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Associative learning-classical/operant conditioning

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associative learning
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type of learning where the individual learns to pair a specific stimulus with a specific response based on the environment around them Consists of classical conditioning and operant conditioning
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classical conditioning
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one of the first associative learning methods that behavioral researchers understood. Response originally caused by one stimulus is evoked by a second, unassociated stimulus. Pavlov’s dogs
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unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
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something that triggers a response without intervention (the meat in Pavlov’s dog experiment)
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unconditioned response (UCR)
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a natural consequence of an intervention (the salivation in Pavlov’s dog experiment)
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neutral stimulus (NS)
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an intervention that, under normal circumstances would not induce a desired consequence (the bell in the Pavlov’s dog experiment)
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conditioned stimulus (CS)
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With repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus becomes this. (the bell in the Pavlov’s dog experiment)
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conditioned response (CR)
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With repeated pairings of the conditioned stimulus, elicits this response (the salivation in Pavlov’s dog experiment)
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acquisition
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connect neutral stimuli to a conditioned response
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extinction
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if the conditioned stimulus (the bell) occurs repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus (e.g. the food), the conditioned response with diminish and stop altogether.
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spontaneous recovery
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if there is a delay in which the conditioned stimulus does not occur and the conditioned stimulus is presented again. after the delay, when the conditioned stimulus is again presented, the conditioned response with occur again, weaker than before, but still present.
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generalization
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can also occur with the conditioned stimulus, process of expanding the parameters of the conditioned stimulus to include other stimuli (e.g. the dogs begin to show conditioned response in response to a bell, a clicking noise, and a tone) John Watson and Little Albert starting with fear of rats and expanding to fear of white rabbits, white cur coats, a white dog, and Santa Claus beards.
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discrimination
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individual shrinks the parameters of the conditioned stimulus, requiring it to be more specific to show the conditioned response.
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operant conditioning
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more complex form of associative learning. A method of learning that shapes behavior via rewards and punishments for individual actions. Edward Thorndike and BF Skinner
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Operant conditioning table
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positive reinforcement-giving a pleasant experience (giving a favorite food) negative reinforcement- taking away an unpleasant experience (removing a shock) positive punishment-giving an unpleasant experience (shock) Negative punishment-taking away a pleasant experience (removing a favorite food)
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Shaping
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in operant conditioning, occurs through the process of providing positive or negative rewards or punishments
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reward
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will encourage the repetition of a behavior
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punishment
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designed to extinguish a behavior
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positive (reward or punishment)
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a stimulus is given
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negative (reward or punishment)
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a stimulus is taken away
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primary/unconditioned reinforcers
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basic drivers that do not need to be taught (e.g. food, sex, comfort)
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secondary/conditioned reinforcers
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reinforcers that the individual has learned to value (e.g. getting an A on a test)
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reinforcement schedules
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reinforcers and punishments can be provided that can determine the speed of adoption or extinction of a behavior
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variable ratio (behavior) reinforcement schedule
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reinforcer given after a varying number of displays of the behavior (e.g. a rat receives food after hitting the bar 1, 5, or 7 times)
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fixed ratio (behavior) reinforcement schedule
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reinforcer given after a certain number of instances of the behavior (e.g. a rat received food after every 3 bar presses)
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general ratio (behavior) reinforcement schedule
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higher ratios (e.g. 1 food pellet for every 5 bar presses) result in higher response rates but are harder teach initially than lower ratios (e.g. 1 pellet for 1 bar press)
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variable interval (time) reinforcement schedule
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reinforcer given after a varying amount of time (e.g. food is released for a random amount of time that a rat spends in a particular space)
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fixed interval (time) reinforcement schedule
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reinforcer given after a fixed period of time (e.g. food is released for every 15 minutes that a rat spends in a particular space)
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general interval (time) reinforcement schedule
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shorter intervals (30 seconds vs. 2 minutes) creates a higher response rate
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general variable schedule
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variable schedules resulting in greater resistance later to extinguishing of the behavior
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general fixed schedule
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behaviors shaped by fixed ratios being easier to extinguish later
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escape learning
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the individual learns to reduce exposure to a negative experience by escaping from a situation acts as a negative reinforcement of the escape behavior, a pattern that the individual is then likely to repeat. Pertinent to the development and (later) treatment of anxiety disorders
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avoidance learning
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an individual may begin to avoid situations that cause fear and anxiety because avoidance reduces physiological arousal and psychological discomfort. Pertinent to the development and (later) treatment of anxiety disorders
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extinction burst
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increase in activity before extinction begins
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developmentally fixed behaviors
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some innate behaviors and are extremely resistant to shaping strategies. Classic example of this is the “monkeys and M&M’s” study that always had monkeys choose the larger amount of M&M’s, some behaviors are so innate that reshaping them by conditioning is extremely difficult
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instinctive drift
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when innate behaviors are changed, the subject will often drift back into the innate behavior
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conditioned taste aversion
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a single negative food o drink experience creates a very long-term wish to avoid that food. (e.g. a person eats spaghetti and later that evening comes down with a severe stomach flu, that person may experience a conditioned taste aversion to spaghetti and may never eat it again.
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contingencies
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begins to explain the interaction between cognitive processes and life experiences in the process of associative learning. A number of inherent cognitive processes that increase the likelihood of associative learning.