English Unit 1

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Rhetoric
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the use of language to persuade an audience.
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Rhetorical questions
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a question with an obvious answer, which is used to emphasize a writer’s main point.
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Audience appeals
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Methods of persuading an audience through emotion, logic, or ethics.
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Logos
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The presentation of facts and statistics.
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Pathos
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The quality of speech or written work that appeals to the emotions of the audience
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Ethos
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The character and credibility of the writer in the eyes of the reader.
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Figurative language
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A nonliteral use of language to suggest a specific feeling or meaning.
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Logos 2
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to your brain; logical conclusions, and indisputable facts
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Pathos 2
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to your heart; emotional anecdotes and words that have strong connotations (liberty, slaughter)
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Ethos 2
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to your gut; develops trust
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Simile
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a type of figurative language in which two unlike things are compared using like, as, than, or resembles.
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Metaphor
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A type of figurative language in which one thing is said to be another thing.
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Can you differentiate Patrick Henry’s rhetorical approach?
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Patrick Henry’s rhetorical approach was a speech. He used parallelism, ethos, pathos, figurative language, tone. He wants his audience to agree with him that war is the best option and that the colonists must take action.
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Can you differentiate Thomas Paine’s rhetorical approach?
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Thomas Paine’s rhetorical approach was a printed pamphlet. He used ethos, pathos and logos. He took an opposing argument and show why it is incorrect.
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Strong claim
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is clear and focused. They state your point of view, but they also go a step further and sum up why you hold that point of view.
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Counterclaim
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a claim that is in opposition to another claim.
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Can you recognize a strong claim?
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Defensible – It can be defended and supported and is not silly or unreasonable. Arguable – It is not just a statement of fact, and reasonable people might disagree with you. Concise – it states your point without going into too much detail.
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Can you identify the traits of a strong introduction paragraph in an essay?
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-Get your readers interested -Set up your claim and show why it is important -Give you readers background info
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Context clues
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is the part of a text that surrounds a word or passage and helps to determine its meaning.
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Connotation
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Everything a word suggests or implies; the feeling a word gives you.
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Denotation
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The most direct or literal meaning of a word; a word’s definition.
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Rhetorical device
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A persuasive technique used to help convince an audience.
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Parallelism
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A pattern in writing which words and phrases are similar in structure, one echoing another.
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Deductive reasoning
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a method of thought or argument that starts with a general idea and then uses specific examples or known facts to support that idea.
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Inductive reasoning
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a method of thought or a argument that starts from a specific idea or fact to reach a mor general conclusion.
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Can you explain how the language of the Declaration of Independence helps to further its author’s purpose?
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Authors often use pathos by choosing words like justice and peace to make the audience feel a certain way.
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Introduction
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declares why it is necessary for the colonies to govern themselves
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Preamble
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declares the universal rights the colonists agree agree should be respected
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Grievances against King
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lists all the actions King George III has taken giants the colonies
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Grievances against the British
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lists all the actions the British people have failed to address
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Conclusion
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Asserts that the signers of the document will uphold their duty to the new U.S. Government
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Formal tone
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language written or spoken in a manner that respects accepted rules proper vocabulary and grammar
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Can you write strong body paragraphs that use commentary to link evidence to an essay’s claim?
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You’ve got to explain how each piece of evidence supports your claim with commentary, a discussion of the purpose or significance of the language and/or structure of a text.
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Parallelism
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A pattern in writing which words and phrases are similar in structure, one echoing another.
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Can you explain parallelism’s rhetorical effect?
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It can make your writing more powerful and emphasize words and ideas you want your audience to remember.
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U.S. Constitution
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outlines the new government’s organization and the relationship between the federal government and the state’s in three specific articles
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The Legislative branch
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led by Congress – can pass new laws
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The Executive branch
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run by the president – doesn’t veto them
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The Judiciary branch
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headed by the Supreme Court – finds the laws to be constitutional.
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Supreme Court
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The highest court in the United States. Main job is to provide judicial review, or a review of laws to make sure they align with the Constitution.
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Dissent
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an explanation of why certain judges disagree with the majority opinion.
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Majority opinion
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an explanation of the reasoning behind a court decision
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Judicial review
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reviews lower courts decisions on the case
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Can you summarize the majority opinion and dissent of the Tinker v. Des Moines Supreme Court case?
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The majority opinion reviewed lower courts decisions on the case. The main point of the dissent is that the majority opinion is incorrect.
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Can you explain how Justice Fortas supports his opinion in the Tinker v. Des Moines Supreme Court case?
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(majority opinion) uses precedents throughout his opinion to support his decision. At the beginning of Part 1, Fortas refers to five other cases to show that armbands fall under the protection of the First Amendment. He also uses judicial review
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Can you explain how Justice Black supports his opinion in the Tinker v. Des Moines Supreme Court case?
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(Dissent) argues that there are some limitations on the freedom of expression, particularly at school, and that the armbands under debate did cause a disturbance. He refers to Cox v. Louisiana and Adderley v. Florida to show that the Court has already decided there should be limitations on free speech. The dissent also uses judicial review.
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Can you identify the traits of a strong conclusion paragraph?
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– Reiterate your claim – Review your reasoning – End with a statement about the larger significance of your essay
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Can you link topics together by using strong transitions?
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– To show similarities: also, in addition, furthermore, likewise – To show differences: in contrast, however, on the other hand, nonetheless – To show an example: for example, specifically, for instance, such as – To conclude: finally, in the end, in conclusion, in sum, therefore
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Can you create and support an arguable claim for an evaluative essay?
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When you write an evaluative essay about an argument, your job is to decide whether the argument achieves its goals and determine how it does so (or doesn’t, if that’s the case.)
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Dictionary
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an alphabetical listing of words along with information about each word, such as its definition and pronunciation
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Glossary
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A list of specialized terms and their meanings
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Thesaurus
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A book, website, or other source that gives synonyms (and sometimes antonyms) for many words.

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