Chapter 10: Nervous System A&P

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part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements and maintaining balance
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cerebellum
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pertaining to muscles and nerves
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myoneural
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neurotransmitter
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acetylcholine
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part of the nerve cell that first receives the nervous impulse is
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dendrite
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elevated portions of the cerebral cortex called
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gyri
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burning sensation of pain
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causalgia
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a network of interlacing nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous systems
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plexus
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portion of the brain that controls the pituitary gland, water balance, and body temperture
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hypothalamus
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glial cells
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astrocytes
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space between nerve cells is called the
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synapse
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part of the brain that controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of the blood vessels
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medulla oblongata
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inability to speak
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Apraxia
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collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
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cauda equina
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disease of the spinal cord
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myelopathy
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collection of blood within the meningeal layers
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subdural hematoma
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abnormal sensation of tingling or prickling
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hyperkinesis
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inflammation of a spinal nerve root
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polyneuritis
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a highly malignant brain tumor
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giloblastoma
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paralysis of four extremities
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quadriplegia
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cerebral aneurysm, thrombosis, or hemorrhage can be the cause of
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cerebrovascular accident
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fainting
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synscope
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spina bifida is associated with
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myelomeningocele
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parkinson disease is characterized by
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shuffling gait
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disorder of reading, writing, and learning is
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dyslexia
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condition of no nervous sensation
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anesthesia
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blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter brain tissue and keep others out
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blood-brain barrier
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type of glial (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salt from capillaries
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astrocyte
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neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells
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acetylcholine
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microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse a nerve cell
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axon
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carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from receptors
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afferent nerve
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lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord
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brainstem
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part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
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cell body
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middle layer of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord
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arachnoid membre
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contains nerves that control involuntary body functions or muscles, glands and internal organs
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autonomic nervous system
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motor nerve that carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord
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efferent nerve
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largest part of the brain
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cerebum
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includes the brain and spinal cord
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central nervous system
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microscopic branching fibers of a nerve cell that is first to receive a nervous impulse
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dendrite
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posterior part of the brain; coordinates muscle movement and maintains balance
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cerebellum
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glial (neuroglial) cell that lines membranes with the brain and spinal cord; helps form cerebrospinal fluid
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ependymal cell
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outer region of the cerebum; contains sheet of nerves
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cerebral cortex
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circulates throughtout the brain and spinal cord
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cerebrospinal fluid
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thick, outermost layer of the meninges
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dura mater
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twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain
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cranial nerves
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portion of the bran that controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland
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hypothalamus
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white, fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell
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myelin sheath
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supportive and connective type of nerve cells; doses not carry nervous impulses
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glial cell
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membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
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menings
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sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the brain
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gyrus
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nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body
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neuron
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collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS
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ganglion
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portion of the brain just above the spinal cord; efferent nerve
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motor nerve
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macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers that carry electrical impulses
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nerve
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part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and rest of the midbrain
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pons
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chemical messenger, released at the end of a nerve cell
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neurotransmitter
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essential, distinguishing tissue of and organ or system
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parenchyma
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thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges
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pia mater
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organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to afferent nerves
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receptor
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phagocytic glial cell
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microglial cell
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nerves outside the brain and spinal cord including cranial and spinal nerves
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peripheral nervous system
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involuntary, autonomic nerves that requlate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and gastronintestinal muscles
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parasympathetic nerves
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glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons
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oligodendroglial cell
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depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex
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sulcus
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connective and supporting tissue of an organ; glial cells of the brain
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stroma
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tenth cranial nerve
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vagus nerve
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carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord; afferent nerve
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sensory nerve
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main relay center of the brain
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thalamus
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autonomic nerves that influence
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sympathetic nerves
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spinal nerve extending from base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot
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sciatic nerve
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agent of change (light, sound, touch) the evokes a response
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stimulus
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space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve cells or between nerve and mucles or glandular cells
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synapse
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canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid
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ventricles of the brain
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inflammation of the brain
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encephalitis
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collection of blood located below the dura mater
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subdural
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pertaining to the cerebellum
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cerebral cortex
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collection of blood located above the dura mater
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epidural
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disease of the brain
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encephalopathy
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congenital absence of a brain
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anencephal
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pertaining to the pia and arachnoid membrane
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leptomeningeal
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tumor of the membrane around the brain and spinal cord
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meningioma
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disease of nerves
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neuropathy
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malignant tumor of immature glial cells
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glioblastoma
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hernia of the spinal cord and meninges
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myelomeningocele
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inflammation of many nerves
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polyneuritis
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inflammation of a nerve root
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radiculitius
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inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord
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polimyelitis
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pertaining to the cerebellum and the pons
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cerebellopontine
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disease of a nerve root
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radiculopathy
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condition of lack of senstion
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anesthesia
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pertaining to a state of unconsciousness
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comatose
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drugs are delivered into a space within the meninges
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intrathecal injection
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pertaining to an area of the brain that is a relay station for nerve impulses
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anesthesia
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condition of increased sensation
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hyperesthesia
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abnormal sensation
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paresthesia
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condition of lack of sensitivity to pain
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anesthesia
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diminished sensation to pain
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hypalgesia
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slow movement
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bradykinesia
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abnormal movement occurring late in treatment (using antipsychotic drug )
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tardive dyskinesia
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nerve pain related to the fifth cranial nerve:
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trigeminal neuralgia
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pertaining to without movement
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akinetic
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headache
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cephalgia
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excessive movement
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hyperkinesis
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compulsion (seizure) to sleep
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narcolepsy
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reading, writing, and learning disorder
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dyslexia
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weakness in the right or left side (half) of the body
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hemiparesis
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paralysis of the lower portion of the body
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paraplegia
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pertaining to fainting
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syncopal
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lack of coordination
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ataxia
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movements and behavior are not purposeful (actions are not appropriate)
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apraxia
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paralysis of one side of the body
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hemiplegia
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nervous exhaustion and fatigue
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neuroasthenia
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paralysis of all four extremities
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quadriplegia
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Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity
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epilepsy
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degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem
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amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
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destruction of myelin sheath on neurons in CNS; replacement by plaques of sclerotic tissue
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multple sclerosis
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hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration
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huntington disease
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congenital defect in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of verebrae; may involve myelomenigocele
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spina bifida
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abnormal accumulation of CSF in the ventricles of the brain
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hydrocephalus
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brain disorder marked by gradual, progressive mental deterioration; personality changes; and impairment of daily functioning
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Alzheimer diease
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autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles
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myasthenia gravis
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degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia; occurring later in life and leading to tremors, muscle weakness, and slowness of movement
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Parkinson disease
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paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function)
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palsy
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mental decline and deterioration
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dementia
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viral infection affecting peripheral nerves, marked by eruption of painful blister
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herpes zoster
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involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds
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tourette syndrome
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severe, recurrent, unilateral, vascular headache
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migraine
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disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke
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cerebrovascular accident
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bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head
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cerebral contusion
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abnormal growth o brain tissue (glial cells) and meninges
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brain tumor
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inflammation of the membranes around the brain and spinal cord
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meningitis
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traumatic brain injury caused by a blow to the head; no evidence of structural damage to brain tissue
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cerebral concussion
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brain disease occurring with AIDS
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HIV encephalpathy
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peculiar sensation that occurs before the onset of an attack of migraine or an epileptic seizure
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aura
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manner of walking
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gait
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relieving symptoms, but not curing the illness
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palliative
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major convulsive seizure marked by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching and jerking movements
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tonic clonic seizure
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enlarged, weakened area in an artery
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aneurysm
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involuntary movment of a small group of muscles, as of the face; characteristic of Tourette syndrome
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tic
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pertaining to a sudden, acute onset, as convulsions of an epileptic seizure
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ictal event
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neurotransmitter that is deficient in patients with Parkinson disease
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dopamine
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clot of material that travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel
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embolus
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malignant tumor of a type of neuroglial cells in the brain
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astrocytoma
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minor form of seizure
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absence seizure
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detruction of the covering on axons of neurons in the CNS
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demyelination
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removal of a gland in the mediastinum (treatment of myasthenia gravis)
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thymectomy
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blockage of vessel
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occlusion
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cerebrospinal fluid is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae
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LP
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magnetic waves and radio wave energy create images (of the brain and spinal cord) in the three planes
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MRI of the brain & spinal cord
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samples of cerebrospinal fluid are examined
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CSF anaylsis
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x-rays imaging of the spinal cord after injection of contrast material within the subarachnoid space
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myleography
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radioactive glucose is injected and detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of cells
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cerebral angiography
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sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranal arteries
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doppler ultrasound
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x-ray technique that produces computerized multiple ( especially cross-sectional) images of the brain and spinal cord
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ct of the brain and spinal cord
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use of a specialized instrument ( Gamma Knife) to located and treat targets in the brain
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stereotactic radiosurgery
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recording of the electrical activity of the brain
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EEG
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three protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
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menings
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microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
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axon
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a large, interlacing network of nerves
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plexus
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branching fiber that is first part of a neuron to recieve a nervous impulse
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dendrite
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protective fatty tissue that surrounds the axon of a nerve cell
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myelin sheath
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collection of spinal nerves below the end o the spinal cord
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cauda equina
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glial cell that produces myelin
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oligodendroglia
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outer region of the largest part of the brain; composed of gray matter
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cerebral cortex
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carries message toward the brain from receptors
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sensory nerve
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essential cell of the nervous system; a neuron
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parenchymal cell
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innermost meningeal membrane
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pia mater
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elevations in the cerebral cortex
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gyri
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acetylcholine is an example of this chemical released into asynapse
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neurotransmitter
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contains cerebrospinal fluid
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subarachnoid space

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