Civil Rights (apush)

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13th Amendment
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Freed the slaves
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14th Amendment
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Defined citizenship and guaranteed equal protection
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15th Amendment
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Provided universal male suffrage (all males can vote)
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Plessy v. Ferguson
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Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation was legal as long as the separate facilities were equal (allowed discrimination)
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Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
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Overturned the Plessy case; Declared that segregated facilities were inherently unequal, and ordered the integration of the nation’s public schools
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Rosa Parks
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Refused to give up her seat in the front of a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, for a white rider
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Martin Luther King Jr.
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Figure head of the Civil Rights Movement who delivered the “I Have a Dream” speech and organized the Montgomery bus boycott
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Montgomery Bus Boycott (1957)
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Started by MLK; Ended racist policies on public transportation; was the spark for the modern Civil Rights movement; lasted a year
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Little Rock Crisis (1957)
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After schools in this place refused to allow African-Americans into all-white schools, President Eisenhower authorized the army to escort and protect African-American students
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University of Alabama (1963)
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Governor George C. Wallace refused to allow African-American students to register for classes at the all-white university. President Kennedy authorized the use of the National Guard to enforce educational integration
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George C. Wallace
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Governor of Alabama
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March on Washington (1963)
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MLK and his SCLC organized a massive demonstration in (this place), where MLK delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech
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“I Have a Dream” speech
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Delivered by MLK at the March on Washington; demanded equality and most famous speech of the Civil Rights movement
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Non-violent (boycotts, sit-ins, freedom rides, etc.)
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What type of methods did the Civil Rights Movement use because of MLK?
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Ghandi
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Who did MLK model himself after?
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Civil Rights Act of 1964
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Provided criminal penalties for discrimination in employment or voting and integrated most public facilities
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24th Amendment
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Banned the poll tax
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Voting Rights Act of 1965
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Banned literacy tests in countries where over half of eligible voters have been disenfranchised
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Cesar Chavez
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Helped to organize mostly migrant Hispanic farm workers using non-violent methods into the United Farm Workers, which eventually merged with the AFL-CIO
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Dawes Act
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Failed act that resulted from the Indian Wars; an attempt at Americanizing Indians and introduced the reservation system
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American Indian Movement (AIM)
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Founded as a response to the government’s Termination Policy; used militaristic action to focus attention on native problems in order to gain publicity
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Betty Freiedman
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Author of The Feminine Mystique; feminist; established the National Organization for Women
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The Feminine Mystique
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1963; book that questioned the traditional domestic female role in the United States
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National Organization for Women (NOW)
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Established in 1996 in order to obtain legislation guaranteeing equality for all women
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Equal Rights Amendment
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Never passed, because while Congress approved the proposal the states didn’t ratify it; “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any on account of sex”
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Equal Employment Opportunity Act
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Required employers to pay equally qualified women the same as their male counterparts
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Title 9 or Title IX of Educational Amendments Act
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Gave female athletes the same right to financial support for individual and team sports as male athletes
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Roe v. Wade
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Supreme Court case where women were granted the right to have an abortion, establishing bodies as private property; controversial decision
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Dorothea Dix
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Interested in the rights of disabled Americans; helped provide institutions for the disabled who were being mistreated across the nation
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Education of All Handicapped Children Act (1972)
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Required states to mandate education for all students regardless of mental and/or physical disability
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Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
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Mandated construction codes, public access, and employment opportunities for the disabled
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Affirmative Action
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Label used to describe the many methods used to guarantee that women, minorities, and the disabled have equal opportunities in education and employment
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University of California Board of Regents v. Bakke
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Found that while affirmative action was constitutional, race could not be the only criteria used to allow applicants to attend a university (it can be considered but cannot be a defining factor)
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Warren Court
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Extremely liberal court; handed down decisions that vastly expanded the rights of the accused in the United States
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Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
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Upheld the 4th Amendment guarantee against unreasonable search and seizure (porn in the floorboards case)
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Gideon v. Wainwright (1964)
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Required that the accused be provided with an attorney by the government even if they cannot afford one
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Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)
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Required that the accused be provided with an opportunity to meet with an attorney
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Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
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Required that the accused be informed of their rights and that they understand them before being questioned
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Miranda Rights
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Result of Miranda v. Arizona
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Civil Rights Act of 1968 or Fair Housing Act
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Banned discrimination in the sale or rental of housing; made harming civil rights workers a crime
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Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
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Supreme Court ruled that African Americans, whether enslaved or free, were not American citizens and therefore could not sue in federal court; also ruled that federal government had no power to interfere with slavery in federal territories acquired after the creation of the U.S. (Pre civil rights movement)

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