CSET Multiple Subject Subtest III Physical Education

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Body Awareness
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Recognition, identification, and differentiation of the location, movement and interrelationship between body parts. Awareness of body in space.
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Space Awareness
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refers to personal and shared space, and the body in relation to dimensions in space
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Movement Exploration
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young children. teacher is in control. teacher questions that require exploratory or creative movement responses
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Proper follow through third grader throwing
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As the trunk rotates, weight is completely shifted to the foot opposit the throwing side of the body
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Target heart rate
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The number 220 minus your age multiplied by 0.70 equals the target heart rate
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Isometric exercises
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Isolate specific muscle groups, produce strength in a short period of time, not comprehensive
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Least impact on physical body type
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Environment
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20th century US moved away from….
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Gymnastics and calisthenics
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Proprioception
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Body awareness
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Exercises for body awareness
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Shape, balance, quality, space, exploring
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Locomotor skills
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Skills used to move the body from one location to another: Jumping, skipping, galloping, sliding.
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Jumping
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Requires the body to leap with both feet and to land with both feet. Arms can be used to create upward momentum
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Skipping
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A series of step-hops completed with alternate feet, teach by taking a step and a small hop on the same foot and then shift
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Galloping
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As the lead foot steps forward, the back foot steps up to meet the lead foot, teach by holding hands in a circle and sliding to a beat
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Sliding
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Lead foot steps to the side, the other foot quickly follows done on the balls of the feet while shifting weight from the lead foot to the trailing foot
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Nonlocomotor skills
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Skills in whic the individual does not have to change location in order to practice an activity. Stretching, twisting, pushing.
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Stretching
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Movement carries body parts away from the body’s center core and moves joints and muscles through a range of movements
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Twisting
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Rotation of a body part around its own long axis
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Pushing
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Controlled, forceful action performed against an oobject, moves the body away from the object while applying force
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Throwing
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Propelling an object into space, flexing the hip and moving the shoulder foward while extending the elbow
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Catching
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Using hands to stop a moving object which requires mature hand-eye coordination, and eventually reduce the size helping perception, and bouncing which teaches angles
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Kicking
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Striking action performed by the feet; punt kicking, place kicking, soccer kicking requiring an extension of the hip
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Striking
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An object is hit with an implement such as a bat, racket, hand involving movement of the body to create the force necessary to increase the speed of the object
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Newton’s law of motion
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The force of the energy in the body causes changes in physical motion
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Newton’s first law
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When an object in in motion, it will remain in motion until it meets and outside force.. Basketball backboard gravity
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Newton’s second law
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Relationship between object’s mass, acceleration, and applied force.. sit in chair try to shoot a hoop, stand and the ball can reach the hoop
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Netwon’s third law
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For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction…bat and ball
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Gravity
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Center of the human body is the center of gravity of the point around which the mass of the body is equally distributed… during movement and exercise the body adjusts to maintain stability
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Friction
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Resistance of motion of two moving objects… ball on grass slower than asphalt
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Daily recommendation of physical activity
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60 minutes
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Clavicle
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Collar bone
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Femur
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Upper leg bone
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Humerus
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Upper arm bone
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Patella
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Knee cap
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Scapula
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Shoulder blade
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Sternum
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Breast bone
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Tibia
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Inner bone of the lower leg
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Ulna and radius
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Lower arm bones
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Biceps
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Top muscles of the upper arm
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Deltoids
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Shoulder muscles
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Gastronomies
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Calf muscles
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Gluteus maximus
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Buttock muscles
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Hamstrings
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Back thigh muscles
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Quadriceps
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Front muscels of the thigh
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Triceps
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Underneath muscles of the upper arm
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Components of physical fitness
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Muscular strength, endurance, flexibility, body composition, cardio-respiratory
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Muscular strength
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Amount of force exerted with muscles
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Isotonic
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Signs of movement (dynamic)
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Endurance
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The ability to sustain physical effort for long periods of time
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Flexibility
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Movement which joints and muscles move through a full range of motion, able to retain full range of movement, prevent injury, improve posture
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Body composition
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The proportion of body fat to lean body mass
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Cardio-Respiratory
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Aerobic, The ability of the heart, blood vessels, and respiratory system to sustain work by delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the body over time
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Aerobic activity should include
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a 20 minute activity at your target heart rate
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Maximum heart rate
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220 – age
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Lower limit threshold
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70% of your MHR
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Upper limit threshold
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85% of your MHR
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Resting heart rate
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Heart rate when standing still
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Heart rate procedure
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Count the beats for ten seconds using index finger and multiply the number of beats by six to equal your heart rate per minute
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FITT
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Frequency, intensity, time, type
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Frequency
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The number of sessions that the activity might take to achieve the desired results
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Intensity
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Provides an indication of how difficult the activity might be
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Time
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The duration of the activity is dependent on the intensity and type of activity
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Type
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Describes the mode of activity
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All physcial edcucation instruction should (5)
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Establish a safe environment, include class management, employ effective teaching behaviors, transfer learning, encourage practice
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Components of Classroom Fitness Activity (5)
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Warm-up, instructional component, physical activity, cool-down, discussion and evaluation
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Peak growth spurt for boys
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13-15 with as much as 3.5 inches per year
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Peak growth spurt for girls
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11-13 with as much as 3 inches per year
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Self-responsibility
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Promoting responsibility for one’s self including self appraisal
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Goal-setting
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Setting and acheiving realistic, personal fitness goals including goals that are progressively more varied at different skill levels
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Social interaction
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Developing social interaction among students inculding communication, cooperation, encouraging and praising others, practicing respectful criticism, and accepting individual difference
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Group interaction
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Fostering social concepts of supportive learning as a group or team; working together to form group decisions, respecting the sport rules, and exhibiting good sportsmanship
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Influences of social developmet appear in (3)
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Team activities, self-responsibility, social intearaction
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Beanbags are a fundamental manipulative tool for what age?
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Early-primary
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Beanbag activities reinforce what kind of abilities at the early-primary level?
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Perceptual-motor abilities
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Which perceptual-motor abilities do bean bag activities advance?
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* Balance * Hand-eye coordination * Laterality * Sensory perceptions * Proper body imaging
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Bean bag activities also promote:
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* Kinesthetic awareness * Sensory functioning in: > vision > hearing > touch
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Why are bean bags conducive to early primary exploration?
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* Easy to manipulate > Flexible > Soft > Greatly reduce fear factor in catching objects
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Describe a bean bag activity for early primary.
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* Throw bean bag over head and clap one’s hands before catching bean bag * Improves: > Hand-eye coordination > Laterality
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An example for early primary combining locomotor and nonlocomotor activities:
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* Balance bean bag on various body parts while body is in motion
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List 2 examples of health-related fitness
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* Cardiovascular fitness * Body composition
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List 2 examples of skill-related fitness
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* Agility * Balance
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Health related fitness helps ensure an individual is able to ______ _____ in daily _____
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function effectively tasks
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The key to developing health-related fitness is:
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physical activity
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5 Elements of health-related fitness:
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* Cardiovascular fitness * Body composition * Flexibility * Muscular strength * Endurance
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Elements of skill-related fitness:
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* Skills supporting a particular sport * Some example skills are: > agility > balance > coordination > power > speed
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Health fitness is directly related to _____ and remediating the _____ aspects of _____
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preventing degenerative disease
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How is aerobic fitness related to overall health fitness?
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* Aerobic fitness of proper duration, intensity & frequency can improve overall health fitness * Improves: > cardiovascular fitness > oxygen intake > strengthens heart > lowers heart rate > reduces blood pressure
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Name some beneficial aerobic activities
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* jogging, cycling, swimming, low-impact aerobic dancing
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Why is jogging, for example, a good aerobic exercise?
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* Continuous activity * Can reach and maintain target heart rate
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How often should aerobic activity be performed in order to achieve health fitness?
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* At least 3 times/week * 30 minutes or more each time
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Aerobic exercise also improves ____, endurance, and decreases body ____.
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strength fat
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What is the difference between skill-based warm-up activities and exercise activities?
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* Skill-based warm-up activities > Simulate game-like conditions during warm-up * Exercise warm-up activities > stretch specific muscle groups
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Expand on the purpose of skill-based warm-up activities
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* Improve skills * Demonstrate knowledge of game-like situations * Develop cooperative teamwork * Improve personal skills
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Drills during skill-based warm-up could reinforce:
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* Basic mechanics used in soccer > shooting, kicking, passing, trapping * Team concepts, cooperation
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Name 3 skill-based warm-up activities:
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1. One-on-one shooting at goalie drills 2. Two-on-two parallel-passing drills 3. Heading-the-ball drills with a partner
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Describe: one-on-one shooting at goalie drills
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* Player dribbles ball toward goal and attempts to score against goalie * Reinforces: > dribbling w/instep & outside foot > body control > shooting off the dribble
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Describe: two-on-two parallel-passing drills
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* Two players run forward, next to each other, in a parallel path, passing the ball between them * Reinforces: > passing off the dribble > receiving & trapping skills
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Describe: Heading-the-ball drills
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* Players practice heading the ball at each other * Reinforces: > directional accuracy > heading & passing skills
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Correct pull-up technique:
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* Palms facing away from the body * Swaying motion avoided * Inward facing hand/sway aid exercise providing inaccurate measure of strength or endurance
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Correct sit-up technique for upper primary (4th +):
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* Hands placed on opposite shoulders * Elbows in contact with chest * Knees flexed, feet on floor
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Injuries/strains associated with incorrect sit-up technique:
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* Hooking feet under an object > can put stress on back > potential lower back complications * Straight leg sit-ups: > Can cause strain of hip flexor muscle > Can place undue strain on lumbar vertebrae * Locking hands behind head or neck: > hyperflexion of neck and/or damage to disk
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Correct stretching technique:
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* Slow application of stretch to a muscle * Hold stretch for minimum 25-30 seconds * Avoid bouncing > increase muscle soreness > can injure or strain muscles and joints
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Identify 3 reasons an overweight, withdrawn, female middle school student would repeatedly fail to dress for PE.
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1. Fear of embarrassment 2. Ridicule by one’s peers 3. Potentially serious emotional and/or self-esteem issues
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Characteristics of middle school child:
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* Often going thru rapid physical changes associated with hormones & growth spurts > Can result in clumsiness & self-consciousness
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Overweight children often suffer:
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* Ridicule * Taunting * Bullying
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What underlying factors are associated with being overweight?
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* Poor nutrition * Stress * Emotional issues
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What strategies might a teacher use to effect a positive change in the girl’s attitude?
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* Conference with student to determine cause of problem * Suggest weight-loss program * Show student how PE can promote healthy lifestyle choices
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A withdrawn and overweight student is at risk in what way?
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Both physically and mentally
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Identify 2 ways a child with mild cerebral palsy can be included in a line dance activity.
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* Design a dance program based on the student’s abilities & limits * Modify the line dance to include his/her disabilities
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Mild cerebral palsy implies what limitations?
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Limited movement and coordination skills
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What modifications would accommodate a student with mild cerebral palsy?
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* Change length of activity * Provide alternative dance steps
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A student with mild cerebral palsy can more easily handle which step substitutions?
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* Side-to-side step instead of cross-over step > Step-together movements are likely more easily accomplished * Jump in place instead of step-back & turn
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How should this student be graded without diminishing their self-esteem?
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* Assessment tools should recognize the (all?) students’ effort > performing agreed upon tasks > completing the social behaviors expected of the group > cooperation in class activities > on-task behavior
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Agreed upon tasks refers to:
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* Modifications and accommodations discussed and agreed upon * Student should understand they are responsible for performance at this agreed upon level

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