cr th – Flashcard

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behavior theory
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differs from other psychological theories in that the major determinants of behavior r thought 2 b grounded in surrounding environment rather than in the individuals
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modeling theory by albert bandura
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developed comprehensive modeling theory of aggression. people learn 2 act aggressively by observing others, either in person/media people may also become aggressive cuz they r rewarded 4 such behavior
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attachment theory by john Bowlby in 1950s
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healthy personality development requires that infants & young children have a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship w/mother or permanent mother sub test of attachment theory seem 2 confirm difficulties in early childhood produce adult criminality
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children raised in insecure environments r likely
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2 engage in violent behavior as adults
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childhood insecurity leads to relative lack of empathy, which may b
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most important factor in whether or not person conforms
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social groups, social institiutions, arrangement of society, and
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social roles r the focus of study on crime causation
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group dynamics, group organization, and subgroup relationships
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form causal nexus from which crime developes
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societys structure & its relative degree of organization/disorganization r
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important factors contribution 2 prevalence of criminal behavior
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specific behavior of a given individual cannot b predicted, butt statistical estimates of group characteristics &
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of probability that member of given group will enagage in specific type if crime r possible
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instituioal arragements w/in social structure & social processes,
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as they affect socialization, have an impact on social life
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seeks 2 identify those types of behavior likely 2 b exhibited by group members that r linked 2 structural & socialization
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processes which can become predictable characteristics of future crime participation (macro focus)
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explanations 4 crime under social structure persepective
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crime is result of person’s location w/in structure of society (social structure theory) crime is end product of various social processes (social processs theory) crime is product of class struggle (conflict theory)
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social structure theories explain crime as the result of the institutional structure of society
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the various formal & informal arrangemnets between social groups r seen as root causes of crime & deviance these theories suggest society’s contribution 2 low socioeconomic status is a significant cause of crime
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members of socially 7 economicallt disadvangtaged groups r considered more
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likely to commit crime
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factors conductive 2 crime (poverty, lack of education, subculutural values)
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seen as predcitaed on social conditions that influence early life experiences
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underlying theme of social strucuture theories is concept of social & economic deprivastion as
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motivating factor 4 criminal behavior, in contrast 2 motivations derived from individual triats
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social structural perspective sees crime as primarily a lower-class phenomenon
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while criminaliy of middle & upper classes is frequently considered 2 b less serious, less frequent, & less dangerous
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3 primary social structure theories r
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social disorganization, strain, & culture conflcit
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associated w/ecological school of criminology or often
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referred 2 as Chicago school of criminology
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park & burgess developed field of
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social ecology/ecological school of criminology in 1920s & 1930s
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their work linked the structure & organization of community
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2 interactions w/in its environment
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they viewed cities in terms of concentric zones,
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each which had unique characteristics
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zone 1
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city center, housing retail businesses & light maufacturing
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zone 2
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area surrounding the city center that housed recent immigrant groups, contained deteriorating housing, abandonded buildings and factories, and was seen as being in trasition from residential 2 business purposes
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zone 3
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contained mostly working-class tenements
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zone 4
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occupie by middle-class citizens living in single-family homes
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zone 5
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commuter zone, consisting mainly of suburbs
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shaw & mcmkay applied the concentric zone model 2 study of
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juvenile delinquency
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they found rates of offending remained constant over time w/in zones of transition despite
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high rates of immigration & movement from inner cities 2 suburds
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they also developed the concept of culutural transmission
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traditions of delinquency r transmittied through scuessive generations in same zone
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W.I Thomas & florian znaniecki
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found crime rates rose among displaced persons suggested cause was social disorganization resulting from ones inability 2 successfully transplant norms & values from home culutres to new environemt
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Chicago school demonstrated tendency 4 crime 2 b associated w/urban transition zones
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charac terized by lower propert values, marginalized individuals, & general lack of privacy
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most important contribution of ecological school 2
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criminology its claim that community has major influence on human behavior
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environmental criminology
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emphazies importance of genographic location & architectural features as they r associated w/prevalence of vicitimization “hot spots” of crime
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broken windows thesis (Wilson & kelling)
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physical deterioration & unrepaired buildings lead 2 increased concerns 4 safety among area residents led 2 increase in “order maintencance policing” & crackdown on quilaity-of-life offsenses
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defensible space
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range of mechanisms that combine 2 bring environment under control of residents architectural changes enhance barriers, define boundaries, remove criminal opportunity can reduce risk of crime
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location can b as predictive of crime as lifestyles of victimized individuals/social features of
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victimized households places can b criminogenic
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strain
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pressure that individuals feel 2 reach socially determined goals
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strain view delinquency as
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adaptive behavior committed in response 2 problems caused by frustrating & undesirable social environments
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classic strain theory was…
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…….
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merton developed concept of anomie
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disjunction between socially approved means 2 success & legit goals which aren’t equally available 2 all memebers of society
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crime results from attempts 2 achieve legit goals
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through illegitmate means
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social condtion in which norms r unclear/
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lacking
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messner & rosenfeld’s research blamed crime
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on inconsistencies in American ream
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they developed contemporary version of mertons th
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based on concept of: relative deprivation: economic & social gap that exists between rich & poor who live in close proximity
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Robert agnew reformulated strain th into comprehensiice perspective referred 2 as
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general strain th
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general strain theory view crime as coping mechanism
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enabling hose who enagage in it 2 deal w/socio-emotional probs generated by negative social relations
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strain refers 2 events & conditons that r
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disliked by individuals
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strains increase likelihood of particular
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crimes primarily through their impact on range of negative emotional states
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crime can b reduced by reducing individuals exposure 2 strains
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that r conductive 2 crime & reducing their likelihood of responding 2 strains w/crime
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suggests crime results from clash of values between differently socialized groups over
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whats acceptable/proper behavior
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Thorsten sellin concluded that conduct
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norms r acquired early in life through childhood socialization
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Sellin saw clash of norms
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…..between differently /
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sellin described 2 types of culture conflict
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primary conflict:occurs when theres fundamental clash of culutres secoundary conflict: orccurs when smaller culutres w/in primary culture clash
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subcultural th empahzies
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contribution 2 crime made by variously socialized cultural groups w/in primary culture
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subcultural defined as collection of values & preferences that r communicated
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2 participants through process of socialization
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these subcultural groups ascribe key values which encourage
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delinquent behavior
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walter b millers research pointed 2 existence of lower-class sub-culture w/own values,
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behaviors, & attitudes cuz milers work was based on study of back inner-city deliquents in boston it may not generalize well 2 other places, groups/time periods
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ferracuti & wolfgnag posed:
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violence is learned form of adaptation 2 problematic life circumstances learning 2 b violent takes place w/in context of subculture emohasizing violence over other forms of adaptation groupds value system constitiuies subculture of violence

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