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Crim Exam 4 Nittany Notes

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major social structure principle, social
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Social groups (poor/wealthy), social institutions (schools), the arrangements of society (rich people run things), and social roles all provide the proper focus for criminological study according to the ________ _______ ______ _______ of ______.
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major social structure principle, groups
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Group dynamics, group organization, and subgroup relationships form the causal nexus out of which crime develops according to a _______ _______ ______ _______ of _____.
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major social structure principle, structure
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The structure of society and its relative degree of organization or disorganization are important factors contributing to criminal behavior according to a _______ _______ ______ _______ of _____.
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major social structure principle, behavior
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Specific behavior of a given individual cannot be predicted, but statistical estimates of group characteristics and of the probability that a member of a given group will engage in a specific type of crime are possible according to a _______ _______ ______ _______ of _____.
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ecological fallacy
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taking group level data and trying to predict what an individual would do
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social structure
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according to a major _____ _____ principle, differences in groups cause crime.
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poverty/social disorganization, alienation/personal frustration, deviant subcultures, differential opportunities
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according to social structure theories, list the factors that may lead to crime.
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directly
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according to social structure theories, crime and poverty are _______ linked.
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social disorganization theory
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what social structure theory is closely associated to the ecological school and says that community as a functional whole determines the quality of life for its members?
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central business district
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in this concentric zone, there is low level street crime
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transitional zone
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this concentric zone consists of recent immigrant groups, factories, deteriorated houses, and abandoned buildings
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transitional zone
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this concentric zone is where most crime occurs
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working-class zone
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this concentric zone consists of single family tenements
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residential zone
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this concentric zone consists of single family homes with individual yards and garages
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commuter zone
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this concentric zone consists of suburbs
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anomie
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merton suggested that this involved the disjunction between egitimate goals, which everyone desires, and socially approved means to success which are not equally available to all of society…. this led to the creation of the strain theory
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money, education, family
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according to the strain theory, everyone’s primary goal is _____, ______ and a ______.
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conformity
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according to merton’s deviance typology, this is the most common mode of adaptation
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conformity, innovation, rebellion, ritualism, retreatism
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list the five modes of adaptation according to merton’s deviance typology
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conformity
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one of merton’s deviance typology’s modes of adaptation that most middle- and upper-class people accept legitimate goals and have access to approved means.
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innovation
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one of merton’s deviance typology’s modes of adaptation that results when acceptance of legitimate goals is combined with a lack of access to approved means.
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innovation
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according to merton’s deviance typology, this is the mode of adaptation that is most associated with crime
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ritualism
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one of merton’s deviance typology’s modes of adaptation that results when people participate in socially desirable means but lack interest in achieving goals.
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rebellion
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one of merton’s deviance typology’s modes of adaptation that consists of people who wish to replace socially approved goals and means with an alternative system, make their own norms
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rebellion
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political radicals and revolutionaries would be considered to use this mode of adaptation according to merton’s deviance typology
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retreatism
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one of merton’s deviance typology’s modes of adaptation that results in rejecting the norms and they are rejecting the institutionalized root as well
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retreatism
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according to merton’s deviance typology, this is the least common mode of adaptation
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rebellion
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the opposite of conformity is _____.
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strain
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________ refers to events and conditions disliked by individuals and includes three types of _____ in which individuals may (a) lose something they value, (b) be treated in an aversive or negative manner by others, and (c) be unable to achieve their goals.
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culture conflict theory
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a theory that suggests that the root cause of crime can be found in a clash of norms between different social groups is explained by this theory
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subcultural theory
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the idea that smaller groups within a more dominant group hold different values than the rest of society resulting in crime
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walter miller
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person who outlined the key values of delinquent subcultures
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fate, autonomy, toughness, smartness, excitement, trouble
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list Walter miller’s focal concerns
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general strain theory
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this theory suggests that delinquent behavior is a coping measure that helps those who engage in it to deal with the socioemotional problems generated by negative social relations
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robert agnew
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who created the general strain theory?
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merton
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who created the strain theory?
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strains
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______ increase the likelihood of particular crimes primarily through their impact on a range of negative emotional states.
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strains, strains
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Crime can be reduced by reducing individuals’ exposure to _____ conducive to crime and by reducing individuals’ likelihood of responding to _______ with crime .
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general strain theory, traditional strain theory
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__________ _______ _____ expands on the _______ ______ _______ by saying that strain leads to crime.
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true
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true or false: The general strain theory maintains the idea of the traditional strain theory that strain may have a cumulative effect on delinquency after reaching a certain threshold.
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false (more)
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true or false: The general strain theory provides a less comprehensive account of the various adaptations to strain.
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general strain theory, traditional strain theory
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The _______ ________ ____ significantly widens the focus of the ______ ______ _____ to include all types of negative relations between an individual and others.
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Cloward and Ohlin
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who created the differential opportunity theory?
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differential opportunity theory
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similar to strain theory; idea that the gap between the goals and means of achieving those goals lead factors that lead to subcultures
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criminal subculture
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one type of Cloward and Ohlin’s delinquent subcultures where criminal role models are readily available for adoption by those being socialized into the subculture
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conflict subculture
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one type of Cloward and Ohlin’s delinquent subcultures in which participants seek status through violence
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retreatist subculture
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one type of Cloward and Ohlin’s delinquent subcultures where drug use and withdrawal from the wider society predominate
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males
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In lower-class culture, ______ tend to play an important role in the community.
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sykes and matza
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these two men suggested the techniques of neutralization that offenders use to justify their behavior
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denying responsibility, denying the victim, denying the injury, condemning the condemners, appealing to higher loyalties (subcultures)
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list sykes and matza’s five techniques of neutralization
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the code of the streets
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the major aspect of some African-American neighborhood’s subculture is that the amount of respect that a man commands from others (you get from others) determines the amount of manhood that you are recognized to have… this is called what?
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gentrification
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this is a process of redevelopment where richer people start moving into poorer areas to make it nicer
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gentrification
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________________ may have a backfiring effect because of things like rent control, and differences in salaries for the same exact job in two different locations.
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interactionist perspective
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theories depend on the process of interaction between individuals and society for their explanatory power
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differential association theory
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who people associate with (individuals) dictate whether or not they will commit crime
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edwin sutherland
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who created the differential association theory?
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communication
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Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others through the process of ______________.
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intimate groups
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Learning of criminal behavior occurs in ________ _______, usually your peers.
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excess definitions, unfavorable
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according to sutherland’s differential association theory, a person becomes delinquent because of _______ _____________ of law being ________: peers say \”don’t worry about drug laws, they don’t matter\”.
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sutherland, differential association theory
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according to __________’s ___________ ____________ ______, a person becomes delinquent because of excess definitions of law being unfavorable: peers say \”don’t worry about drug laws, they don’t matter\”.
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differential identification
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it suggests that those who engage in crime, have intimate interactions with people who commit crime; nonetheless, someone will engage in crime if we have a strong connection or relationship to potential criminals
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differential association + operant conditioning
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___________ + _______________ = differential association reinforcement
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differential association reinforcement + modeling/imitating
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___________ + _______________ = social learning theory
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differential association theory, social learning theory
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______ ________ _____ –> differential association reinforcement theory -> ________ ________ _____
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formal and informal sanctions
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according to social control theories, what two things stop people from committing crime?
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informal sanctions
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Negative reactions from people for doing something that is socially unacceptable due to social norms.
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formal sanctions
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laws cause people to resist engaging in criminal behavior. They are called what?
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rehabilitation, changed
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Focus on juvenile system is ________; the goal is to say that these are people that can be _______.
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social process
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Crime Prevention programs to enhance self control/build social bonds (ie: big brother, big sister) is a policy implication of _________ ________ theories.
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social development perspective
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an integrated view of human development and place a greater emphasis on changes in offending over time
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life-course perspective
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According to the social development theory, this perspective suggests that keeping people in jail for life isn’t working and it is too expensive since criminal behavior follows a distinct course throughout the course of life.
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dependent variable
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According to laub and sampson’s age-graded theory, adult criminal behavior is the _____________ _________.
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frontal, impulse
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According to the psychological perspective of the social development theory, the _______ lobe development handles _______ control.
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puberty, puberty, spike
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social development theory also notes that biologically, until _______ girls and boys have same testosterone levels. With______, there is a ______ in testosterone levels and crime.
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family/interpersonal, stronger
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_________/____________ relationships become more important as you get older; therefore, ties to society become ________.
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marriage and employment
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according to laub and sampson’s age-graded theory, ________ and ________ in adult life make people less likely to engage in crime.
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life-course persistent offenders and adolescence-limited offenders
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according to moffitt’s dual taxonomic theory there are two types of people who commit crime. these are ________ and _______.
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life-course persistent offender
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commit crime whole life starting at young age, antisocial conduct in childhood, serious delinquency in adolescence, continued crime in adulthood
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adolescence-limited offender
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according to moffitt’s dual taxonomic theory, this is one of the types of people who commit crime. what Moffitt found is that this type of offender goes through limited periods where they exhibit high probabilities of offending, peaks during ages 14-16 where young-adults commit a lot of petty crimes (typically highest during the mid-teen years of ages 15-20) engage in illegal drug use and shop lifting and then it goes down again
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thornberry’s interracial theory
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according to this theory, kids commit crimes because of weakened bond to conventional society, environment where behavior can be learned (rule-violating behavior rewarded)