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CLEP Introduction to Educational Psychology

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Encoding
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How a message is stored to be recalled
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John Watson
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Behaviorism
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Pavlov’s dog
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Example of Classical Conditioning
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Two learning Theories
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Behaviorist and Cognitives
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Edward Lee Thorndike
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Law of Effect
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How many pairs of chromosomes to a cell ?
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46
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XY
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Male
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XX
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Female
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Biological approach
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Personality is linked to genetics
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Behavioral approach
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Study and observe behavior – blank state
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Cognitive approach
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How the mind learns and thinks
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Dependent approach
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The variable the experiment is trying to get information about
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Independent variable
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The variable that the experimenter controls The variable which explains the change in a dependent variable
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Correlation Research
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How much one variable changes in relation to each other
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Erik Erickson
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Psychoanalyst
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Most important thing to Erickson
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Development of trust
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Trust vs. Mistrust
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Infant
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Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
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Toddler
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Initiative vs. Guilt
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Preschooler
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Industry vs. Inferiority
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School-age
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Identity vs. Role Confusion
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Adolescent
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Intimacy vs. Isolation
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Young adult
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Generativity vs. Stagnation
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Middle-age Adult
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Ego Integrity vs. Despair
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Old Age
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Jean Piaget
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Cognitive Theorist
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Reflexive Stage (0-2 month)
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Simple reflex activity such as grasping and sucking
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Primary Circular Reactions (2-4 months)
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Reflexive behaviors occur in stereotyped repetition such as opening and closing fingers repetitively
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Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months)
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Repetition of change actions to reproduce interesting consequences such as kicking one’s feet to move a mobile suspended over the crib
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Coordination of Secondary Reactions (8-12 months)
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Responses become coordinated into more complex sequences. Actions take on an “intentional’ character
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Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months)
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Discovery of new ways to produce the same consequence or obtain the same goal such as the infant may pull a pillow toward him in an attempt to get a toy resting on it.
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Invention of New Means Through Mental Combination (18-24 months)
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Evidence if an internal representational system. Symbolizing the problem solving sequence before actually responding. Deferred imitation.
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Preoperational Phase (2-4 years)
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Increased use of verbal representation but speech is egocentric. The beginning of symbolic rather than simple motor play. Transductive reasoning.
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Intuitive Phase (4-7 years)
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Speech becomes more social, less egocentric. The child has an intuitive grasp of logical concepts in some areas.
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Period of Concrete Operation (7-11 years)
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Evidence for organized, logical thought. There is the ability to perform multiple classification tasks, order objects in a logical sequence, and comprehend the principle of concervation
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Period of formal operations (11-15 years)
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Thought becomes more abstract, incorporating the principles of formal logic. The ability to generate abstract propositions, multiple hypotheses and their possible outcomes is evident.
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Oral Stage
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Birth- 1 year
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Anal Stage
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1-3 years
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Phallic Stage
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3-6 years
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Latency Period
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6-11
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Genital Stage
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Adolescence
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Self-actualization
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Highest need in hierarchy – Level 5
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Esteem Needs
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Level 4 need
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Belonging and Love
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Level 3 need
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Safety
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Level 2 need
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Physical Needs
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Level 1 need
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Baby Alert
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Kept in a box and conditioned
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Stimulus Generalization
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Something from conditioning carries over to another related area
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Naturalistic Observation
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Search conducted by watching the subject
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Standard deviation
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A description of how far away, on average, the values in a data set are from a mean
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Zone of Proximal Development
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A gap between what a child can do with help, and what they can do on their own.
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Schemas
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A mental framework through which people organize their ideas about a subject.
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Identity achievement
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A person has both commitment and conflict
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Identity foreclosure
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A person has commitment but no conflict
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Identity moratorium
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A person has conflict but no commitment
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Identity diffusion
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A person has neither commitment nor conflict
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Operant conditioning
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A type of conditioning in which a person associates an action with a consequence
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Mean
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Add all of the number in a data set and divide the total by the total number of data points
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Standard scores
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Also called z scores. A measure of how many standard deviation away from the mean a value is
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Visual cliff
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An experiment which created the illusion if a cliff to test what age infants develop depth perception at
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Pygmalion effect
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Argues that higher teacher expectations directly result in increased improvement from students.
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G
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Charles Spearman’s general intelligence factor which he believed could be used to quantify intelligence
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Classical conditioning
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Describes a link between a stimulus and a response
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Interference Theory
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Describes how learning new information has an effect on memory loss as a result of competition between information
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Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development
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Describes the progression of a person’s personality and self concept as they progress through a series of psychological stages
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Divergent thinking
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Emphasizes creativity and looks for new and innovative solutions to problems
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Convergent thinking
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Emphasizes finding the one most correct answer as quickly and accurately as possible
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Transitional bilingual education
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Focuses on integrating the student. Some if the material is taught in their native language, most of it is taught in the target language
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Maintenance bilingual education
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Focuses on maintaining the student’s primary language, while teaching them a second language as well
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IDEA
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Governs how states provide education for students with disabilities
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Scaffolding
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Materials used and resources provided (explicitly of inherently) when teaching
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Advanced organizers
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Previously learning information which can be used to help the learner understand new information
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Elaboration
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Starting with basic principles and building up to more complex ones to create an association and aid learning
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Triarchic model of intelligence
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Sternberg’s model which claimed analytical, creative and practical factors to intelligence
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Conservation
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The ability of children to recognize that changes in shape and configuration don’t necessarily indicate changes in mass or fundamental property
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Metacognition
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The ability to think about thinking or control one’s own thought
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Range
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The difference between the highest and lowest number in a data set.
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Median
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The median is the middle number in a set of data when it is organized from lowest to highest
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Mode
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The number which occurs most commonly in a data set
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Episodic memory
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The recall of autobiographical facts, such as dates, places and emotions
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Semantic memory
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The recall of general conceptual facts which are unrelated to specific experiences
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Procedural memory
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The recall of how to perform a specific, frequently performed task
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Iconic memory
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The recall of something a person has seen for a brief period of time
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Echoic memory
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The recall of something that a person has just heard
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Centration
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The tendency of young children to focus on one aspect of a situation
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Wait-time
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The time between asking a question and calling on a student for the answer
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Dependent variable
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The variable which changes in response to the independent variable
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Extinction
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The weakening of a response when lack of reinforcement occurs after conditioning
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Theory of Primary Mental Abilities
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Theory argued by Thurstone which was the first to suggest multiple factors of intelligence
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Premack principle
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Using operant conditioning to make less to occur by using more probable actions as reinforcers
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Shaping
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Using operant conditioning to move and existing response to a target response
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Assimilation
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When new information is encountered and can be input into the brain without changing existing ideas
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Accommodation
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When new information is encountered which contradicts preexisting ideas and the brain must adapt to fit it in
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Retroactive inhibition
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When old memory interferes with learning new things
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Proactive inhibition
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When old memory is lost due to new memory gained
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Z score formula
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z=(x-μ)/σ