College Physics Ch. 7 Notes

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Centripetal (term)
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-Quantity that always points towards the center of the circle —–\”Center Seeking\” -Originated by Newton
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Centripetal Acceleration
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-acceleration pointed towards the center of the circle -keeps object moving in a circular path
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Period
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-time needed to complete one revolution —Ex. rpm
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Velocity (Tangential Velocity)
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-perpendicular to the radius and acceleration —object’s velocity pointed in a direction tangent to the circle
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Centripetal Force
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-force that causes the acceleration towards the center of the circle
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What forces are constant in a Horizontal circle?
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Fc Vt ac
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What forces are constant in a Vertical circle?
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none?
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Critical Velocity
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-Vmin -the minimum velocity needed to continue the circular path ***TENSION=0 N***
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Centrifugal Force
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-imaginary force a person feels traveling on an object traveling in a circle ***NO FORCE, just an object traveling in a straight line*** EX: —passenger in a car on a curve —roller coaster rider
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Gravitational Force
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***Orbiting objects are in free fall*** -The centripetal force that holds the planets in orbit is the same force that pulls an apple toward the ground
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What is the constant G?
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-Constant of Universal Gravitation ***6.673×10^-11***
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Gravitational Forces are..?
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-equal in magnitude and opposite in direction -an example of Newton’s third law of motion
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Earth-moon system
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-accounts for ocean tides -high and low tides are partly due to the gravitational force exerted on Earth by its moon.
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What kind of force is gravity?
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Field force
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Gravitational field strength is also known as..?
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Free-fall acceleration
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Because it depends on gravitational field strength, weight changes with..?
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Location
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On the surface of any planet, the value of g will depend on the planets..?
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Mass and radius
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Lever arm (d) Torque arm (m)
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The perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to a line along which the force acts.
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Torque (t)
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The product of the force and the lever arm. (Nm) (Kgm^2/s^2)
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Center of Gravity (com)
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Point at which all the mass of body can be considered concentrated. Balance point. In uniform objects it is in the middle.
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Parallel Forces
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Forces that act on different points in an object in the same place.
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Translational Equilibrium
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When upward forces equal downward forces.
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Rotational Equilibrium
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Condition when the clockwise torque equals counterclockwise torque.
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Moment of Inertia
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-Resistance of an object to change in rotational motion -Depends on the mass and distribution of mass -Farther the mass is from the axis, the harder to rotate
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Angular Momentum
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-Momentum due to rotation -Is conserved if no friction is present.

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