Database Systems Design, Implementation, and Management 11e – Chapter 1 – Database Systems

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data
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raw facts
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information
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result of processing raw data to reveal its meaning
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knowledge
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body of information and facts about a specific subject
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data management
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discipline that focuses on the proper generation, storage, and retrieval of data
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database
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shared, integrated computer structure that stores a collection of end-user data and metadata; a collection of self-describing data; resembles a very well-organized electronic filing cabinet in which powerful software (the dbms) helps manage the cabinet’s contents
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end-user data
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raw facts of interest to the end user
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metadata
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data about data, through which the end-user data are integrated and managed
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database management system (DBMS)
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a collection of programs that manages the database structure and controls access to the data stored in the database; intermediary between the user and the database
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data inconsistency
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exists when different versions of the same data appear in different places
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query
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a specific request issued to the DBMS for data manipulation; simply put it is a question
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ad hoc query
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is a spur-of-the-moment question
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query result set
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answer to a query sent back by the DBMS to the application
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data quality
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comprehensive approach to promoting the accuracy, validity, and timeliness of the data
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single-user database
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supports only one user at a time
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desktop database
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a single-user database that runs on a personal computer
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multiuser database NoSQL
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supports multiple users at the same time
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workgroup database
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a multiuser database supporting a relatively small number of users (less than 50) or a department within an organization
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enterprise database
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when the database is used by the entire organization and supports many users (more than 50, usually hundreds) across many departments
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centralized database
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database that supports data located as a single site
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distributed database
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database that supports data distributed across several different sites
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cloud database
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database that is created and maintained using cloud data services
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general-purpose databases
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contain a wide variety of data used in multiple disciplines
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discipline-specific databases
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contain data focused on specific subject areas
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database design
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refers to the activities that focus on the design of the database structure that will be used to store and manage end-user data
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data processing (DP) specialist
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hired to create computer-based system that would
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structural dependence
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means that access to a file is dependent on its structure
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structural independence
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exists when you can change the file structure without affecting the application’s ability to access the data
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islands of information
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when the structure supports scattering the data into several location, each location is an island; often causes data to be in several different versions because the locations aren’t updated consistently
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analytical database
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focuses primarily on storing historical data and business metrics used exclusively for tactical or strategic decision making
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business intelligence
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describes a comprehensive approach to capture and process business data with the purpose of generating information to support business decision making
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data anomaly
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develops when not all of the required changes in the redundant data are made successfully
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data dependence
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when change to any of the file’s data storage characteristics change all data access programs
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data independence
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when you can change the data storage characteristics without affecting the program’s ability to access the data
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data dictionary
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used by the dbms to look up the required data component structures and relationship
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data integrity
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the condition in which all of the data in the database are consistent with the real-world events and conditions
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data quality
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a comprehensive approach to promoting the accuracy, validity, and timeliness of the data
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data warehouse
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a specialized database that stores data in a format optimized for decision support; contains historical data obtained from the operational databases as well as data from external sources
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data redundancy
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exists when the same data are stored unnecessarily at different places
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database system
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an organization of components that defines and regulates the collection, storage, management, and use of data in a database environment
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discipline-specific database
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a database that contains data focused on specific subject areas
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Extensible Markup Language (XML)
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A metalanguage used to represent and manipulate data elements. Unlike other markup languages, XML, permits the manipulation of a document’s data elements. XML facilitates the exchange of structured documents such as orders and invoices over the Internet.
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field
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an alphabetic or numeric character or group of characters that defines a characteristic of a person, place, or thing
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file
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a named collection of related records
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logical data format
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the way a person views data
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online analytical processing (OLAP)
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decision support system (DSS) tools that use multidimensional data analysis techniques; creates and advanced data analysis environment that supports decision making, business modeling, and operations research
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online transaction processing (OLTP)
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the systems that support a company’s day-to-day operations. Databases that support this are known as OLTP databases, transactional databases, or operational databases
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online transaction processing (OLTP) database
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supports online transaction processing for day-to-day operations of an organization
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operational database
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a database designed primarily to support a company’s day-to-day operations; also known as a transactional database or production database
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performance tuning
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activities that make a database perform more efficiently in terms of storage and access speed
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physical data format
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the way a computer “sees” (stores) data
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production database
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main database designed to keep track of the day-to-day operations of a company; also known as transactional databases
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query language
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a nonprocedural language that is used by a DBMS to manipulate its data
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semistructured data
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data that have already been processed to some extent
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single-user database
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a database that supports only one user at a time
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social media
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web and mobile technologies that enable “anywhere, anytime, always on” human interaction
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structured data
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unstructured data that have been formatted to facilitate storage, use, and information.
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Structured Query Language (SQL)
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a powerful and flexible relational database language composed of commands that enable users to create database and table structures, perform various types of data manipulation and data administration, and query the database to extract useful information
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unstructured data
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data that exist in their original, raw state; that is, in the format in which they were collected
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XML database
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a database system that stores and manages semistructured XML data

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