CJ 101: Midterm Study Guide – Flashcards

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Ensuring that citizens are protected from abusive power by government is known as
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due process
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A social system designed to maintain order and regulate interaction is known as‚Äč a(n)
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system of social control
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Which model would view a criminal justice system as one that fights crime and protects potential‚Äč victims?
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crime control model
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(T/F) The emphasis on efficient and effective justice is known as the due process model of crime control.
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False
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The author suggests in an analogy that the criminal justice‚Äč system's various levels of government operations are‚Äč separate, but linked together like
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a picket fence
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The enforcement of laws by the‚Äč police, the‚Äč courts, and correctional institutions comprise the
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criminal justice system
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(T/F) The process and flow of an offender through the criminal justice system is overseen by one agency.
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False
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Who has the authority to decide what charges will be filed at the time of‚Äč arraignment?
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the prosecutor
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At what point in the criminal justice process is the defendant asked to enter a formal plea of either guilty or not guilty to the‚Äč charges?
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arraignment
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Which panel of citizens hears evidence from a prosecutor to determine whether a defendant should be brought to‚Äč trial?
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grand jury
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Which of the following are roles of the‚Äč police? A. arrest or detain people B. search‚Äč people, vicinities, and buildings C. investigate specific crimes D. enforce specific laws E. all of the above
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all of the above
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The guilt of the defendant is determined through trial. Plea‚Äč bargaining, or dismissal of‚Äč charges, is done at which stage of the criminal‚Äč process?
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adjudication
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A decision issued by a grand jury authorizing the prosecutor to arraign the defendant is called the
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true bill
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Following the events of September‚Äč 11, 2001, then President Bush declared a
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War on Terrorism
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What was viewed as the most serious problem in the United States according to a Gallup Poll in‚Äč 1965?
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crime
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In the 1960s President‚Äč Johnson's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice concluded that
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people feared crime and had lost confidence in the police
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Which of the following was not a phenomenon that has driven interest in the criminal justice‚Äč system? A. declining birth rate B. the Vietnam War C. the Civil Rights Movement D. the terrorists attacks of September‚Äč 11, 2001
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declining birth rate
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Which act made it illegal for‚Äč businesses, motels,‚Äč restaurants, and public transportation providers to deny citizens service based on their‚Äč race?
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Civil Rights Act of 1964
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Civil disobedience was a tactic used by activists in which of the‚Äč following?
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the Civil Rights Movement
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Which U.S. Supreme Court decision established the exclusionary‚Äč rule?
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Weeks v. United States
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What was the landmark case that abolished capital punishment for‚Äč juveniles?
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Roper v. Simmons
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(T/F) The first Ten Amendments‚Äč (Bill of‚Äč Rights) to the U.S. Constitution delineate certain guaranteed freedoms such as trial by‚Äč jury, freedom of‚Äč speech, and the right to be secure from unreasonable search and seizure.
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True
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(T/F) The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution states that powers not delegated to the United States are reserved to the individual states.
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False
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Sociology is the study of human‚Äč _________ behavior.
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social
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(T/F) Criminology is referred to as the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon.
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True
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Which of the following events is evidence that the American colonists believed in evil‚Äč spirits, supernatural‚Äč explanations, and used the judicial process to rid the colonies of‚Äč so-called satanic‚Äč influences?
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the Salem witch trials
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An attempt to define and explain factors that predict behavior under certain conditions is termed
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theories
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(T/F) The purpose of a theory is to define and explain the factors that influence or determine behavior and how the factors interrelate.
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True
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Bentham's philosophy is called
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utilitarianism
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Whose theory of the‚Äč "criminal man" was the first important positivist theory to‚Äč emerge?
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Cesare‚Äč Lombroso's theory
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The central tenet of the positivist school of criminology is that A. differences in gender aggression were related to survival of the species. B. criminals want to be punished for their crimes. C. criminal behavior is a matter of‚Äč free-will and choice. D. a‚Äč criminal's decision to commit crime is influenced by external factors.
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a‚Äč criminal's decision to commit crime is influenced by external factors
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Which perspective emphasized that a‚Äč person's criminal nature was an inherited‚Äč characteristic?
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early biological theories
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Cesare‚Äč Lombroso, Richard‚Äč Dugdale, and William Sheldon were all proponents of
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biological determinism
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Sigmund Freud based his theory on the underlying assumption that behavior is
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controlled by subconscious desires
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Freudian theory argues that A. crime is an inherited characteristic in‚Äč one's biological‚Äč make-up. B. crime is committed to alleviate feelings of‚Äč guilt, so that one will be punished. C. crime is caused by social factors and social forces beyond‚Äč one's control. D. criminal behavior is a matter of‚Äč free-will choice.
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crime is committed to alleviate feelings of guilt, so that one will be punished
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Which of the following statements is not‚Äč correct? A. Psychoanalysis theory has been extensively applied to the study of criminals. B. Freud himself focused on the study of criminal behavior. C. Underlying‚Äč Freud's theory is the concept of the‚Äč id, the‚Äč ego, and the superego. D. Biological theory of crime has been extensively applied to the study of criminals.
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Freud himself focused on the study of criminal behavior.
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Which of the following is not a sociological theory explaining criminal‚Äč behavior? A. psychoanalytic theory B. zone theory C. social disorganization D. differential association
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psychoanalytic theory
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Criminal offender John Doe grew up surrounded by poverty and other disruptive social forces. Which theory would argue that his criminal behavior was independent of individual‚Äč characteristics?
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social disorganization
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Chicago experienced unemployment‚Äč problems, poor‚Äč schools, and substandard housing during the early part of the twentieth‚Äč century; hence, criminal behavior could be expected in these zones according to which theorist?
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Shaw and McKay
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Which theory is based on the belief that structural factors such as‚Äč poverty, illiteracy, lack of‚Äč schooling, and unemployment are powerful forces that influence levels of‚Äč crime?
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zone theory
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The differential association theory that criminal behavior is learned through association with a peer group that engages in criminal behavior was created by
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Edwin Sutherland
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When‚Äč lower-class youth reject‚Äč middle-class values that they cannot achieve and create their own counterculture it is termed
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reaction formation
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The concept of protecting the identity of juveniles charged with delinquency is rooted from which theory of‚Äč criminology?
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labeling theory
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Feminist criminology assumes that the cause of criminality among females is the inequality of power between men and women. True False
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True
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Feminist criminology assumes that the underlying cause of criminal behavior by females is the inequality of power between men and women. True False
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True
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Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were proponents of the concentric zone model. True False
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False
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Those who advocate conflict theories and class and power inequality as the causes of crime are known as radical criminologists. True False
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True
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Which variables do criminologists think influence criminal‚Äč behavior? A. sociology B. biology C. psychology D. all of the above
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all of the above
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Causal variables are variables that directly influence the outcome of relationships. True False
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True
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Most criminologists agree there is one major theory that explains the majority of crime. True False
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False
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What century did the demand for accurate time data‚Äč emerge?
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1920s
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The Prohibition Amendment is also known as the
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Volstead Act
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The first published national crime report was published by which of the following‚Äč groups?
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International Association of Police
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Which of the following is considered a Part I‚Äč offense? A. burglary B. rape C. murder D. all of the above
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all of the above
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Which agency is responsible for compiling the data for the‚Äč UCR?
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FBI
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The dark figure of crime statistics refers to
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unreported crime
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The National Crime Victimization Survey was first originated in what‚Äč decade?
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1970s
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The National Criminal Justice Reference Service‚Äč (NCJRS) was established in which‚Äč year?
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1972
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Which method of gathering data promotes itself as‚Äč "the United‚Äč States' primary source for criminal justice‚Äč statistics"?
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Bureau of Justice Statistics
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The BJS compiles reports on many aspects of the criminal justice‚Äč system, including data about‚Äč federal, state, and local criminal justice authorities. True False
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True
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The Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act of 1992 no longer required college campuses to make a public disclosure of crimes occurring on their campuses whether or not these crimes were reported to the police. True False
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False
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Which age group has the highest rate of‚Äč victimization?
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12-24
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The study of victims and their patterns of victimization is known as
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victimology
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What is the percentage of violent crimes that are not‚Äč reported?
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51%
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The study of victims and how they were victimized is known as victimology. True False
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True
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Elderly individuals are the least victimized age group but have the most fear of victimization. True False
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True
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Seventy-five percent of violent crimes are not reported to the police. True False
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False
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Which theory explains personal victimization as an outgrowth of a‚Äč victim's high-risk behavior patterns and‚Äč associations?
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Lifestyle theory
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Acts‚Äč "involving direct physical contact between at least one offender and at least one person or object which that offender attempts to take or‚Äč damage" are defined by Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson as what type of‚Äč crime?
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predatory crime
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The routine activities theory depends on the interaction of how many‚Äč variables?
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3
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Victim-precipitation theories view the victim as randomly targeted by a criminal. True False
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False
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Differential association refers to the concept that people who associate regularly with others engaged in unlawful behavior are more likely to be victimized because of their increased exposure to‚Äč high-risk situations and environments. True False
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True
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Which movement grew out of the dissatisfaction of victims with the passive‚Äč role, neglect, and minimization of harm they‚Äč suffered?
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‚Äčvictims' rights movement
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Which president convened the‚Äč President's Task Force on Victims of‚Äč Crime?
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Ronald Reagan
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Which rights are guaranteed by the Crime‚Äč Victims' Rights‚Äč Act? A. to receive restitution B. to confer with the prosecutor C. to be reasonably‚Äč protected, notified,‚Äč present, and heard at various stages in the criminal justice system D. all of the above
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all of the above
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Parking violation or underage drinking are examples of what type of‚Äč behavior?
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mala prohibita
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Which of the following does not provide for federal criminal‚Äč laws? A. the U.S. Constitution B. state statutes C. U.S. Criminal Codes D. executive orders
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state statutes
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Parking‚Äč regulations, minimum‚Äč drinking-age limits, and various licensing regulations are mala in se type laws. True False
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False
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Ms. Jones received a sentence of 6 months in the county jail for shoplifting. This means that she committed a felony. True False
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False
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Which limit of the law requires the publication of a law before it can be‚Äč enforced?
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principle of legality
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Which limit of the law protects a person from being punished for an action committed before such a law‚Äč existed?
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ex post facto laws
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The law must provide clear and specific language to define a prohibited behavior. If they do‚Äč not, they might be considered
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void for vagueness
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Substantive due process requires government to follow established procedures in treating defendants equally. True False
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False
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Laws cannot violate‚Äč one's right to‚Äč privacy, even in cases involving child pornography. True False
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False
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The principle that a person has commonsense understanding that the results of his or her behavior might cause harm is termed
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general intent
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Actions that do not require criminal intent to be considered a criminal act are called
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strict liability crimes
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Which of the following is not a category of inchoate‚Äč offenses?
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scheme
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An incomplete criminal act that is the closest act to completion of a crime is‚Äč a(n)
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attempt
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The actus reus defines a physical action as part of a crime committed by a person. True False
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True
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Which of the following statements is accurate in regard to the consent‚Äč defense? A. It could be a defense in certain sporting events that might result in an‚Äč opponent's death. B. Consent is not considered an acceptable defense under any circumstance. C. It could be a defense that the victim said it was okay to assist them in committing suicide. D. Consent is a valid defense to use when a hunter accidentally shoots another hunter to death.
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It could be a defense in certain sporting events that might result in an‚Äč opponent's death.
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Mr. Smith claims that an undercover police officer supplied him with a gun and drove him to a‚Äč bank, encouraging him to rob it. What defense would Mr. Smith‚Äč claim?
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entrapment
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Which of the following defenses is a justification‚Äč defense? A. consent B. youth C. entrapment D. all of the above are justification defenses
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all of the above are justification defenses
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Which defense is sometimes nicknamed the‚Äč "lesser of two‚Äč evils"?
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necessity
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Mrs. Johnson shot and killed a man who was trying to break into her house. What is the legal basis for her defending herself from a home‚Äč invasion?
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‚Äčself-defense
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A legal claim that a defendant did not understand the difference between right and wrong because he or she was suffering from a disease or mental defect is known as
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insanity
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The Model Penal Code classifies crime according to
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the victim of the crime
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Which of the following is not a crime against‚Äč persons? A. sexual assault B. robbery C. assault and battery D. larceny
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larceny
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Which of the following charges would most likely surround a vehicular homicide as a result of drunk‚Äč driving?
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manslaughter
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Which is considered a crime against‚Äč habitation?
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arson
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The offense of burglary combines two lesser‚Äč crimes: trespass and
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intent to commit a crime
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Under whose leadership was the London Metropolitan Police first established to promote public safety and enforce criminal‚Äč codes?
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Sir Robert Peel
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All of the following were the focus of the Westminster Watch Act of 1774 except for A. brawling. B. drinking. C. public prayer. D. swearing.
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public prayer
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Geographic limitations of responsibility for a municipal police department is termed a
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jurisdiction
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The ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson essentially A. suspended the hiring of African American police officers. B. reaffirmed the fact that‚Äč "all men are created‚Äč equal." C. became a basis for affirmative action programs. D. banned the use of Black Codes in the south.
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suspended the hiring of African American police officers
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The U.S. Marshals Service was established by A. President Herbert Hoover. B. the United States Congress in 1790. C. the Judiciary Act of 1789. D. the United States attorney general in 1901.
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the Judiciary Act of 1789
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When first‚Äč formed, the initial responsibility for the U.S. Secret Service was A. protecting the President of the United States. B. investigating counterfeiting and currency violations. C. capturing federal fugitives. D. protecting foreign diplomats.
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investigating counterfeiting and currency violations
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The duties of the U.S. Secret Service were expanded to include the protection of presidential and‚Äč vice-presidential candidates following the assassination of
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John F. Kennedy
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The earliest duties of the Bureau of‚Äč Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms were related to the need to enforce which of the‚Äč following?
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taxing laws
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Which of the following federal agencies can perform only administrative‚Äč operations, and not law enforcement‚Äč operations, on American‚Äč soil?
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Central Intelligence Agency
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State law enforcement can be divided into three major‚Äč agencies: traffic‚Äč enforcement, general criminal‚Äč investigation, and
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special investigations.
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State police agencies that target traffic enforcement are commonly known as special police. True False False
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False
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Which agency is the oldest policing authority in the United‚Äč States?
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‚Äčsheriff's office
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Which of the following is not a major responsibility for a‚Äč sheriff's department? A. serving as officers of the court B. contracting to provide traffic and criminal investigations for small towns C. providing security at airports D. operating the county jail
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providing security at airports
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What term is used to refer to‚Äč non-crime-fighting services performed by the‚Äč police, such as‚Äč mediation, providing for the welfare of vulnerable‚Äč persons, and crime‚Äč control?
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order maintenance
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Jurisdiction of local police agencies is limited to the geographical boundaries of the
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city
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Which of the following terms describe a hierarchical administrative structure organized by ranks with a single person responsible for all personnel in the organization.
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‚Äčcommand-and-control structure
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Police officer candidates will take a drug screening test before a written examination. True False
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False
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Which of the following is included in the category of special‚Äč police? A. sheriff B. highway patrol C. bailiff D. college and university police
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college and university police
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Which of the following theories believes that tolerating public order violations and disruptive behavior leads to community‚Äč neglect, which fosters further disorder and‚Äč crime?
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Broken Window Theory
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According to James Q.‚Äč Wilson, which style of policing focuses on maintaining order and is associated with declining‚Äč industrial, blue-collar‚Äč communities? A. enforcer B. service C. legalistic D. watchman
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watchman
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Community policing programs developed during the 1960s and 1970s. True False
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True
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Studies show that most police work involves crime fighting as opposed to order maintenance situations. True False
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False
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Problem-solving policing is proactive rather than reactive. True False
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True
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