criminology chapter 9

Flashcard maker : Claire Forth
developmental criminology
a more global vision of a criminal career, encompassing its onset, continuation, and termination
A view of criminal behavior that places emphasis on the changes people go through over the life course. It presents a criminal career as a dynamic process involving onset, continuity, persistence, acceleration, and eventual desistance from criminal behavior, controlled by individual level traits and conditions.
developmental theories
theories which are models of crime causation that weave social and individual variables into a complex explanatory chain
eleanor and sheldon Glueck
founders of the developmental field of criminology \”the deeper the roots of childhood maladjustment, the smaller the chance of adult adjustment
core ideas of developmental theory
Crime is a function of environmental, socialization, physical, and psychological factors. Each makes an independent contribution to shaping and directing behavior patterns. Deficits in these areas of human development increase the risk of crime. People at risk for crime can resist antisocial behaviors if these traits and conditions can be strengthened.
criticisms of developmental theory
sociologist Edwin sutherland
wanted to keep criminology in the field of sociology and feared or disparaged efforts to integrate biological or psychological concepts into the field.
modern outgrowths
developmental theory, life course theory, propensity/latent trait theory, trajectory theory
life course theories
see criminality as a dynamic process, influenced by a multitude of individual characteristics, traits, and social experiences.
life course theories interconnect
personal factors
social factors
socialization factors
cognitive factors
situational factors
pathways through the life span-patterns or transitions over time
turning points of crime
positive life experiences such as gaining employment, getting married, or joining the military that create informal social control that alter the development of a criminal career.
problem behavior syndrome
a cluster of antisocial behaviors that may inlcude family dysfunction, substance abuse, smoking, precosious sexuality, and early pregnancy. Educational acheivement, suicide attempts, sensation seeking, and unemployment as well as crime. Crime is just on type of social problem not the product of other social problems.
human agency
the purposeful execution of choice and free will that can help people desist from crime.
persistance or desistance
what may help a person resist a life of crime while they are still in their teens, may have little impact once they reach their twenties.
persistance factor
age of onset
the younger they start the more strong a predictor if they continue- starting early in delinquent behavior creates a downward spiral in a young person’s life. The causes of early onset include: poor parental discipline and monitoring, inadequate emotional support, distant peeer relationships, psychological issues and problems.
cumulative disadvantage
negative things can happen and have different weights attached to them. some more than others. Problems can compound exponentially
social capital
positive relations with individuals and institutions that are life sustaining
principle life course theories
social development model
interactional theory
Life course theory
social development model
community level risk factors
risk factors either reinforced or neutralized
a child must maintain prosocial bonds
prosocial or antisocial behavior determines quality of attachments
prosocial path inhibits deviance
without bonding deviance occurs
liffe course theory
interaction theory
focus on weak bonds
weak bonds lead to deviant friends
changes as person matures
crime is bidirectional
Propensity/ latent trait theories
David Rowe and Wayne osgood and alan nicewander
proposed a concept of latent trait. This model assumes that a number of people in the population have a personal attribute or characteristic that controls their inclination or propensity to commit crime
an inclination or tendency to behave in a particular way
latent trait
a stable feature, characteristic, property, or condition, present at birth or soon after, that makes some people crime prone over the life course.
Latent trait theory
cognitive antisocial potential theory
david farrington
latent trait: antisocial potential
The commission of offenses or other antisocial acts depends on interaction between the individual and their immediate AP and the social environment
Latent trait theory
coercion theory
Mark colvin
Perceptions of coercion begins early in life when children experience punitive forms of discipline
destructive family interchanges ingrains coercion and guides reactions to adverse situations that arise in family and nonfamily settings
Latnt trait theory
control balance theory
Charles tittle
conformity results with the amount of control one is subjected to by others and the amount of control one can exercise over others is in balance.
Most prominent latent trait theory
Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime
propensity to commit crime linked to two latent traits
impulsive personality
lack of self control
Trajectory theory
There is more than one path to crime and more than one class of offender and there are different trajectories in a criminal career. Because people are different, no single model can hope to describe every person’s journey through life
3 paths to a criminal career
authority conflict pathway
the covert pathway
overt pathway
terri moffitt
Adolescent limited offenders vs life course persisters
adolescent limited offenders
offender who follows the most
common criminal trajectory, in which antisocial behavior peaks in adolescence and then diminishes
terri moffitt
Adolescent limited offenders vs life course persisters
life course persisters
one of the small groups of offenders whose criminal career
continues well into adulthood.

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