ESL Supplemental – Domain II terms

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Domain II
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Instruction and assessment
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Domain II – Competency 3 -teaching methods
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ESL Teacher understands ESL teaching methods and uses this knowledge to plan and implement effective, developmentally appropriate instruction
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Domain II – Competency 3 – Skill 3.1 – TEKS
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Know TEKS especially language arts and rrading curriculum and how it relates to ESL. Know how to design and implement appropriate instruction to address the TEKS (i.e. listening, speaking, reading, writing, viewing/representing
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district linguistic accommodations
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comminicated, sequenced, scaffolded
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7 key instructional criteria for designing and implementing instruction to support ESL language and literacy development
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1. Collaboration – interact and work cooperatively – activities such as discussion groups, student partners, St/T dialogue journals, interviewing 2. Purpose- multiple opportunities to use authentic oral and written language to complete tasks for real-life goals and purposes.- shared discourse( playing games, planning a play) fun discourse (singing songs, writing riddles fact discourse (get new information, doing a research project) thought discourse (language is used to create new ideas -writing poetry critical thinking) 3. Student interest – follow student interests for planning activities 4. Previous experience – include students’ previous experiences in learning new language – brainstorming new ideas, connecting previous class activities to new ones, including histories and folk tales from L1 culture 5. Support – classroom atmosphere is supportive, activities are adapted to students current language and literacy capabilities or zone of proximal development (Vygotsky) 6. Variety – variety of learning activities 7. Integration- include various programs available for supporting ELL’s development so they complement each other. in-school and out-of-school experiences, integrating four language skills of reading, writing, listening, speaking. and integrating students with the regular classroom through cooperative learning
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English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS): Proficiency Level Descriptors (PLD)
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In relation to listening, speaking, reading, and writing, students are classified as Beginning Intermediate AAdvanced Advanced High
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Why ELPS
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Students benefit from 1.content area instruction that is accommodated to their needs for comprehensible input. 2. academic language instruction integrated into content area instruction 3. programs that hold hgh expectations for academic success These ELPS provide a common framework for integrating language and content instruction.
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Domain II – Competency 3- Skill 3.4 – technology
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Integrate technology tools and resources into instructional practices to enhance student learning
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Incorporate technology….
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include: 1. game applications (Reader Rabbit, Missing Link, Reading Blaster) 2. general applications( Word, Powerpoint, Hyperstudio, Kid Pix, Story Book Weaver) 3. access applications (Google, Netscape 4. tutoring applications (Watch Me Read) 5. thinking and problem solving applications (SimCity, Sim Earth, Zoombinis Island Odyssey) 6. communication applications (email) 7. Integrated Learning Systems (Waterford early Reading Program, Fast Forward, Read 180)
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activities to use when textbooks are difficult…
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graphic organizers such as Venn diagram, pie charts, flow charts, family trees, webbing, concept webbing, language ladders, brainstorming
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Scaffolding
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Tompkins 5 levels – 1. modeling -T models orally or uses projects from past years students as examples or work expected 2.shared – ELL use pooled knowledge of project to complete the work 3. interactive – St can Q T on points that need clarification 4. Guided – T gives well posed Q cues, reminders and examples 5. Independent levels – no longer need scaffolding
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scaffolding
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T does/S watches T does/S helps S does/T helps S does/T watches and is ready to step in to support
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Other Technology tools
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Webquest – do research problem solve, apply basic skills Electronic Portfolios
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Domain III – Competency 3 – Skill 3.5 – classroom management & teaching startegies
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Effective Classroom management and teaching startegies
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effective classroom management strategies
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use visuals, reward systems, physically model behavior, be consistent and fair, reinforce
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Make ELLs feel welcome
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learn names, offer one-on-one assistance, assign a peer partner, post daily visual schedule, use materials related to ELLs culture, include ELLs in a non threatening manner, involve ELLs in cooperative learning
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Currently Accepted and Widely implemented ESL methods
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1. TPR 2. Sheltered Instruction 3. SIOP 4. CALLA
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Total Physical Response -TPR
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use of body movement to accelerate language earning
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Sheltered Instruction
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A way to make grade level academic content more accessible for ELLs while at the same time promoting their English language development.
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Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol – SIOP
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research-based model of instruction to improve academic language proficiency in ELLs; attention to content obj
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Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach – CALLA model
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T teach learning strategies tied to content curriculum and apply to instructional tasks. Strategies can be taught. Strategies can transfer to new tasks. Academic language learning is more effective with learning strategies.
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ESL methods use these basic strategies
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visuals vocab development active learning – task based activities interaction – group work learning strategies
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Higher Order Thinking Skills HOTS
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Q techniques that require St to analyze, evaluate, synthesize, compare
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Domain II – Competency 4 – communicative language development
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The ESL T understands how to promote St communicative language development in English
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Listening and responding skills
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interview, instructions, announcements, radio news, committee meetings, shopping, theaterm telephone, lessons, conversation, story-telling
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Scaffolding language
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1. model extended language 2. use questions and prompts 3. recast and expand ideas 4. request clarification 5. promote questions and conversation 6. Provide feedback
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Closing information Gap
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1. reach 2. reflect 3. recode -discuss in groups/pairs, whole group 4.reinforce 5. rehearse – repeat elaborate 6. review 7. retrieve – assessment
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To develop competency in listening and speaking…
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T are needed who understand stages of language acquisition, who are tolerant of errors, who give many opportunities interact with others, who have time
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Promoting Oral Language development
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1. use vocab related to predictable schedule and classroom routine 2. repeat instructional practices – circle time, literary circles, process writing, group projects
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T verbal strategies to help students understand T talk
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speak clearly paraphrase repeat key vocab in context summarize main points limit use of idioms
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Development stages in communication skills
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1. one-way communication – silent period – listen but no speaking. st are acquiring knowledge about new language..vocab, syntax, content 2. Partial two-way communication – S respond with gestures or L1, can show comprehension by nodding, pointing, drawing, gesturing 3. Full Two-way communication – ELLs listen and respond effectively in L2
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One-way Communication
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– silent period – listen but no speaking. st are acquiring knowledge about new language..vocab, syntax, content
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Partial two-way Communication
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S respond with gestures or L1, can show comprehension by nodding, pointing, drawing, gesturing
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Full Two-way Communication
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ELLs listen and respond effectively in L2
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Oral Language Development Strategies
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songs, drama, show and tell, taping and dubbing a TV show, chral reading, riddles and jokes, read alouds, role playing using legends, poetry, idioms, charades, visula props
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Reasons for speaking
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McDonough & Shaw to express ideas and opinions to express a wish or desire to negotiate /solve a problem to establish and maintain social relationships
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learning styles
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linguistic (auditory) mathematical spatial (visual) musical kinesthetic (tactile) interpersonal intrapersonal
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Influences on transferring language skills to L2
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1. Is L1 writing system logographic like Arabic, syllabic like Cherokee, of alphabetic like English and Greek? 2. Compare l1 syntax with L2 syntax 3. Are spelling patterns phonetic with consistent grapheme-phoneme relationships lie French and Spanish or do they have multiple vowel sounds like English? 4. Do St read left-to-rigth and top-to-bottom in L1? 5. Are there true cognates and false cognates that will confuse the ELL? 6.Are the discourse patterns and writing styles of L1 and L2 same or different? 7. Is L1 writing style circular with lng sentences and many details like spanish or linear with minimum number of supporting facts and details like English?
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Different theories of mistakes
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1. audio-lingual – ELLs should make few mistakes because they learn in small controlled steps. 2. interlanguage – mistakes are an important part of learning and are corrected (Selinker) 3. communicative approach – not all mistakes need to be corrected only those that interfere with meaning 4. Monitor theory – correction does not led to language acquisition learners need comprehensible input to acquire the target language (Krashen)
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Domain II – Competency 5 – literacy
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the ESL T understands how to promote students literacy development in English
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Domain II – Competency 5 – skill 5.1 – TEKS
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Know applicable TEKS for English Language Arts and reading curriculum as it relates to ESL and know how to design and implement appropriate instruction to address reading and writing strands
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Language proficiency
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1. oral and written language intermingle 2. listening, speaking, reading, writing are integrated in learning events in school at all levels 3. Listening and reading = receptive speaking and writing = productive
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3 major types of context clues – cueing systems
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syntactic (word order, word endings, function of words in a sentence) semantic (meaning clues) phoneme and graphemes (letter sounds)
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ideas about print
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1. carries meaning, conveys a message 2. can be written down and preserved 3. can be spoken, read out loud 4. read from left to right, top to bottom alphabetic principle = speech stream can be divided into sounds, these sounds are represented by letters or groups of letters (graphophonemic units) 5. speech stream has linear sequence in time that corresponds to written languages linear sequence 6. sound/symbol correspondence are consistent
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variables affecting motivation/development of L2
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1. language learning environment – immersion v foreign language 2. age 3. cognitive development 4. cultures of home and school 5. comprehensible input 6. social interaction
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phonemic awareness
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spoken words are made up of sounds, develops as children are read to and have opportunities to read
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teaching vocab strategies
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1. choose words that relate to human motivation, will generate discussion, are critical for literacy analysis, are difficult for L2 2. explain words through visualizaiton, dramatization, personification, contextualizing, simplified definition 3. revisit words over a period of days 4. connect words, categorize words 5. exposure to print, word walls, realia, signs on objects around room, 6. older St – study true/false cognates, create personal dictionaries, journal writing, use of learing startegies to augment vocab 7. repeat new word in meaningful contexts 8. explore word through demonstrations, direct experience,concrete examples, applications to real life 9. writing process
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Semantics & syntax
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1. T provides support 2. call attention to way word is used in text 3. discuss meaning and interpretation of sentences in text. 4. Point out words known 5. T helps readers discover grammatical cues that indicate relationship such as cause and effect, comparison and contrast, et.c
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Reading Comprehension Model
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1. Prereading – build background knowledge, set purpose, motivate reader; strategies=anticipation guides, structured overview, experiments 2. During Reading – reading based on purpose, monitoring comprehension, engage background knowledge; strategies=learning logs, annotating text, cognitive mapping, directed reading/thinking, asking questions, shared readings, use of heading and sub heading, answering questions, literature response journals 3. Post Reading – organizing to remember information, using information; strategies= artwork, maps, summarizing, publishing, reporting, making a film
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4 components of an effective reading program
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1. large amounts of time to read 2. teacher directed instruction in comprehension strategies 3. opportunities for peer and collaborative learning 4. occasions for St to talk baout their response to reading.
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metalinguistic awareness
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decoding
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metacognitive awareness
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comprehending text
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fluency
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reading words which are recognized automatically
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Formula for fluent reading
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read and reread decodable words in connected text.
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strategies to develop fluency
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1. T assisted reading 2. tape assited reading 3. computer-based reading 4. partner reading 5. Readers’ theater
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Monitoring student fluency progress
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1. track by using graph or audio taping 2. motivate St to practice fluency 3. provide immediate feedback 4. Show progress 5. work collaboratively w/St to record, discuss, and interpret fluency data 6. set goals for fluency building
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CALLA
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Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach to help bridge gaps in literacy skills
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Apply knowledge of individual differences
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illustrated autobiographies, dialogue journals, themes are good starting points to bring in culture and activate prior knowledge.
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Use of Process Writing
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very effective because it allows ELLs to write about their own experiences so L2 development is enhanced Promote fluency first then address editing
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Process Writing – The Process
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1. Prewriting 2. Drafting 3. Revising 4. Editing 5. Publishing
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Personal factors that affect L2 development
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1. individual educational background 2. educational background of family 3. lacking literacy skills in L1 4. family literacy level 5.family’s attitude toward education and success in school 6. Parents with positive attitudes about school are more involved in school activities an dkeep track of their child’s progress 7. Parents who read books to their child an dhave books, magazines, and other reading materials around.
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Domain II – Competency 6 – promoting content area learning
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The ESL Teacher understand show to promote St content area learning, academic language development and achievement across the curriculum.
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Domain II – Competency 6 – Skill 6.1 – developing St cognitive academic language proficiency across the curriculum
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CALLA -Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach – Chamot & O’Malley – be aware of St approaches to learning and know how to expand the St repertoire of learning strategies.
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Two main models of instruction
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1. Content-based instruction 2. Sheltered instruction
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Content-based instruction
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Communicative approach to content based ESL instruction to prepare St for mainstream classes – taught by ESL teacher, addresses key topics in grade level curriculum, seeks to develop St L2 proficiency through study of subject are content, address academic skills
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Sheltered Instruction
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developed to support the needs of ELL in content area classes, grade level curriculum, taught by content area educators trained in sheltered techniques, uses modified instruction to made grade level content comprehensible.
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Components of sheltered instruction
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1. content obj (TEKS) 2. language obj,(ELPS) 3. background knowledge (use KWL chart ) 4. comprehensible input (how to communicate information – oral, written ,strategies) 5. meaningful activities (surveys, produce a product, news article, play, create a brochure, write a poem, illustrate, conduct an interview, make models) 6. variety of strategies and scaffolding (scaffolding discussion, interaction, a variety of grouping strategies 7. meaningful assessment -give test orally, simplify the language of the test, test only skills taught, grade content, fill in a graphic organizer, label a drawing)
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Guidelines for scaffolding discussion
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1. model different ways to respond to Q 2. Use Q and prompts to help st express their ideas 3. Paraphrase and expand St answers 4. request clarification5. build world knowledge of topic and relate to real-life experiences 5. promote q and conversations among St 6. provide positive reinforcement 7. incorporate small group discussions
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Questioning continuum: simple to complex
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Simple – Who? What? When ? Where? – focus on info on page, rephrase text, recall facts Complex – How? Why? What If? – make inferences, move away from info on page, analyze characters actions and motivations, focus on vocab and concepts, connect story to st experiences.
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Domain II – Competency 6 – formal and informal assessments
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the ESL teacher understands formal and informal assessment procedures and instruments used in ESL programs and uses assessment results to plan and adapt instruction
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2 types of assessments
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1. formal 2. alternative
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Formal assessments
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standardized tests; TELPAS, STAAR, TAKS, Language placement tests
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Alternative assessments
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teacher made, checklists, observations, student work samples, oral interview, story or text retelling, writing samples, projects/demonstrations, written response to open ended Q, T observation, portfolios
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Language Placement Tests
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used to enter or exit a program ACTFL – Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) Test of spoken English (TSE) Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) Foreign Service Exam (FSE) Oral Language Proficiency Test (OLPT)
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Standardized tests
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TAKS – TX Assessment of Knowledge and Skills TAKS-M – TAKS modified – designed to meet requirements of No Child Left Behind Act and Individuals with Disabilities TAKS-Alt – Alternative based on academic achievement for students with significant cognitive disabilitites TELPAS – TX English Language Proficiency Assessment System – assess English language proficiency of K-12 St (ELLs, LEPs) in compliance with No Child Left Behind Act in domains of listening, speaking, reading, and writing EOC – end-of-course tests beginning in 2007 in secondary level math, English , science, history, and geography
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TELPAS
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TX English Language Proficiency Assessment System – assess English language proficiency of K-12 St (ELLs, LEPs) in compliance with No Child Left Behind Act in domains of listening, speaking, reading, and writing
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Domain II – Competency 7 – Skill7.3 – state-mandated policies
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Know state mandated policies including the role of LPAC, and procedures for implementing LPAC recommendations for LEP identification, placement, and exit
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TELPAS design
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designed to evaluate progress of LEP St as Beginner, Intermediate, Advanced, and Advanced high. St take this test annually until they meet criteria are are reclassified as non-LEP on PEIMS TELPAS Reading is a written assessment measuring annual growth in grades 2-12 TALPAS Reading K-1 include listening, speaking, and writing assessments that allow a T to evaluate a st performance holistically on daily evaluations and observations Writing samples must include: 2 samples from math, Science, and/or Social Studies, 1 narrative in past tense St are scored based upon PLDs (Proficient Language Descriptors)
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State mandated LEP policies
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1. Commissioner’s Rules Concerning Limited English Proficient Students Chapter 89, Subchapter BB – state plan for educating LEP students 2.Texas Education Code Chapter 29.063 – LPAC Committees 3. Texas Administrative Code Chapter 101. Subchapter AA – Participation of LEP St in State Assessments Chapter 74.4 English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS)
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BE/ESL Requirements
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1. Every school district MUST identify LEP students 2. Provide required bi-lingual or ESL programs for identified students 3. See certified bilingual and ESL teachers 4. The district is required to provide… Bilingual education if 20 or more LEP students who speak the same language at the same grade level are identified across the district ESL program if district has even one LEP student. 5. assess progress with STAAR and TELPAS 6. Required curriculum ELPS
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ESL program components
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Program should address affective, linguistic, and cognitive needs through TEKS based currciulum including: oral language development literacy grade-level content Academic strategies Assess progress with TELPAS-TAKS-STAAR
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Identification of BE/ESL students
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1. PreK -1 – TEA approved OLPT for each student who has a home language of other than English on Home Language Survey 2. grades 2-12 – TEA approved OLPT/norm referenced test from TEA list to check literacy and academic achievement
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Entry into BE/ESL program
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1.Parent permission form, signed and dated 2. Grades K-1- qualifies for program if student scored NES (non English Speaking or LES (limited English Speaking) on OLPT 3. Grades 2-12 – qualifies for program is scored as NES, LES, or FES (fluent English Speaker with scores beloew 40th percentile 4. This process must take place within 20 days of enrollment.
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LPAC Committee
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Must be set up and trained by the district. For ESL program – 2 members: ESL Educator + parent rep +recommended administrator For BE program – 4 members: BE educator, ESL educator, Parent Rep, campus administrator
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LPAC responsibilities
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1. review all info on students who have home language other than English 2. determine whether Student is LEP 3. Recommend appropriate program : BE, ESL 4. determine accommodations and test exemptions 5. notify parents and document notification 6. Notify PEIMS (Public Education Information ___System 7. Annually evaluate each student’s progress 8. Exit students from BE/ESL when they meet criteria 9. Monitor exited students for two years 10. Notify parents and document notification 11. Notify PEIMS of any changes or updates.
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Exit BE/ESl program requirements
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1. PreK-K – a student may not exit. 2. Grade 1-2 – fluent on OLPT, score above 40th percentile on reading and LA section of a TEA approved test, grade 1-proficient on writing in OLPT, grade 2- rating of advance high on TELPAS writing of scored proficient on writing portion of OLPT, or Teacher recommendation 3. Grades 3-12 -fluent on OLPT, passed English reading on STAAR, passed English writing in grades 4,7,10, and 11, rating of Advanced High on TELPAS writing or scored proficient on OLPT, teacher recommendation All criteria must be met: Oral Language proficiency Academic competency writing proficiency teacher recommendation

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