COM115 FINAL EXAM REVIEW {Chapter 9 & 10}

question

Teachers dislike when students start a speech by saying what THREE things?
answer

“OK, ah . . .”, “Hello, my speech is on . . .”, apologizing for being unprepared
question

Teachers dislike when students end a speech by say what THREE things?
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“In conclusion . . .”, “Thank you . . .”, “Are there any questions?”
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What are the FIVE main functions of an introduction?
answer

attention getter, give the audience a reason to listen, introduce the subject, establish your credibility, preview your main ideas
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A ____________________ is a question asked in order to create a dramatic effect or to make a point than to get an answer.
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rhetorical question
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What are the TWO purposes of a conclusion?
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summarize the speech, provide closure
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A speaker can provide closure to their speech by using ____________________ cues and ____________________ cues.
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verbal, nonverbal
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____________________ cues include the following: – “In conclusion . . .” – “Finally . . .” verbal nonverbal
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verbal
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____________________ cues include the following: – talking slower – moving in front of the podium – falling vocal inflection verbal nonverbal
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nonverbal
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These strategies are effective in a ____________________ : – illustrations – quotations – personal references – inspirational challenges
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conclusion
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____________________ style is more personal, less formal and more repetitive. oral written
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oral
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____________________ style is less repetitive, more formal, and less personal oral written
answer

written
question

Oral style is more ____________________ so that the audience can connect to the topic.
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personal
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Oral style is less ____________________ because the audience may get bored if the speech is too proper.
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formal
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Oral style is more ____________________ so that the audience is able to grasp the main points of the speech.
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repetitive
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Speakers can make their words more effective by using ____________________.
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gestures
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A ____________________ is the meaning a listener associates with a word based on their past experiences.
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connotation
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A ____________________ is the literal meaning of a word.
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denotation
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A ____________________ can be personal and could trigger past experiences.
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connotation
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When adapt your language style during a speech, it is important that you are ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.
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understandable, appropriate, unbiased
question

____________________ is the term used to a variety of english that includes words and phrases used by a septic ethnic group. ethnic vernacular regionalism jargon
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ethnic vernacular
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An example of ____________________ would be “Spanglish”. ethnic vernacular regionalism jargon
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ethnic vernacular
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____________________ is the term used for words or phrases used uniquely by speakers in one part of a country. ethnic vernacular regionalism jargon
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regionalism
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An example of ____________________ would be backpack vs. book bag, or wash vs. warsh. ethnic vernacular regionalism jargon
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regionalism
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____________________ is the term used for a specialized language of a profession. ethnic vernacular regionalism jargon
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jargon
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In music, an example of ____________________ would be flat, sharp, sforzando, etc. ethnic vernacular regionalism jargon
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jargon
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____________________ language is language that does not harm nor stereotype difference of race, age, sex, etc.
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unbiased
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Speakers can create memorable word structures by using ____________________.
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figures of speech
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A ____________________ makes an implied comparison. metaphor simile personification
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metaphor
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An example of a ____________________: She is a bear. metaphor simile personification
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metaphor
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A ____________________ compares by using the words “like” or “as”. metaphor simile personification
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simile
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An example of a ____________________: She is like a bear. metaphor simile personification
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simile
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____________________ attributes human qualities to inanimate things or ideas. metaphor simile personification
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personification
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An example of ____________________: The grass dances in the wind. metaphor simile personification
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personification
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A speaker can create drama in a speech by using ____________________, ____________________, ____________________, and ____________________.
answer

short sentences, omission, inversion, suspension
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____________________ emphasizes an important idea by stating it in a few well-chosen words. short sentences omission inversion suspension
answer

short sentences
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____________________ is the process of boiling down an idea to its essence by leaving out understood words. short sentences omission inversion suspension
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omission
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____________________ reverses the expected order of words and phrases. short sentences omission inversion suspension
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inversion
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____________________ places the key word at the end of a phrase or sentence. short sentences omission inversion suspension
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suspension
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An example of ____________________: And the war came. short sentences omission inversion suspension
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short sentences
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An example of ____________________: I came, I saw, I conquered. short sentences omission inversion suspension
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omission
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An example of ____________________: This much we pledge . . . short sentences omission inversion suspension
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inversion
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An example of ____________________: (keyword: Coke) Everything goes better with… Coke. short sentences omission inversion suspension
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suspension
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____________________ is the rhythm of a language.
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cadence
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____________________ is the form of repeating key words or phrases several times for emphasis. repetition parallelsim antithesis alliteration
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repetition
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____________________ is the form of using the same grammatical pattern. repetition parallelism antithesis alliteration
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parallelism
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____________________ is the form of using parallel structure with opposing meanings in two parts of a sentence. repetition parallelsim antithesis alliteration
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antithesis
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____________________ is the form of using the same consonant sound twice or more in a phrase. repetition parallelsim antithesis alliteration
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alliteration
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An example of ____________________: MLK’s I have a Dream speech (“I have a dream . . .” x5) repetition parallelsim antithesis alliteration
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repetition
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An example of ____________________: We are loved. We are happy. We are kind. repetition parallelsim antithesis alliteration
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parallelsim
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An example of ____________________: Don’t think about what you want from life, think about what life wants from you. repetition parallelsim antithesis alliteration
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antithesis
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An example of ____________________: Sally sold sea shells by the sea shore. repetition parallelsim antithesis alliteration
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alliteration
question

In order to create an effective speech introduction, a speaker must remember the importance of ______, the degree to which the information affects your listeners directly. a. primacy b. recency c. proximity d. complexity
answer

c
question

At the end of her speech on fracking, Roxanne urged her audience to call and write their state representatives to express their opposition to fracking in their state. Roxanne is attempting to provide closure by ______. a. restating the main ideas b. reemphasizing the central idea c. motivating her audience to respond d. using nonverbal cues
answer

c
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Previewing your main ideas in your introduction improves your speech by helping to ______. a. grab the audience’s attention b. enhance your charisma c. establish your credibility d. organize the message
answer

d
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Effective conclusions may employ illustrations, quotations, personal references, or any of the other methods suggested for creating an effective introduction. True False
answer

true
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In order to summarize your speech in your conclusion, you should reemphasize the central idea in a memorable way and ______. a. motivate the audience to respond b. use verbal and nonverbal cues to signal the end of the speech c. restate the main ideas d. state your general purpose
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c
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An effective conclusion will serve two purposes: It will summarize the speech and ______. a. entertain your audience b. emphasize your general purpose c. introduce your main ideas d. provide closure
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d
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When beginning his speech on the structure of an atom, Rau walked quietly to the podium and said “Today I am going to talk about the structure of an atom.” Rau is failing to fulfill which key purpose of an introduction? a. Get to the point. b. Get the audience’s attention. c. Introduce the subject. d. Teach the audience something useful
answer

b
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Which of the following methods can be used to create an effective conclusion, but NOT an effective introduction? a. rhetorical questions b. personal references c. startling facts or statistics d. inspirational appeals or challenges
answer

d
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An ______ is an illustration or story. a. analogy b. anthem c. anecdote d. anomaly
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c
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A ______ speaker is one whom the audience judges to be a believable authority and a competent speaker. a. charismatic b. credible c. empathetic d. formidable
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b
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As long as you gain your audience’s attention, it doesn’t matter whether the attention is favorable or unfavorable. True False
answer

false
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The term ______ means to cue the audience that the speech is coming to an end. a. proximity b. primacy c. closure d. recency
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c
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Using an inspirational appeal or challenge at the end of your speech rouses your audience to an emotional pitch and turns the conclusion into the climax. True False
answer

true
question

In the conclusion of his speech on the importance of hydration, Rajesh completed a story he started in his introduction about a young athlete who ultimately died from severe dehydration. What method of creating an effective conclusion did Rajesh employ? a. quotation b. historical reference c. reference to the introduction d. personal reference
answer

c
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One way to build credibility in the introduction is to be well prepared and to appear confident. True False
answer

true
question

What is one benefit of using humor in your introduction? a. It comes naturally to almost all speakers. b. It can be used for any speech topic. c. It can help relax your audience. d. It gaps the cultural divide among linguistically-diverse audiences.
answer

c
question

The best way to ensure that your introduction introduces the subject of your speech is to ______. a. include a statement of the general purpose in the introduction b. include a statement of the central idea in the introduction c. include a statement of the specific purpose in the introduction d. include a review of your supporting material in the introduction
answer

b
question

In the opening line of Abraham Lincoln’s classic Gettysburg Address he says, “Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.” What method of introducing a speech did he use? a. a reference to a historical event b. an anecdote c. humor d. a startling statistic
answer

a
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______ is a question intended to provoke thought rather than elicit an answer. a. A rhetorical question b. A closed-ended question c. An open-ended question d. A hyperbole
answer

a
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In his speech conclusion, Serge told an emotional story about the sudden death of his father and urged his audience to call their loved ones and tell them how they feel every day because you never know what day will be your or their last. Which method for creating effective conclusions did Serge use? a. reference to the introduction b. quotations c. inspirational appeal d. historical reference
answer

c
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In a speech conclusion, closure can only be attained through the use of verbal cues. True False
answer

false
question

In the conclusion of a commencement address, U2 singer Bono said, “Remember what John Adams said about Ben Franklin: “He does not hesitate at our boldest measures but rather seems to think us too irresolute. Well, this is the time for bold measures. This is the country, and you are the generation.” What method of creating effective conclusions did Bono employ? a. quotations b. personal references c. references to the introduction d. inspirational appeals
answer

a
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What is one benefit of using personal references in your speech introduction? a. They reduce speaker anxiety. b. They help relax your audience. c. They establish a bond between you and your audience. d. They help you think quickly on your feet
answer

c
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Which of the following statements about using quotations in speech introductions is true? a. Quotations are rarely used in speech introductions despite their effectiveness. b. Quotes are often the best option for a speech introduction, because they are effective every time. c. Quotes should only be used only if they are extremely interesting, compelling, or very much to the point. d. Quotes should not be combined with other methods of introduction; they are most effective when they stand alone.
answer

c
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When audience members feel that they are or could be personally involved or affected, they are more likely to respond to a speaker’s message. This means that speakers should utilize the principle of ______ to motivate audiences. a. primacy b. urgency c. proximity d. recency
answer

c
question

“Sally sold seashells by the seashore.” This phrase is an example of ______. a. omission b. alliteration c. parallelism d. antithesis
answer

b
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When using distinctive stylistic devices in your speech, you should use them sparingly. True False
answer

true
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One of the major differences between oral and written style is that oral style is more ______ than written style. a. well-respected b. personal c. diverse d. formal
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b
question

Research suggests that people who use fewer words are perceived by listeners as ______. a. less intelligent b. more physically attractive c. less-threatening d. more powerful or credible
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d
question

The attribution of human qualities to inanimate things or ideas is called ______. a. personification b. simile c. omission d. cadence
answer

a
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The English taught by schools and used in the media, business, and government in the United States is known as ______. a. Standard American English b. British-American English c. Conventional American English d. regional English
answer

a
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Whereas a simile is an implied comparison, a metaphor is a more direct comparison that includes the word like or as. True False
answer

false
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The best language is often the simplest. True False
answer

true
question

In her speech on the history of public libraries, Lori used the terminology she’d learned while working in a library like “OPAC,” “periodicals,” and “Boolean logic.” This type of language which is specialized to a certain profession is known as _____. a. regionalisms b. a vernacular c. jargon d. concrete language
answer

c
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Which of the following is an example of unbiased language? a. congressman b. waiter c. firefighter d. chairman
answer

c
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The rhythm of language is known as ______. a. cadence b. jargon c. rhetoric d. omission
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a
question

John F. Kennedy was using ______ when he changed the usual subject-verb-object sentence pattern to object-subject-verb in this brief statement from his inaugural speech: “This much we pledge.” a. omission b. cadence c. suspension d. inversion
answer

d
question

Based upon the ladder of abstraction, which of the following words is most abstract? a. pit bull b. animal c. dog d. mammal
answer

b
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A linguistic theory known as ______ holds that the more concrete your words are, the clearer your communication will be. a. morphology b. the specificity of syntax c. phonetics d. general semantics
answer

d
question

A variety of English that includes words and phrases used by a specific ethnic group is known as ______. a. an ethnic vernacular b. a regionalism c. an accent d. jargon
answer

a
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Based upon the ladder of abstraction, which of the following words is most concrete? a. perennial b. daylily c. flower d. plant
answer

b
question

In the hours and days after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, various speakers used such metaphorical phrases as “one more circle of Dante’s hell”; “nuclear winter”; and “the crater of a volcano” to describe the site of the destroyed World Trade Center buildings in New York. Such language is sometimes referred to as ______. a. crisis rhetoric b. inverse suspension c. personification d. dramedy
answer

a
question

Using short sentences and leaving out words and phrases the audience expects to hear are both methods of creating ______. a. cadence b. drama c. closure d. proximity
answer

b
question

Oral style is more formal than written style. True False
answer

false
question

A ______ deviates from the ordinary, expected meanings of words, to make a description or comparison unique, vivid, and memorable. a. figure of speech b. proximity principle c. linguistic theory d. primacy principle
answer

a
question

The phrases “When all is said and done” and “As a matter of fact” are examples of ______. a. concrete words b. jargon c. abstract words d. clichĂ©s
answer

d
question

To use omission effectively, the words you leave out must be understood by your listeners or readers. True False
answer

true
question

______ words often appeal to one of our five senses, whereas ______ words often refer to ideas or qualities. a. Complex; simple b. Simple; complex c. General; specific d. Specific; general
answer

d
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The ______ of a word is its literal meaning, the definition you find in a dictionary. a. alteration b. connotation c. insinuation d. denotation
answer

d
question

When Edith hears the word “bat” she thinks of the time a bat swooped down at her head when she was walking in the woods last summer after dusk. She also thinks of an article she read once about bats transmitting rabies to humans through their saliva. These personal associations represent the ______ meaning of the word “bat.” a. denotative b. implicit c. connotative d. explicit
answer

c

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