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Electrolytes Used for Replacement Therapy

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Sodium Chloride
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– Replacement therapy – manufacture of isotonic solutions (0.9% w/v) – flavor enhancer
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Isotonic Solutions
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– Used as wet dressings – Used for irrigating body cavities or tissues
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Hypotonic Solutions
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– Maintenance therapy when patients cannot take fluid and nutrients – Dextrose
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Hypertonic Solutions
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– orally administering will induce vomiting – should be given in small volumes
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Potassium Chloride
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– GI irritant, should be well diluted – tablets should NOT be enteric coated, will mess up the intestines -treats myasthenia gravis, treatment of familial periodic paralysis, Meniere’s syndrome, and an antidote for digitalis intoxication -given isotonically
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Intravenous injections of KCl
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Given when patient is unable to take K orally, or with severe hypokalemia
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Familial periodic paralysis
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-lack of K -recurring, rapidly progressive, flaccid paralysis – KCl or Potassium citrate
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Meniere’s syndrome
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-lack of K -disease of inner ear, dizziness, noise in the ear – KCl or Potassium citrate
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Digitalis intoxication
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-treated with K -cumulative effect of maintenance doses over a long period of time – KCl or Potassium citrate
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Myasthenia gravis
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decrease in receptor sites for Ach. Weakness observed in muscles, eye mastication and pharyngeal muscles.
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Potassium Gluconate
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-less irritating form of KCl C6H11KO7
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Calcium Chloride
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– common calcium source – irritating to veins, produces burning sensation, vasodilation and fall in BP if injected quickly – treatment for hypocalcemia
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Calcium Gluconate
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– CaCl alternative, non-irritating orally and thru IV -can produce abscesses when given IM
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Calcium Lactate
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– CaCl alternative, non-irritating orally
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Dibasic Calcium Phosphate
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– oral, source of Ca & P in pregnancy – water insoluble, reacts with stomach acid to create monobasic and CaCl
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Tribasic Calcium Phosphate
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– antacid – oral source of Ca & P
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Magnesium Sulfate
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– AKA Epsom salt – Orally cathartic & parenterally anticonvulsant – CNS depressant
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Magnesium Sulfate given orally
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Cathartic
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Magnesium Sulfate given parenterally
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Anticonvulsant
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Eclampsia
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– convulsions and coma
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Overtreating with Mg
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Can lead to respiratory paralysis, cardiac depression Countered with IV injection of calcium
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Calcium IV injection
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Counteracts Mg intoxication