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Educational Psychology Exam One

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Diversity
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race, language, class, cultures, learning styles, gender, sexual identity/sexual preference, disabilities, age, religion
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Technique to accommodate students
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group the gifted, group gifted with students who need accommodations, examine strengthens and weaknesses across group, target the average students.
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Use of technology
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barrier between teacher and student, focused on content on writing content down rather than learning, students not able to express ideas/opinions, technology in younger students allows interaction.
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Action Research (teacher research)
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form of investigation carried out by teachers about students own teaching styles lead to concrete decisions that improve teaching and learning in particular educational contexts.
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Four new trends in Education
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increased diversity, increased instructional technology, greater accountability in education (assess their own and students performance), increased professionalism in teachers
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Idea of readiness
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students preparedness to cope with or profit from the activities and expectations of school. teachers preparedness to adjust to students needs/accommodation
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Behaviorism
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perspective on learning that focuses on change in individuals’ observable behaviors
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I began cooking meals for myself, I was more focused on whether I could actually produce edible food in a kitchen than with whether I could explain my recipes and cooking procedures to others. Is an example of:
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Behaviorism, focused attention on behavior rather than THOUGHTS
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How is behaviorism useful in the class room?
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Identifying relationships between specific actions by a student and the immediate precursors and consequences of the actions.
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Operant Conditioning & B.F Skinner
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focuses on how the consequences of a behavior affect the behavior over time. Idea that certain consequences tend to make certain behavior happen more frequently
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If I compliment a student for a good comment made during discussion, there is more of a chance that I will hear further comments from the student in the future Is an example of:
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Operant Conditioning
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Pioneer of Operant Conditioning
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B.F. Skinner, training lab rats to use lever in box to receive food. food pellets = reinforcement pressing the lever= operant
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Operant Conditioning and Students
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• A seventh-grade boy makes a silly face (the operant) at the girl sitting next to him. Classmates sitting around them giggle in response (the reinforcement). • A kindergarten child raises her hand in response to the teacher’s question about a story (the operant). The teacher calls on her and she makes her comment (the reinforcement).
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Intrinsic motivation
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to the extent that the reinforcement for an activity is the activity itself. – When a student reads a book for the sheer enjoyment of reading, for example, he is reinforced by the reading itself, and we we can say that his reading is “intrinsically motivated”
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Extrinsically motivated
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meaning that another part of the reinforcement came from consequences or experiences not inherently part of the activity or behavior itself. – Even the usually restless child sitting still for five minutes may have been reinforced partly by this brief experience of unusually focused activity, even if he was also reinforced by the teacher aide’s compliment.
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Key Concepts of Operant Conditioning
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extinction, generalization, discrimination, schedules of reinforcement, and cues
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Extinction
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refers to the disappearance of an operant behavior because of lack of reinforcement – A student who stops receiving gold stars or compliments for prolific reading of library books, for example, may extinguish (i.e. decrease or stop) book-reading behavior.
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Generalization
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refers to the incidental conditioning of behaviors similar to an original operant. – If a student gets gold stars for reading library books, then we may find her reading more of other material as well—newspapers, comics, etc.-even if the activity is not reinforced directly.
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Discrimination
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means learning not to generalize. – If I am a student who is being complimented (reinforced) for contributing to discussions, I must also learn to discriminate when to make verbal contributions from when not to make them—such as when classmates or the teacher are busy with other tasks.
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Schedule or reinforcement
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refers to the pattern or frequency by which reinforcement is linked with the operant. – If a teacher praises me for my work, does she do it every time, or only sometimes? Frequently or only once in awhile?
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Cues
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a cue is a stimulus that happens just prior to the operant behavior and that signals that performing the behavior may lead to reinforcement. – Calling on a student to speak, for example, can be a cue that if the student does say something at that moment, then he or she may be reinforced with praise or acknowledgment. But if that cue does not occur—if the student is not called on—speaking may not be rewarded.
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Constructivism
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a perspective on learning focused on how students actively create (or “construct”) knowledge out of experiences. – Psychological and Social
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Psychological constructivism
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The main idea of psychological constructivism is that a person learns by mentally organizing and reorganizing new information or experiences. – John Dewey, He argued, for example, that if students indeed learn primarily by building their own knowledge, then teachers should adjust the curriculum to fit students’ prior knowledge and interests as fully as possible. – Jean Piaget Piaget described learning as interplay between two mental activities that he called assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation + Accommodation –> Equilibrium –> Schemata
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Social Constructivism/ Sociocultural Theory
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focused on the relationships and interactions between a learner and other individuals who are more knowledgeable or experienced. – Jerome Bruner convinced that students could usually learn more than had been traditionally expected as long as they were given appropriate guidance and resources. Help from instructional scaffolding – Lev Vygotsky focused on how a child’s or novice’s thinking is influenced by relationships with others who are more capable, knowledgeable, or expert than the learner. Zone of Proximal Development: the place or area of immediate change ASSISTED LEARNING/PERFORMANCE
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Teacher’s Role in Psychological/Social Constructivism
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the relationship of learning and long-term development – must provide rich opportunities for dialogue among children between children and teacher the role of meaning of generalizations and abstractions during development how development occurs-
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Bloom’s taxonomy
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Knowledge- Remembering or recalling facts, information, or procedures Comprehension- Understanding facts, interpreting information Application- Using concepts in new situations, solving particular problems Analysis- Distinguish parts of information, a concept, or a procedure Synthesis- Combining elements or parts into a new object, idea, or procedure Evaluation- Assessing and judging the value or ideas, objects, or materials in a particular situation
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Development
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refers to long-term personal changes that have multiple sources and multiple effects.
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Physical Development
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puberty- which is the set of changes in early adolescence that bring about sexual maturity. – abstinence only programs higher rates of STDs and teen pregnancy, middle school PE teacher making kids comfortable with the changes in their body and how each body is different – Puberty and its effects on students – Development of motor skills (fine and gross) – Health and illness — immunizations and its effects, economic struggle for parents to provide hospital visits for children
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Cognitive Development
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Jean Piaget sensorimotor: birth – 2 years, object permanence preoperational: 2- 7 years, dramatic play concrete operational: 7-11 years, reversibility (ability to think about steps of a process in order), conservation (belief that amount of quality stays the same even if it changes size or shape) formal operational: 11 years – and beyond, hypothetical reasoning (can manipulate idea that can vary in several ways at once, and do so entirely in their minds)
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Social Development
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Erikson- 8 psychological crisises trust and mistrust autonomy and shame initiative and guilt industry and inferiority identity and role confusion gnerativifty and stagnation integrity and despair Maslow- deficit needs: psychological needs, safety and security needs, love and belonging needs MEANS MORE TO CHILDREN being need: cognitive needs, aesthetic needs, self-actualization needs MEANS MORE TO ADULTS Kohlberg- Preconventional obidence and punishment – seeking reward and avoiding punishment market exchange – moral or unmoral, drug deal Conventional peer opinion – what everyone thinks is the best choice law and order – conform to laws Postconventional social contract – slavery is bad universal principles – guide a person’s beliefs even if against norm
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Intelligence
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Gardners theory of intelligences Multiple intelligences: – socially/interpersonal – intelligent – musical – intrapersonal/morally – linguistic – logical – spatial – bodily – naturalist – emotional – abstraction – mathematical
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New intelligence
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How quickly you can pick things up, and how you can effectively use the information.
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Old intelligence
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Intelligent people are able to pick up the functions of intelligence for easily (musical, linguistic, mathematical, etc…) Born with the ability to be intelligent.
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Sternburg
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3 intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical