cr th – Flashcard

behavior theory
differs from other psychological theories in that the major determinants of behavior r thought 2 b grounded in surrounding environment rather than in the individuals
modeling theory by albert bandura
developed comprehensive modeling theory of aggression.

people learn 2 act aggressively by observing others, either in person/media

people may also become aggressive cuz they r rewarded 4 such behavior

attachment theory by john Bowlby in 1950s
healthy personality development requires that infants & young children have a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship w/mother or permanent mother sub

test of attachment theory seem 2 confirm difficulties in early childhood produce adult criminality

children raised in insecure environments r likely
2 engage in violent behavior as adults
childhood insecurity leads to relative lack of empathy, which may b
most important factor in whether or not person conforms
social groups, social institiutions, arrangement of society, and
social roles r the focus of study on crime causation
group dynamics, group organization, and subgroup relationships
form causal nexus from which crime developes
societys structure & its relative degree of organization/disorganization r
important factors contribution 2 prevalence of criminal behavior
specific behavior of a given individual cannot b predicted, butt statistical estimates of group characteristics &
of probability that member of given group will enagage in specific type if crime r possible
instituioal arragements w/in social structure & social processes,
as they affect socialization, have an impact on social life
seeks 2 identify those types of behavior likely 2 b exhibited by group members that r linked 2 structural & socialization
processes which can become predictable characteristics of future crime participation (macro focus)
explanations 4 crime under social structure persepective
crime is result of person’s location w/in structure of society (social structure theory)

crime is end product of various social processes (social processs theory)

crime is product of class struggle (conflict theory)

social structure theories explain crime as the result of the institutional structure of society
the various formal & informal arrangemnets between social groups r seen as root causes of crime & deviance

these theories suggest society’s contribution 2 low socioeconomic status is a significant cause of crime

members of socially 7 economicallt disadvangtaged groups r considered more
likely to commit crime
factors conductive 2 crime (poverty, lack of education, subculutural values)
seen as predcitaed on social conditions that influence early life experiences
underlying theme of social strucuture theories is concept of social & economic deprivastion as
motivating factor 4 criminal behavior, in contrast 2 motivations derived from individual triats
social structural perspective sees crime as primarily a lower-class phenomenon
while criminaliy of middle & upper classes is frequently considered 2 b less serious, less frequent, & less dangerous
3 primary social structure theories r
social disorganization, strain, & culture conflcit
associated w/ecological school of criminology or often
referred 2 as Chicago school of criminology
park & burgess developed field of
social ecology/ecological school of criminology in 1920s & 1930s
their work linked the structure & organization of community
2 interactions w/in its environment
they viewed cities in terms of concentric zones,
each which had unique characteristics
zone 1
city center, housing retail businesses & light maufacturing
zone 2
area surrounding the city center that housed recent immigrant groups, contained deteriorating housing, abandonded buildings and factories, and was seen as being in trasition from residential 2 business purposes
zone 3
contained mostly working-class tenements
zone 4
occupie by middle-class citizens living in single-family homes
zone 5
commuter zone, consisting mainly of suburbs
shaw & mcmkay applied the concentric zone model 2 study of
juvenile delinquency
they found rates of offending remained constant over time w/in zones of transition despite
high rates of immigration & movement from inner cities 2 suburds
they also developed the concept of culutural transmission
traditions of delinquency r transmittied through scuessive generations in same zone
W.I Thomas & florian znaniecki
found crime rates rose among displaced persons

suggested cause was social disorganization resulting from ones inability 2 successfully transplant norms & values from home culutres to new environemt

Chicago school demonstrated tendency 4 crime 2 b associated w/urban transition zones
charac terized by lower propert values, marginalized individuals, & general lack of privacy
most important contribution of ecological school 2
criminology its claim that community has major influence on human behavior
environmental criminology
emphazies importance of genographic location & architectural features as they r associated w/prevalence of vicitimization

“hot spots” of crime

broken windows thesis (Wilson & kelling)
physical deterioration & unrepaired buildings lead 2 increased concerns 4 safety among area residents

led 2 increase in “order maintencance policing” & crackdown on quilaity-of-life offsenses

defensible space
range of mechanisms that combine 2 bring environment under control of residents

architectural changes enhance barriers, define boundaries, remove criminal opportunity can reduce risk of crime

location can b as predictive of crime as lifestyles of victimized individuals/social features of
victimized households

places can b criminogenic

strain
pressure that individuals feel 2 reach socially determined goals
strain view delinquency as
adaptive behavior committed in response 2 problems caused by frustrating & undesirable social environments
classic strain theory was…
…….
merton developed concept of anomie
disjunction between socially approved means 2 success & legit goals which aren’t equally available 2 all memebers of society
crime results from attempts 2 achieve legit goals
through illegitmate means
social condtion in which norms r unclear/
lacking
messner & rosenfeld’s research blamed crime
on inconsistencies in American ream
they developed contemporary version of mertons th
based on concept of: relative deprivation: economic & social gap that exists between rich & poor who live in close proximity
Robert agnew reformulated strain th into comprehensiice perspective referred 2 as
general strain th
general strain theory view crime as coping mechanism
enabling hose who enagage in it 2 deal w/socio-emotional probs generated by negative social relations
strain refers 2 events & conditons that r
disliked by individuals
strains increase likelihood of particular
crimes primarily through their impact on range of negative emotional states
crime can b reduced by reducing individuals exposure 2 strains
that r conductive 2 crime & reducing their likelihood of responding 2 strains w/crime
suggests crime results from clash of values between differently socialized groups over
whats acceptable/proper behavior
Thorsten sellin concluded that conduct
norms r acquired early in life through childhood socialization
Sellin saw clash of norms
…..between differently /
sellin described 2 types of culture conflict
primary conflict:occurs when theres fundamental clash of culutres

secoundary conflict: orccurs when smaller culutres w/in primary culture clash

subcultural th empahzies
contribution 2 crime made by variously socialized cultural groups w/in primary culture
subcultural defined as collection of values & preferences that r communicated
2 participants through process of socialization
these subcultural groups ascribe key values which encourage
delinquent behavior
walter b millers research pointed 2 existence of lower-class sub-culture w/own values,
behaviors, & attitudes

cuz milers work was based on study of back inner-city deliquents in boston it may not generalize well 2 other places, groups/time periods

ferracuti & wolfgnag posed:
violence is learned form of adaptation 2 problematic life circumstances

learning 2 b violent takes place w/in context of subculture emohasizing violence over other forms of adaptation

groupds value system constitiuies subculture of violence

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