Drug/Alcohol Exam 1 notes

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Whether we see drug use as a prolblem depends on all of the following except: (E)
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A)the reason one takes a drug B)the quantity consumed and the manner by which one takes the drug C)when and where the drug is used D)the age of the individual taking the drug E)whether the drug is natural or synthetic
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In reference to psychoactive drug use, it is important to recognize that: (B)
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A)drugs can have negative effects only B)one’s history and expectations influence how one is affected by a drug C)drugs usually have only one effect D)legal drugs are rarely abused E)a drug’s effects are independent of one’s attitude toward the drug
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If the 1970s were the decade of the hippie, then the 1980s were the decade of the (D)
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A) Aquarian ethics B) Democratic party C) Protestant ethics D) Yuppie E) Libertarian Party
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With the exclusion of cigarettes, most high school seniors: (A)
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A) rarely use drugs daily B) use alcohol daily C) use marijuana daily D) use birth control pills daily E) use tranquilizers daily
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The highest rates of illicit drug use are in the () age group
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18 to 25
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Drug use is positively correlated with
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rejection of traditional cultural systems
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drug use by adolescents is
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most affected by peer drug use
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One common reason why some people begin to take illegal drugs is
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that they have chosen to identify with a deviant subculture
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The first of the pharmacological revolutions was associated wiht the development of
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vaccines
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The age group that is least likely to have used alcohol in the previous 30 days is
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12 to 17
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Which of the following is an example of behavioral toxicity?
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driving inattentively after smoking marijuana
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The acronym DAWN refers to
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Drug Abuse Warning Network
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The purpose of DAWN is to
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collect data on drug-related crises
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An experiment in which rats were allowed to self-inject drugs showed that the rats
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were more likely to die form cocaine than heroin
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Which of the following drugs is most clearly linked to violent crime (d)
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a. heroin b. cocaine c. amphetamines d. alcohol e. LSD
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Alcohol use is associated with
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three-fifths of all murders 40% of all assualts one-third of forcible rape and child molestation 50% committing violent crime when under the influence of alcohol or alcohol and other drugs (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
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The majority of narcotic addicts
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begin criminal activity before becoming addicted
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The number of people in the US arrested for drug-law violations each year is
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1,000,000
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Most legislation regarding drugs is passed in Congress based on
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emotionality (not scientific facts, rational arugments, public health needs or protecting the elderly as well as children)
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About half o the emergency room episodes and three fourths of the drug related deaths are associated with
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multiple drug episodes
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All of the following are types of prevention except: (behavior-attitude prevention)
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primary prevention secondary prevention tertiary prevention
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The goal fo education programs is to
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impart knowledge
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All of the following are key elements of the social influence model except: use of scare tactics
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training refusal skills countering advertising use of teen leaders
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The Letters in DARE stand for
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Drug Abuse Resistance Education
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The main benefits of extracurricular peer approaches to drug prevention include:
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Higher self-esteem
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In the year 1989, rules went into effect requiring all companies and organizations that obtain grants from the federal government to adopt a \”drug-free workplace\” plan
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1989
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Primary prevention programs are those aimed mainly at:
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people who have not yet tried the substances in question
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Tertiary prevention programs are those aimed mainly at
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people who have been treated for substance abuse or has stopped the substance abuse without assistance
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Secondary prevention programs are those aimed mainly at
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People who have tried the drug in question or a variety of other substances
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In the late 1800’s prohibition was viewed as
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a way of strikign back at ethnic groups undermining the good and true life
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In 1918 Mississippi became the first state to ratify the Eighteenth Amendment and in 1919 Nebraska was the 36th state to ratify it
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After Prohibition first went into effect
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deaths from alcohol declined sharply
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The last state to allow sales of liquor after prohibition ended was:
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Mississippi
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The minimum age to purchase alcoholic beverages was set at 21 inmost states before 1970
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21
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The country with the highest rate of alcohol consumption per capita is France
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France
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Naltrexone, a narcotic antagonist
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reduces craving for alcohol was approved by the FDA in 1994 for the treatment of alcoholism
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Disulfiram (antabuse):
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a) has the effects that last for only 4-6 hours b) is a sedative used as an alcohol substitute c) is a very safe treatment method d) inhibits the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase e) prevents alcohol from having any effect on the driver
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Jellinek’s theory is that alcoholism is
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a progressive disease that follows seveal predictable stages
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Alcoholics Anonymous believes that alcoholism
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is a disease
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In American beer the primary grain is
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barley
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the process by which alcohol concentration is increased to more than 15%
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distillation
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The word \”brandy\” is a dutch word meaning:
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burnt wine
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In most commercial beers today, alcohol content is a little over
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4%
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Between 1935 and 1980, the number of breweries:
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decreased
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Of the following countries, which one has the highest per capita of beer consumption
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West Germany
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Wines that are varietals
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are named after one variety of grape which makes up 51% of the wine
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When corn constitutes more than 51% of the grain in a mash, the liquore is called
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bourbon
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Alcohol withdrawal symptoms can include
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tremors insomnia, feelings of unreality convulsions hallucinations (all of the above)
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Alcohol has been shown to
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decrease testosterone production
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The first time a regulatory tax was placed on crude opium in the US was
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1842
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The problems that fueled the passage of early legislation in the US included the following except
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the Whiskey Rebellion
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Initially, the Pure Food and Drug act of 1906 was administered within the
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Department of Agriculture
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In 1912, Congress passed the Sherley Amendment, which:
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outlawed false and fraudulent therapeutic claims by patent medicine manufacturers
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The 1962 Kefauver-Harris amendments were approved after babies were born with deformities as a result of
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Thalidomide
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In what year did the FDA begin to require that a new drug be demonstrated to be effective before it coudl be marketed?
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1962
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Who was the Commissioner of the Bureau of Narcotics for over 30 years
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Harry Anslinger
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The Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965 was designed to control the following except
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alcohol
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Most drug screening programs test
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urine
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Thirty years ago, when people spoke of addiction they were most likely thinking of
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Heroin
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The three basic processes related to the concept of addiction are
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tolerance, physical dependence, reinforcement
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Tolerance refers to
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the diminishing effect of a drug as a result of repeated exposure to the same dose of the drug
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Withdrawal syndrome refers to
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a set of symptoms that appear when drug usage stops
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The driving force behind narcotic addiction, according to the authors is
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the reinforcing effect of a drug rather than fear of withdrawal
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In relation to physical dependence, psychological dependence is
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a greater problem, since many addicts have gone through withdrawal will later relpase
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Which of the following statements is true
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Some drugs are more likely than others to result in addiction There is no clear distincition between drugs tha tare addicting and those that are not It is wrong to conclude that any activity by its nature is always addicting Those seeking prohibition of drugs tend to demonize drugs they want prohibited
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Synanon believes that narcotic addicts
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are never cured
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If one beleives alcoholism is a disease, then the only acceptable goal is
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total abstinence
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Syanon
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maintains an open-door policy
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Hormones are carried by the blood to distant
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target cells
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Hormones are released into the blood, and neurotrnasmitters are released into the synapse
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blood and synapse
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Chemicals released from neurons (nerve cells) are called:
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neurotransmitters
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Gama-aminobutyric acide is an inhibitory neurotransmitter
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gama-aminobutyric acid
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The central nervous system consists of
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the brain and spinal cord
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The neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular juncitons in the somatic system is
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acetylcholine
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the basal ganglia is important for
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maintaining proper muscle tone
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Patients who died from Alzheimers disease were found to have less than a ormal amount of
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acetylcholine
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the neurotransmitter(s) believed to play a role in pain relife is/are:
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endorphins
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Both the synthesis and metabolism of a neurotransmitter is carried out by means of
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enzymes
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The sales of pharaceutical industry exceeds 40 billion per year
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40 billion
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A substance canb e patented when
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it has a new chemical structure a chemical is manufactured in a new way a new use for a chemical is discovered
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At moderate doses, stimulants can produce
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wakefulness and a sense of well-being
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at low doses, opiates can produce
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a relaxed dreamlike state
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major tranquilizers are nwo referred to as
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antipsychotics
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the therapeutic index is
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always greater than one LD50/ED50
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The safety margin of a drug is measured by the:
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difference between the effective dose level and the lowest toxic dose
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Drug absorption is most rapid when the intramuscular injection is given into the
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deltoid muscle
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The fastest method by which the drug is delivered to the brain is
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inhalation
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The reduced effect of a drug that may result from more rapid metabolism or excretion of the drug is referred to as
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drug disposition tolerance
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The widespread introduction of cocaine into West Europe and the US first occurred
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in the last century
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The scientist who experimented with the ability of cocaine to produce local anethesia
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W.S. Halstead
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Speedball is generally the combination of
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heroin and cocaine
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IN the 1960s, cocaine became popular again because
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amphetamines became harder to obatin
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In South America, a popular way to use cocaine is
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coca paste
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Crack is
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cocaine mixed with baking soda
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Cocaine’s behavior effects are believed to depend on blocking the reuptake of
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dopamine and serotonin
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Animal experiments with rats and monkeys have demonstrated that
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cocaine has powerful reinforcing properties these animals will rapidly learn to press levers to receive cocaine
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A smokeable form of methamphetamine is referred to as
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ice
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the current drug of choice for treating attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is
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methylphenidate
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the most widely-used sedative-hypnotic drug is alcohol
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alcohol
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the nonbarbiturate paraldehyde is not used because
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it has a noxious taste and odor
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Drugs used to induce sleep are called
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hypnotics
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a popular sedative that was introduced in 1960
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chlordiazepoxide
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Antianxiety drugs became very popular in the 1950’s. One extremely popular antianxiety drug was Miltown, generically known as
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meprobamate
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Quaalude and Sopor were brand names for
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methaqualone
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Methaqualone is now listed as a Schedule I drug
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Schedule 1: Methaqualone
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The combined sales of the benzodiazepines make them easily the most widely prescribed drug class
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benzodiazepines
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If one has trouble falling to sleep, one should
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exercise regularly
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The following are abused as inhalants except
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detergents
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The DSM-IV nwo refers to neurosis as
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anxiety disorder
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Bipolar depression is a mood disorder
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characterized by manic-depressive
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General paresis refers to
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a syphilitic infection of the nervous system
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IN 1933 to help schizophrenic patients, Sakel used
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insulin
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Ugo Cerletti introduced electroconvulsive therapy (ECT to treat
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schizophrenia
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Phenothiazines are now referred to as
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Antipsychotics
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Indivdiuals who use antipsychotic drugs may
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exhibit photosensitivity and jaundice
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More than half of hte prescribed antidepressants
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are prescribed by nonpsychiatrists
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Lithium was demonstrated to be effective on
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manic patients
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About 33% of the homeless people in the US have some form of mental illness
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33%
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\”The way to tell whether a man is having drinking problems is to ask…\”
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The BEST answer is \”whether he has tried several times without success to reduce his drinking.\” Having trouble controlling or cutting down on use appears in the textbook definition of drug dependence, page 6, the chapter 1 summary, page 23, and the chapter 1 study guide. No number or type of drinks is a reliable gauge of whether a person is having drinking problems. The absence of numbers of drinks or doses of drugs can also be seen in the criteria used to diagnose substance disorders, page 38.
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The statement that psychoactive (or mood-altering) drugs in any form are bad is erroneous. Drugs are \”good\” or \”bad\” not exactly because of their chemical properties but rather because of their actual effects in users and other people. For example, alcohol helps Mary with her shyness in social settings while it leads Sam to miss an exam because of a hangover. Review the four principles of psychoactive drugs in chapter 1.
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Psychoactive drugs have effects not only on the brain but also on other body organs. For example, smoking tobacco harms the lungs, smoking marijuana increases the heart rate, and drinking alcohol impairs the liver. On page 10 of the text glossary, psychoactive drugs have their principal effect on the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord.
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Although we may think that drug users are \”ignorant\” of risks, they are actually more likely to downplay the risks of drug use. Most people tend to think they drive better than everyone else does, for example. Review the role of \”risk perception\”, which was mentioned in chapter 3 study guide, in human behavior.
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While some people assume that the dependence potential is high for all psychoactive drugs, it is not rated as \”high\” for alcohol, marijuana, or hallucinogens. See text table 2.3 and the chart inside back cover.
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Withdrawal symptoms in a drug quitter are a sign of physical rather than psychological drug dependence. Review pages 37-39.
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Despite years of much effort and expense, the US national drug control policy has been unable to reduce the overall amount of drug abuse significantly.
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When 2 or more psychoactive drugs are consumed together, the most serious risk from their \”interaction\” is on breathing, which can slow down to the point of starving the brain of oxygen. Blood pressure or circulation may also be at risk, but respiration is the function in the most danger. See text page 117.
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Impairment during drinking and driving incidents can decrease over time because of increased tolerance. This statement assumes that persons continue to drink and drive during long periods, which is a reasonable assumption to make. Tolerance is the reduced effectiveness of a drug after repeated use. Think of the person who \”can drink me under the table.\” As drinkers gain more \”tolerance\” to alcohol over time, the negative effects of drinking on their driving can decline. See text page 119
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hol does not distribute much into fatty tissues, as stated in the textbook and the chapter 9 study guide. This physiologic fact helps to explain why people with a \”skinny\” appearance generally become intoxicated slower than people with a \”fatty\” one.
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As explained in the textbook section on blood alcohol concentration and metabolism, a standard drink has ½ ounce of ethanol, and the body eliminates ¼ ounce of ethanol per hour. Therefore, in the words of the text author, \”If you drink faster than one drink every two hours, your BAC will climb.\”
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Overall, the dependence risk from alcohol use is MODERATE, as stated in the textbook inside back cover, the chapter 9 study guide, and elsewhere. It is neither low nor high but moderate.
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When US deaths are classified and ranked according to the contributions of alcohol and other drugs, tobacco causes the most deaths, followed by alcohol, and then all other drugs. Some of the \”all other drugs\” are cocaine, heroin, and tranquilizers. This information is available in the textbook (page 32) and the chapter 9 study guide.
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Alcohol ranks second after tobacco and before drugs in annual deaths – after tobacco and other drugs
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