. these three layers give rise to all parts of the body.
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neural tube
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in the period of the embryo, at first the nervous system develops fastest. the ectoderm folds over to form the ——— or primitive spinal cord.
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nervous system
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in the period of the embryo the —— develops the fastest
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neurons
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during the period of the embryo, growth continues rapidly. the eyes, ears, nose, jawm and neck form. tiny buds become arms, legs, fingers, and toes,. internal organs are more distinct–the intestines grow, the heart develops separate chambers, and the liver and spleen take over production of blood cells so that the yolk sac is no longer needed. at 7 weeks, production of ——– or nerve cells that store and transmit information, begins deep intide the neural tube at an astounding pace.
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second month
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which month can the embryo sense its world? and respond to touch?
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mouth, feet
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at the end of the second month during the embryo period, the baby responds to touch, in the mouth area and on the soles of the feet.
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true
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during second month of period of the embryo, it can move, but its tiny flutters are still too light to be felt by the mother. true or false?
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sensitive period
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a ———– is a limited time span in which a part of the body or a behavior is biologically prepared to develop rapidly and is especially sensitive to its surroundings. if the environment is harmful, then damage occurs, and recovery is difficult and sometimes impossible.
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embryonic period
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the most harm can be done during this period its the time when serious defects are most likely to occur because the foundations for all body parts are being laid down.
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period of the zygote
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sensitive period in which before implantation, teratogens rarely have any impact. if they do, the tiny mass of cells is usually so damaged that it dies.
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fetal period
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with regard to sensitive periods, its during the ——— that teratogenic damage is usually minor. organs liek the brain, ears, eyes, teeth, and genitals can still be strongly affected.
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sensitive
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each organ or structure has a ———– during which its development may be disturbed.
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zygote
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1-2 weeks, the one celled organism multiplies and forms a blastocyst. the blastocyst burrows in to the uterine lining. structures that feed and protect the developing organism begin to form-amnion, chorion, yolk sac, placenta, and umbilical cord.
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embryo
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weekks 3-4, 5-8 a primitive brain and spinal cord appear. heart, muscles, ribs, backbone, and digestive tract begin to develop. many external body structures like face, arms, legs, toes, fingers, and internal organs form. the sense of touch begins to develop and the embryo can move.
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fetus
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weeks 9-12, rapid increase in size begins. nervous system, organs, and muscles become organized and connected, and new behavioral capacities like kicking, thumb sucking, mouth opening, and rehearsal of breathing appear. external genitals are well-formed, and the fetus’s sex is evident.
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second trimester
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weeks 13-24
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first trimester
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the trimester encompassing the zygote and embryo and fetus
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second trimester
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13-24 weeks, the fetus continues to enlarge rapidly. in the middle of this period, fetal movements can be felt by the mother. vernix and lanugo keep the fetus’s skin from chapping in the amniotic fluid. most of the brains neurons are in place by 24 weeks. eyes are sensitive to light, and the fetus reacts to sound.
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24 weeks
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most of the babys brains neurons are in place by ——- weeks
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third trimester
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weeks 25-30, the fetus has a good chance of survival if born during this time. size increases, lungs mature. rapid brain development causes sensory and behavioral capacities to expand. in the middle of this period, a layer of fat is added under the skin. antibodies are transmitted from mother to fetus to protect against disease. most fetuses rotate into an upside-down position in preparation for birth.
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embryonic disk
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the cells on the inside, called the ——– will become the new organism.
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implantation
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between the seventh and ninth days ——- occurs. the blastocyst burrows deep into the uterine lining. at first, the trophoblast, the protective outer layer, multiplies fastest. it forms a membrane called the amnion, that encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid, which helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant and provides a cushion against any jolts caused by the womans movement.
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amnion
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the blastocyst in implantation burrows into uterine lining. the trophoblast multiplies fastest and forms a membrane called the ——–
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amniotic fluid
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the amnion encloses the developing organism in ——- which helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant and provides a cushion against any jolts caused by the womans movement.
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third month
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the heartbeat can be heard through a stethoscope during the
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two trimesters
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when women experience severe emotional stress during pregnancy, especially during the first ———-, their babies are at risk for a wide variety of difficulties, including miscarriage, prematurity, low birth weight, infant respiratory and digestive illnesses, colic, sleep disturbances, irritability during the first three years.
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miscarriage, prematurity, low birth weight, infant respiratory and digestive illnesses, colic, sleep issues, irritability
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when women experience severe emotional stress during pregnancy, especially first two trimesters, their babies are at risk for a wide variety of difficulties, including ——–, ——-, ——–, ——–, ——–, ——-, ———., and ———.
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epinephrine, cortisol
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when mom undergoes emotional stress, stress hormones released into our bloodstream like —– and —- known as the fight or flight hormones, cause us to be poised for action.
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oxygen, nutrients
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when mom undergoes emotional stress, cortisol and epinephrine are released into our bloodstream and cause us to be poised for action. large amounts of blood are sent to parts of the body involved in the defensive response—the brain, heart, and muscles in the arms, legs, and trunk. blood flow to other organs, including the uterus, is reduced, so the fetus is deprived of a full supply of ——- and ———
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heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose, activity level
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maternal stress hormones also cross the placenta, causing a dramatic rise in fetal stress hormones and therefore in fetal ———-, ———-, ——— and ————.
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placenta, neurological functioning
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maternal stress hormones cross the ——-. also, esxcessive fetal stress may permanently alter fetal ———–, thereby heightening stress reactivity in later life.
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cortisol, high, low
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in several studies, infants and children of mothers who experienced severe prenatal anxiety displayed —– levels that were either abnormally —– or abnormally ——-. both of which signal reduced physiological capacity to manage stress.
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immune system, infectious disease, behavioral, anxiety, short attention, anger, aggression, overactivity, lower mental test scores
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maternal emotional stress during pregnancy predicts childhood weakened ———– functioning and increased susceptibility to ————. it is also associated with diverse negative —— outcomes in childhood and adolescence such as ——-, ——— span, ——–, ———–, ———– and ——.
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social support
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stress related prenatal complications are greatly reduced when mothers have partners, other family members, and friends who offer ——–. the impact of this is strong for low income women, who often lead highly stressful lives.
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teratogen
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this refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period. it depends on four factors.
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dose, heredity, negative influences, age
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the harm done by teratogns depends on four factors. —–, ——. ——- and —–. inj the first factor, larger doses over longer time periods usually have more negative effects. the second factor, —– the genetic makeup of the mother and the developing organism plays an important role. some individuals are better able than others to withstand harmful environments. the third factor, ——– the presence of several negative factors at once, such as additional teratogens, poor nutrition, and lack of medical care, can worsen the impact of a harmful agent. the fourth factor, or ——–. the effects of teratogens vary with the age of the organism at the time of exposure.
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poor nutrition, medical care
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with the third factor influencing teratogens, its other negative influences. in this there are additional teratogens like ——- and ——- that can worsen the impact of a harmful agent.
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embryonic period
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in the period of the zygote, before implantation, teratogens rarely have any impact. if they do, the tiny mass of cells is usually so damaged that it dies. the ——– is the time when serious defects are most likely to occur because the foundations for all body parts are being laid down. during the fetal period teratogenic damage is usually minor. organs like the brain, ears, eyes, teeth, genitals can still be affected.
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thalidomide
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sedative when taken by mothers 4 to 6 weeks after conception, it produced gross deformities of the embryos arms and legs, and less frequently damage to the ears, heart, kidneys and genitals.
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intelligence, central nervous system,
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when moms took thalidomide during pregnancy, the kids grew older and many scored below average in ——–, and experts believe the drug damaged the ——– directly, or the child-rearing conditions of these severely deformed kids impaired their intellectual development.
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DES
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another drug prescribed to prevent miscarriages. these kids showed an unusually high rates of cancer of the vagina, malformations of the uterus and infertility. men were at risk of genital abnormalities and cancer of the testes.
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accutane
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currently the most widely used potent teratogen is a vitamin a derrivative called ——. its used to treat severe acne and taken by hundreds of thousands of women of childbearing age in western world. exposure during first trimester results in ear, eye, skull, brain, heart and immune system abnormalities.
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first trimester
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exposure to accutane during the —– results in ear, eye, skull, etc abnormalities.
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two methods
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accutane warms users to avoid pregnancy by using —– of birth control, but most do not do this.
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placental barrier
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any drug with a molecule small enough to penetrate the ————- can enter the embryonic or fetal bloodstream.
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low weight, death, motor develiopment, lower intelligence
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studies suggest that aspirin use is linked to ——-, infant —– around birth time, poorer ——, and ——– scores in early childhood.
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low birth weight
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caffeine doses increase the risk of ———–
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premature delivery, respiratory distress, high blood pressure
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persistent intake of antidepressant medication is linked to ———, and birth complications including —————, and to ————– in infancy.
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cocaine, heroin
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a lot of pregnant women use mood altering drugs suhc as ——- a dn ——-. the babies born to users of these drugs are at risk for a wide variety of problems including prematurity, low birth weight, physical defects, breathing difficulties, and death around time of birth. infants are born addicted to drugs.
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prematurity, birth weight, physical defects, breathing issues, death
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babies born to users of coke and heroin have issues like ——-, low ——-, ——— and ——– and ——– around time of birth.
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addicted
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babies of addict motehrs are born ——- to drugs.
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shrill
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drug addicted babies are feverish, irritable, issues with sleep and cries are abnormally —–.
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constricts
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cocaine —- the blood vessels, causing oxygen delivered to the developing organism to fall for fifteen minutes after a high dose.
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neurons, chemical balance
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cocaine can alter the production and functioning of ——- and the ——— in the fetus’s brain.
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perceptual, motor, attention, memory, language, impulse
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cocaine babies have —–, ——-., ——-. ——-. ——-. and —– control issues.
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small head size, attention, memory, achievement, impulsive, overractive, depression, agression
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marijuana has been linked to ——, ——-. ———. and academic —— difficulties, ——- and ——- and —— as well as ——— in kids and teens.
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low birth weight
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prenant women smoke and the best known prenatal effect of smoking is ——-.
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misscarriage, prematurity, cleft lip and plalate, blood vessel, heart rate, breathing, death, asthma, cancer
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when pregnant moms smoke there is increase in —–., —–.,——— , —- abnormalities, impaired ———-, and ——- during sleep, infant ——- and —- and ——– later in childhood also increases.
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attentive, muscle tension, colic
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newborns of smoking moms also display slight behavioral abnormalities. they are less ——- to sounds, display ——– and are more excitable when touched and visually stimulated, and have —–.
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attention, impulsivity, overactivity, memories, mental, disruptive, aggressive
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some studies report that prenatally exposed kids and teens tend to have shorter —— spans, difficulties with ——– and ———, poorer ———, lower —— test scores, and higher levels of ——-, ——- behavior.
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constricts, blood flow, placenta
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how does smoking harm the fetus? nicotine —— blood vessels, lessens ——– to the uterus, and causes the ——- to grow abnormally.
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nutrients, carbon monoxide, growth
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nicotine reduces the transfer of ——-, so the fetus gains weight poorly also nicotine raises the concentraition of —– in the bloodstreams of both mother and fetus. because carbon monoxide displaces oxygen from red blood cells, it can cause damage to the central nervous system and slow body ——.
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passive smokers
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pregnant women can be ——– as well because husbands, relatives friends use cigarettes. its also related to low birth weight, death, child respiratory illnesses, and long term attention, learning, behavior issues.
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fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
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a term that encompasses a range of physical, mental and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. children with fasd are given one of three diagnoses which vary in severity. either fetal alcohol syndrom, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, or alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder.
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fetal alcohol syndrome
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fas, distinguished by slow physical growth, a pettern of three facial abnormalities short eyelid openings, a thin upper lip, a smooth or flat philtrum or indentation running from the bottom of the nose to the center of the upper lip, and brain injury, evident in a small head and impairment in at least three areas of functioning-for example, memory, language, adn comunication, attention span and activity level, planning and reasoning, motor coordination, or social skills. other defects-of the eyes, ears, nose, throat, heart, genitals, urinanry tract, or immune system, may also be present. mothers with kisd that have this drink heavily throughout pregnancy.
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short eyelid openings, thin upper lip, smooth philtrum, brain injury
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FAS is distinguished by a pattern of three facial abnormalities such as ———, a ———, a ————, and a —— which is evident in a small head and impairment in at least three areas of functioning.
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three, memory, language, communication, defects
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with kids with FAS they have brain injury and impairment in at least ——– areas of functioning such as ——, ——– and —–, or attention span, activity level, planning and reasoning, motor coordination, or social skills. other —— of the eyes, ears, nose throat, heart, genitals, urinary tract or immune system may also be present.
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partial fetal alcohol syndrome
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characterized by two of the three facial abnormalities in FAS such s short eyelid openings, a thin upper lip, smooth philtrum. these people have brain injury, again evident in at least three areas of impaired functioning. mothers of kids with pfas generally drank alcohol in smaller quantities, and kids defects vary with the timing and length of alcohol exposure. paternal alcohol use around the time of conception can alter gene expression, contributing to symptoms.
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two, three
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kids with partial fetal alcohol syndrome have —– of the three facial abnormalities present in FAS such as short eyelid openings, a thin upper lip, smooth philtrum. they also have brain injury which is evident in at least —— areas of impaired functioning.
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timing, length
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kids with pfas their defects vary with the —- and —- of alcohol exposure.
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alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder
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ARND, in which at least three areas of mental functioning are impaired, despite typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities. prenatal alcohol exposure, though confirmed, is less pervasive than in FAS.
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three, facial abnormalities
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alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder is a disorder in which at least ——– areas of mental functioning are impaired despite typical physical growth, and absence of ——-.
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physical size, impairment
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even when provided with enriched diets, fas babies fail to catch up in ———- during childhood. mental ——– associated with all three fasd diagnoses is also permanent.
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motor coordination, information processing, reasoning, intelligence.
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the more alcohol a pregnant woman consumes, the poorer the childs ———-, speed of ———- and ———and achievement test scores during the preschool and school years.
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attention, motor coordination, performance, law, social, sexual, alcohol, drug, depression, stress
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in adolescence and early adulthood, fasd is associated with persisting ———- and ———— deficits, poor school ——–, trouble with the ——–, inappropriate ——- and ——- behaviors, —— and —— abuse, ——— and high emotional reactivity to —–.
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production, migration
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alcohol produces its effects by interfering with —– and —— of neurons in the primitive neural tube.
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brain size, damage, abnormalities,
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when babies moms drink alcohol, brain imaging research reveals reduced ———, ——- to many brain structures, and —— in brain functioning including transferring messages from one part of the brain to another.
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oxygen, cell growth
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when mom drinks while pregnant. the body uses large quantities of oxygen to metabolize alcohol. a pregnant womans heavy drinking draws away ——- that the developing organim needs for ——–.
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head, body growth
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even when moms mildly drink during pregnancy its associated with reduced ——- size, and ——— among kids followed into adolescnce.
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miscarriage, growth, brain
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radiation causes mutation to genes, exposure to radiation can cause —–, slow physical ——–, slow ——- growth. in an xray they cover up the reproductive organs.
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mutation
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radiation causes ——– to genes
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swordfish, tuna, shark , mercury
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prengant women are wise to avoid eating long-lived predatory fish such as —–, —— and ——– which are heavily contaminated with ——-.
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neurons, damage
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high levels of prenatal mercury exposure disrupt production and migration of ——– causing widespread brain damage.
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cognitive, motor, attention, verbal
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prenatal mercury exposure from maternal seafood diets predicts deficits in speed of ——— processing, and ——, ——- and ——– test performance during the school years.
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lead
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this is present in paint flaking off the walls of old buildings and in certain materials used in industrial occupations.
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prematurity, low birth weight, damage, defects
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high levels of prenatal lead exposure are related to ——-, ———-, brain ——, and other physical ——–.
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mental, motor
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babies with low level exposure to lead show slightly poorer —– and —— development.
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rubella
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more than fifty percent of infants whose mothers become ill during the embryonic period, show deafness, eye cataracts, heart, genital, urinary, and intestinal defects, and mental retardation. infection during the fetal period is less harmful, but low birth weight, hearing loss, and bone defects may still occur. the organ damage inflicted by prenatal rubella often leads to severe mental illness, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and thyroid and immune system dysfunction in adulthood.
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deafness, cataracts, heart, genital, urinary, intestinal, retardation
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rubella kids with parents who had rubella during embryonic period show —–, eye ——, ——, ——, —- and —— defects and mental ——–.
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fetal period
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infection of rubella during the ——– is less harmful
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low birth weight, hearing, bone
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rubella infection during hte fetal period is less harmful but ——-, —— loss and ——- defects may still occur.
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mental, diabetes, cardiovascular, thyroid, immune
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the organ damage inflicted by prenatal rubella often leads to severe —— illness, ——-,———- disease, and —– and ————system dysfunction in adulthood.
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vaccination
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rubella ———– in infancy and childhood has made new rubella outbreaks unlikely in industrialized nations.
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africa, asia
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rubella breaks out often in —- and ——
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hiv
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this disease which can lead to aids, a disease that can destroy the immune system, has infected increasing numbers of women over the past three decades. in south africa , nearly thirty percent of all pregnant women are hiv positive.
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aids
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this is a disease that can destroy the immune system, it progresses rapidly in infants with most becoming ill by six months, and nearly half dying by age one.
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antiretroviral drug therapy
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——— reduces prenatal aids transmission by as much as 95 percent. but these arent widely available in impoverished regions of the world.
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herpes
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the developing organism is especially sensitive to the family of —- viruses for which no vaccine or treatment exists.
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cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex 2
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the baby is especially sensitive to — and —– in the herpes family. the first, ———- is the most frequen prenatal infection, transmitted through respiratory or sexual contact. the second, ——— is sexually transmitted. these two are esp dangerous. in both the virus invades the mothers genital tract, infecting babies either during pregnancy or at birth
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toxoplasmosis
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caused by a parasite found in many animals, can affect pregnant women who eat raw or undercooked meat, or from contact with the feces of infected cats. if it strikes during the first trimester, it is likely to cause eye and brain damage. later infection is linked to mild visual and cognitive impairments. expectant mothers can avoid ———- by making sure the meat they eat is well cooked, and having pets checked for the disease, and turning over the care of litter boxes to other family members.
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eye, brain, first trimester, mild
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when moms have toxoplasmosis, if it strikes during the ——–, it is likely to cause —– and —– damage. later infection is liked to —- visual and cognitive impairments.
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25-30
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during the prenatal period, when kids are growing more rapidly than at any other time, they depend totally on their mother for nutrients. a healthy diet that results in a weight gain of —– to —– pounds helps ensure health for mom and baby.
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central nervous system, brain
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prenatal malnutrition can cause serious damage to the ——. the poorer the moms diet, the greater the loss in —— weight, esp if malnutrition occured during the last trimester, when the brain is increasing rapidly in size.
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last trimester
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prenatal malnutrion esp affects the babys brain weight during the ——-.
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liver, kidney, pancreas, cardiovascular system
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an inadequate diet during pregancy can distort the structure of teh ——–, ——-, ——– and ——– resulting in lifelong health problems.
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folic acid
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vitamin mineral enrichment is important. taking a ——–supplement around the time of conception reduces by more than 70 percent abnormalities of the neural tube.
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rh factor incompatibility
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when inherited blood types of mother and fetus differ, serious problems sometimes result. the most common cause of these difficulties is ——-. when the mother is rh negative (lacks the rh blood protein) and the father is rh positive -has the protein, the baby may inherit the fathers rh positive blood type. if even a little of a fetus’s rh positive blood crosses the placenta into the rh negative mothers bloodstream, she begins to form antibodies to the foreign rh protein. if these enter the fetus’s system, they destroy red blood cells, reducing the oxygen supply to organs and tissues. misscariage, mental retardation, heart damage, and infant death can occur.
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rh negative, positive, blood, antibodies
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when the mother is ——-, and the father is rh positive, the baby may inherit the fathers rh ——-blood type. if a little of the fetus;s —- crosses the placenta into the rh negative mothers bloodstream, she begins to form —— to the foreign rh protein.
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red blood cells, oxygen
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if the rh antibodies from mom enter fetuses system, they destroy ——–, reducing the ——- supply to organs and tissues.
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misscariage, retardation, heart damage, infant death
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when rh negative mom, rh positive dad and rh positive baby. when baby gets the rh antibodies from mom, they destroy red blood cells, reducing the oxygen supply to organs and tissues. ——–, ——– ———- and ——- can occur.
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additional
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it takes time for the mother to produce rh antibodies so firstborn kids are rarely affected. the danger increases with each —— pregnancy.
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vaccine
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rh incompatibility can be prevented in most cases. after the birth of each rh positive baby, rh negative mothers are given a ——- to prevent the buildup of antibodies.
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three
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there are —– stages of childbirth
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dilation and effacement of the cervix
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the first stage of childbirth is called ———–. this is the longest stage of labor, lasting an average fo 12 to 14 hours with a first birth and 4 to 6 hours with later births. contractions of the uterus gradually become more frequent and powerful, causing the cervix or uterine opening, to widen and thin to nothing, forming a clear channel from the uterus into the birth canal, or vagina.
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12-14, 4-6
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with first stage of childbirth, it lasts an avg of ——- hours, and ——- with later births.
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delivery of the baby
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the second stage of childbirth, much shorter, lasting about fifty minutes for a first birth and 20 mins in later births. strong contractions of the uterus continue, but the mother also feels a natural urge to squeeze and push with her abdominal muscles. as she does so with each contraction, she forces the baby down and out.
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50, 20
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the second stage of childbirth, the delivery stage lasts ——- for a first birth and —– mins in later births.
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delivery of placenta
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the third stage of childbirth labor comes to an end with a few final contractions and pushes. these cause the placenta to separate from the wall of the uterus and be delived in about 5 to 10 mins.
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5-10
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delivery of placenta takes —— mins.
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transition
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this is in stage 1, this is reached when the frequency and strenght of the contractiosn are at their peak and the cervix opens completely.
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pushing
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stage 2, with each contraction, the mother pushes, forcing the baby down the birth canal, and the head appears.
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birth
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near the end of stage 2 the shoulders emerge, folllowed quickly by the rest fo the babys body
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apgar scale
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infants who have difficulty making the transition to life outside the uterus require special help at once. to assess the newborns physical condition quickly, doctors and nurses use the ——–. a rating of 0, 1 or 2 on each of five characteristics is made at 1 min and again at 5 mins after birth. a combined apgar score of 7 or better indicates that the infant is in good physical condition. if the score is between 4 and 6, the baby needs assistance in establishing breathing and other vital signs. if the score is 3 or below, the infant is in serious danger and requires emergency medical attention. two apgar rationgs are given because some babies have issues adjusting at first but do quite well after a few mins.
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heart rate, respiratory rate, reflex irritability, muscle tone, color
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what are the five things rated on the apgar scale?
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1, 5
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a ration of 0, 1 or 2 on each five characteristics is made — min and again at —- after birth. apgar
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7, 4, 6, 3
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this rating indicates kid is in good physical condition. on apgar. if score is between —– and —— the baby needs assistance in establishing breathing and other vital signs. if the score is —– or below, the infant is in serious danger and requires emergency medical help.
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natural childbirth
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a group of techniques aimed at reducing pain and medical intervention and making childbirth a rewarding experience. most of these programs draw on methods developed by grantly dick reed. physicians recognized that cultural attitudes had taught women to fear the birth experience. an anxious frightened woman in labor tenses muscles, turning the mild pain that sometimes accompanies strong contractions into intense pain.
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classes, relaxation and breathing, labor coach
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in a typical natural childbirth program, the expectant mother and a companion participate in three activities. including ——, —– and ———– techniques and they have a ——.
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classes, relaxation, breathing , labor coach
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in a typ natural childbirth program they take ——. they learn about the anatomy and physiology of labor and delivery. knowledge about the process reduces fear. they also involved in ———- and —- techniques in which during each class, the woman is taught relaxation and breathing excercises aimed at counteracting the pain of uterine contractions,. finally they have a ——. it can be the husband who learns to help the wife during childbirth by reminding her to relax and breathe, massaging her back, supporting her body, offering encouragement.
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social support
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—— is very imporant in the success of natural childbirth
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fetal monitors
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—– are electronic instruments that track the babys heart rate during labor. an abnormal heartbeat may indivcate that the baby is in distress due to anoxia and needs to be delivered immediately. most american births use continuous fetal monitoring. the monitor is strapped across the mothers abdomen throughout labor. there is also the threading of a recording device through the cervix and placing it directly under the babys scalp.
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heart rate
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fetal monitors track babys —– during labor.
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cesarean sections,
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fetal monitoring is a safe procedure that has saved the lives of many babies in high risk situations. but in healthy pregnancies it does not reduce the already low rates of infant brain damage and death. futher, most infants have some heartbeat irregularities during labor, so critics worry that fetal monitors identify many babies as in danger who are in fact not. monitoring is linked to an increase ni the number of ———- delivieries.
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analgesics
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drugs used to relieve pain, may be given in mild doses during labor to help a mother relax.
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anesthetics
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a stronger type of painkiller that blocks sensation.
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epidural analgesia
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the most common approach to controlling pain during labor, a regional pain relieving drug is deliviered continuously through a catheter into a small space in the lower spine. because the mother retains the capacity to feel the pressure fo the contractions and to move her trunk and legs, she is able to push during the second stage of labor.
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uterine contractions
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epidural analgesia can weaken ———–, so labor can become prolonged and the chances of c section increase. exposed newborns tend to be sleepy and withdrawn, suck poorly during efeedings and be irritable when awake.
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preterm infants
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are those born severeal weeks or more before their due date. althoguh they are small, their weight may still be appropriate based on time spent in the uterus.
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small for date
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——— infants are below their expected weight considereing length of pregnancy. some are actually full term. others are preterm infnats who are especially underweight.
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time
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preterm babies are born several weeks before due, theyre small but weight may be appropriate based on —– spent in uterus
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small for date
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——– babies have more serious problems than preterm babies. theyre more likely to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage. by middle childhood they have lower intelligence test scores, less attentive, achieve more poorly in school and are socially immature.
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nutririon
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small for date babies probably experienced inadequate ——– before birth. their moms didnt eat properly, placenta didnt function normally, or the babies had defects that prevented them from growing as they should.
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illness, procedures, hospital
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even among preterm babies, whose weight is appropriate for length of pregnancy, just seven more days from 34 to 35 weeks, greatly reduces rates of ——, costly medical —–, adn lengthy —— stays.
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physical growth, cognitive
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despite being relatively low risk for disabilities, a substantial number of 34 week preterms are below averrage in ——–, and mildly delayed in —— development in early and middle childhood.
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cesarean delivery
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a —— is a surgical birth, the doctor makes an incision in the mothers abdomen and lifts the baby out of the uterus. forty years ago it was rare. now its climbed a lot.
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emergencies, breech, anoxia
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cesarean sections have always been warranted by medical ——- and in certain ——– births, in which the baby risks head injury of ——-.
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medical control
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cesarean sections are getting increasingly common. —— over childbirth is largely responsible.
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12 months
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how long to recover from c section?
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kangaroo care
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in developing countries where hospitalization is not always possible, skin to skin ——– is the most readily available intervention for promoting the survival and recovery of preterm babies.
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breasts, chest, incubator
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kangaroo care involves placing the infant in a vertical position between the mothers ——-, or next to the fathers ——- so the parents body functions as a human —-.
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oxygenation, sleep, breastfeeding, alertness, survival
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kangaroo skin to skin contact fosters improved ——– of the babys body, temperature regulation, ——-, ———, ——– and infant ———.
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mental, motor
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preterm babies given many hours of kangaroo care in their early weeks compared to those given little or no such care, score higher on measures of —— and —— developmetn during the first year.
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infant mortality
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the number of deaths in the first year of life per 1,000 live births its an index used around the world to assess the overall health of a nations children. the us has the most updated healthcare technology in the world, it has made less progress in reducing infant deaths than many other countries. its 28th.
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neonatal mortality, physical defects, birth weight
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the rate of death within the first month of life, accounts for 67 percent of us infant death rate. two factors responsible. the first is serious ———, most that cant be prevented. the second cause is low ———-, which accounts for the increased risk of blacks and native american babies and is preventable!
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poverty, healthcare
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widespread —– and weak —- programs for moms and kids are largely responsible for the infant mortality trends.
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12 weeks
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in the usa the government allows ———– of unpaid leave for employees in business with at least 50 workers. most women work in smaller businesses, and many who work in large companies cant afford to take unpadi leave.
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six weeks, 12 weeks
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——– of childbirth leave in the us is not enough. this time period is linked to increased maternal anxiety, depression, marital dissatisfaction, sense of role overload, and negative interactions with the baby. a longer leave of ———- or more predicts favorable maternal mental health, supportive marital interaction, and sensitive caregiving.
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universal
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in countries with low infant mortality rate, expectant parents need not wonder how or where they will get health care and other resources to support their babys development. the powerful impact of ——- high quality healthcare, generous parental leave, and other services provides strong justification for these policies.
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reflex
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an inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation. they are teh newborn babys most obvious organized patterns of behavior.
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moro
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the embracing relfex, baby flings arms wide and brings them back toward his body.
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rooting reflex
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reflex, stroke babies cheek, turns its head in her direction and opens mouth to suck.
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grasp reflex
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helps baby regain its hold on the mothers body.
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sucking
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if —— were not automatic our species wouldnt survive for a single generation
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stepping reflex
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the ——– reflex looks like a primitive walking response. it appears in a wide range of situations with the newborns body in a sideways or upside down position, with feet touching walls or ceilings an deven with legs dangling in the air.
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true
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t or f? there is no special need for infants to practice the stepping reflex because all normal babies walk in due time.
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comfort
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caregivers can make use of reflexes for —– of the baby like givign baby a pacifier.
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six months
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most newborn reflexes disappear during the first ——–, due to a gradual increase in voluntary control over behavior as the cerebral cortex develops.
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cerebral cortex
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most newborn reflexes disappear in first six months due to a graudal increase in voluntary control over behavior as the ——- develops.
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sids
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the unexpected death, usually during the night, of an infant under one year of age that remains unexplained after thorough investigation.
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sids
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in industrialized nations, —— is the leading cause of infant mortality between 1 and 12 months.
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physical
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sids victims usually show —– problems from the beginning.
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prematurity, low weight
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sids babies reveal higher rates of ——— and ——— poor apgar scores, and limp muscle tone.
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heart rate, respiration, rem-nrem
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with sids babies abnormal ———-, and respiration and disturbances in sleep-wake activity and in —— cycles while asleep are also involved.
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respiratory infection
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at the time of death, many sids babies have ———.
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brain functioning
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many say that impaired ———— contributes to SIDS
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learned
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between 2-4 months, when sids is most likely to occur, reflexes decline and are replaced by voluntary, ——- responses.
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neurological weakness
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——– may prevent sids babies from acquiring behaviors that replace defensive reflexes. in result, when breathing difficulties occur during sleep, infants dont wake up, shift, or cry for help. they give in to oxygen deprivation and death.
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serotonin
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in sids babies brains, they continaed an unusually low levels of ——– which assists with arousal when survival is threatened. and other abnormalities in centers that control breathing and arousal.
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cigarette,
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several environmental factors are linked to sids. maternal —— smoking, both during and after pregnancy as well as smoking by other caregivers, doubles risk of the disorder.
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arous, respiratory
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babies exposed to cig smoke —— less easily from sleep and have more ——- infections.
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central nervous system
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prenatal abuse of drugs that depress ——- functioning like alcohol, opiates increase the risk of SIDS as much as by fifteenfold.
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stomaches,
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sids babies are also more likely to sleep on their —— than on their backs and often are wrapped up warmly in clothing and blankets. infants who sleep on stomaches less often wake when their breathing is disturbed.
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exhaled
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babies sleeping face down on soft bedding may die from continually breathing their own —- breath.
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smoking, drug, position, bedclothes
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quitting —– and —— taking, changing an infants —— and removing a few ——- can reduce incidence of SIDS.
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back, pacifier
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parents are encouraged to prevent sids by putting babies on their — and give baby a ——–. sleeping babies who suck arouse more easily in response to breathing and heart rate irregularities.