Civics EOC Review Practice

The Enlightenment idea of the separation of powers was developed by
Baron de Montesquieu
John Locke’s theory that certain truths in society come from and are governed by nature is known as the theory of
Natural Law
Describe John Locke’s theory of social contract.
People gave up some of their rights to government in order to have better lives and protection.
This document guaranteed that not even the king or queen was above the law.
Magna Carta
Explain the significance of the English Bill of Rights on the development of the U.S. constitution.
Established thought that individual rights should be listed and protected
What was the first document that established self-government by creating a direct democracy in the colonies?
Mayflower Compact
This pamphlet was used to persuade members of the Second Continental Congress and justified the ideals and reasons for independence from Great Britian.
Common Sense
Give specific examples of colonial responses to English Policies.
Boston Tea Party, boycott, protest, literature, Common Sense
What concerns of the colonists led to the writing of the Declaration of Independence?
Taxation without respresentation, forced quartering violation of BR
What were the main complaints/arguments against Britian in the Declaration of Independence?
Colonists felt that England was not protecting their rights, taxing without representation, abusing power
John Locke’s theory of ___________ guaranteed that all individuals are entitled to basic rights such as life, liberty, and property.
Natural Rights
Which document outlined the first form of government for the United States? Which system of government did this document create?
Articles of Confederation, a confederal system (no central government)
List some of the major weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
Central government had no power to tax, no national court system, no executive branch, no power to enforce laws, no power to regulate trade, all 13 states were needed to approve an amendment, approval of 9 of 13 states to enact laws
What is the purpose of the Preamble to the constitution?
It introduces the goals and concepts outlined in the constitution + reinforces principles of good government
What was the main argument the Federalists used to support the ratification of the Constitution?
The need for a stronger government
List the arguments the Anti-Federalists used against ratifying the Constitution.
No bill of rights, central government too strong
A legal member of a country is a
Citizen
Name two ways a person can become a U.S. citizen
Birth to citizen parent called Law of Blood; Birth in US or US territory called Law of Soil; or naturalization
List the steps in the naturalization process.
apply for residency visa, wait 5 years, apply for citizenship status, finger printed, interview with Immigration Services , pass citizenship test, take oath
What are the major differences between Democrats and Republicans?
Democrats believe in a large government, encouraging government involvement with many programs . Republicans believe in a small government with few programs, encouraging communities and charities to take care of their own neighbors and families.
What is a plank?
A specific issue that is a part of a parties’ platform. A dock is a platform, the planks are the individual boards. The platform is the big theme, the plank is the individual idea. i.e. helping the poor people is a platform, opening a new shelter is a plank
What is a platform?
A group or big idea that candidates campaign on or that a party supports. The platform is like the dock and the planks are the individual boards or individual ideas. i.e. the environment is the platform, passing a clean water bill is a plank
Give an example of media informing the public about government.
A newspaper reports the details about a bill that is being written in Congress
Give an example of how an individual can influence government.
Write a letter expressing a concern to county commissioner. Call your representative and tell them your opinion.
Give an example on how interest groups can influence government.
An interest group can endorse a candidate for election and advertise for them.
What is bias?
Showing preference towards toward a particular viewpoint.
What is symbolism?
The use of symbols to represent ideas or qualities.
What is propaganda?
Ideas used to exaggerate about peoples’ thinking or behavior.
What is the difference between direct democracy and representative democracy?
Direct: Voting “Directly” for leaders/laws
Representative: Electing leaders to vote for you
Explain the major similarity between socialism and communism.
Both socialism and communism are based on the principle that the goods and services produced in an economy should be owned publicly, and controlled and planned by a certified organization
A type of government in which the leadership is comprised of the few wealthy elite people is called
an Oligarchy
What is monarchy?
A type of government in which the head of state is a king or queen
What is autocracy?
A system of government with absolute power such as a monarchy or dictatorship
What is the Federal System of government?
Federal: Powers of government are divided between National and State Governments.
What is a confederal system of government?
Powers of government are concentrated at the state level. A loose union of states.
What is a unitary system of government?
Unitary: A central body retains supreme power.
What is the term for a system of govenment in which the power to make and execute laws is held by a parliament?
Parliamentary
What term means that all citizens are accountable to the law?
Rule of Law
Why is rule of law fundamental to the American legal system?
American democracy is based on the idea of equality.
Why is it an obligation or a duty for citizens to follow laws?
Citizen actions that are required by law such as jury duty.
Why do citizens pay taxes? How does this benefit society?
It is an obligation or duty and they help pay for public services.
Why is it important to have citizens serve on juries?
It is an obligation or duty and to ensure fair trials/justice. The Bill of Rights ensures a trial by jury, so a jury is needed.
Order the five rights guaranteed by the 1st amendment.
RASPP
Why was it important to add the Bill of Rights to the Constitution?
It satisfied the Anti-Federalists, limits on government and protects individuals.
List the rights guaranteed by the 5th amendment (4D’s)
D: Due Process D: Double Jeopardy D: Eminent Domain D: Don’t have to testify
How do the fourth, fifth, sixth, and eighth amendments protect the rights of the accused?
Search and Seizure, 4D’s, speechy trial, impartial jury, right to attorney, no excessive bail, cruel and unusual punishment
Why do you think the Framers included the 2nd amendment with respect to militias?
Individuals rights to protect themselves protected
Why did the Framers include the 3rd amendment in the Bill of Rights?
Reactions to the Quartering act
Explain the difference between the 6th and 7th amendments
Sixth protects the rights of the accused, and seventh ensures fairness in civil cases
How does the Ninth Amendment safeguard individual liberties?
Individual rights are not limited to only those listed.
The division of powers between three branches of government is called
Separation of Powers
The ability of one branch of government to limit powers of the others is called
Checks + Balances
What is the purpose of checks and balances and separation of powers in the constitution?
To prevent one branch of government from becoming too powerful
What is the “highest law of land” in the U.S.?
U.S. Constitution
______________ law refers to the body of law that governs relationships between individuals and settle disputes.
Civil
______________ law refers to the body of law that regulates the conduct of individuals.
Criminal
______________ law is based on the Constitution and Supreme Court descisions.
Constitutional
______________ law governs the behavior of men and women in all branches of the armed forces.
Military
Which amendment abolished slavery in the U.S.?
13th
Which amendment guaranteed due process, equal protection, under the law and granted rights of citizenship to African Americans?
14th
Which amendment guaranteed the right of suffrage regardless of previous condition of servitude?
15th
Which amendment, ratified in 1920, guaranteed women’s suffrage?
19th
Which amendment outlawed the use of poll taxes as a requirement for voting?
24th
In the wake of the Vietnam War, which amendment was added to lower the voting age of U.S. citizens to 18?
26th
What Landmark Supreme Court case resulted in the principle of Judicial Review?
Marbury vs. Madison
What Landmark Supreme Court case justified segregation and the principle of “separate but equal”?
Plessy vs. Ferguson
What Landmark Supreme Court case overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson descision by ruling the separate facilities were not equal and ended segregation in schools?
Brown vs. Board of Education
What Landmark Supreme Court case required states to provide free legal help to those who could not afford representation in court?
Gideon vs. Wainwright
What Landmark Supreme Court case ruled that an individual’s rights begin at the time of their arrest and required that individual be notified of these rights?
Miranda vs. Arizona
What Landmark Supreme Court case rules that juveniles accused of crimes receive the same due process as adults?
In Re: Gault
What Landmark Supreme Court case expanded interpretation of the First Amendment right to free speech in schools to also include freedom of expression?
Tinker vs. Des Moines
What Landmark Supreme Court case limited freedom of press in school publications?
Hazelwood vs. Kuhlm
The Supreme Court ruled ___________ that “executive privilege” is only extended when connected to national security.
United States vs. Nixon
What Landmark Supreme Court case ruled that the Supreme Court could overrule a state court’s descisions on state laws (in regards to Election 2000)
Bush vs. Gore
When evaluating candidates for office, what are examples of things that might influence your decision?
Qualifications, experience, abilities, education, platform
All policies dealing with issues within the United States are considered ____________ policy.
Domestic
__________________ is the government’s plan for interacting with other countries of the world.
Foreign Policy
The policy of _________ the income of U.S. citizens to fund government programs for the good of society is an example of domestic policy.
Taxing
Providing monetary aid, military assistance or food to nations in need in orderto promote peace is an example of __________ policy.
Foreign
This organization is an international assembly of nations to discuss and act on important global issues.
UN; United Nations
This “security alliance” between the United States and many european countries was originally formed to establish a united front against Soviet aggression during the Cold War and now engages in joint security and peacekeeping operations.
NATO; North Atlantic Treaty Organization
This volunteer program provides technical assistance and cultural understanding between the United States and other nations.
Peace Corps
This UN agency promotes worldwide health to combat the spread of diseases.
WHO; World Health Organization
Which UN agency promotes international trade among nations?
WTO; World Trade Organization
What court is known as the “World Court”?
International Court of Justice
This term describes a way in which the US can enter into an agreement with other nations to resolve conflicts or further relationships.
Treaty
The United States has used this mechanism to punish nations that violate human rights or otherwise threaten the interests of the United States.
Trade Sanctions
In a federal system, _______________ powers are shared between the states and the national government.
Concurrent
The ability to protect borders is best performed by which level of government?
National
The service of maintaining public libraries is best performed by which level of government?
Local
What are the main sections of the Florida and U.S. constitutions called?
Preamble, Amendments, and Articles that establish three-branch government
In this form of government, all citizens in the community vote on all descisions.
Direct Democracy
Voting for representatives to carry out the work of government and make descisions is defined as what level of government?
Representative Democracy
____________ is a system of government that believes that society should organize and control the means of production for the welfare of all.
Socialism
_____________ is a system of government that velieves that the state would own the land, capital, labor and make all economic descisions.
Communism
In this form of government, a king or queen reigns over a kingdom or empire.
Monarchy
A form of government in which only a few people rule.
Oligarchy
A dictatorship is an example of this type of government in which one person holds all the power.
Autocracy
The _________ type of of democratic government that exists in Great Britain is led by a majority of its legislature who then chooses its executive that is called a ___________.
Parliamentry; Prime Minister
In what type of government is a soverign state governed as opne single unit in which the central government is supreme?
Unitary
A ______________ is a loose association of states.
Confederation
A system of government where powers are shared and divided between the national and state government.
Federal
What are the basic steps on how a bill becomes a law?
A bill is introduced in one house of congress; then sent to committee
Only whom has the power to declare war?
Congress
A _____________ legislature is a lawmaking body with two houses.
bicameral
What are the two houses of US congress?
House of Representatives + Senate
What other words describe the sections of congress
house, chamber, bicameral
What are the qualifications for members of the House of Representatives?
25 years old, citizen of U.S. for at least 7 years, local resident for state they represent.
What are the qualifications for members of the Senate?
30 years old, U.S. citizen for 9 years, local resident for state they represent.
What are the qualifications of President?
35 years old, native born citizen, living in US for previous 14 years
What is the term limit for the President of the U.S.?
Two 4 year terms or 8 years total
What are the duties for vice president?
Serve as president if something happens to the president and preside over senate.
Who is Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces?
President of U.S.
What makes up the Executive Office of the President?
Agencies and offices that advise the president called the Cabinet
What is an example of a public issue?
Education, repairing the streets, building a new park
What are the two ways a US Constitutional amendment can be proposed?
By Congress (2/3 vote)
National Conventions (2/3 of states)
What are the two steps necessary for a US Constitutional amendment to be ratified (approved)?
Congress approves ( 3/4 vote)
States Conventions approve (3/4 of the states)
What is the difference between the federalists and the anti-federalists?
Federalists believed in the Constitution and the power of the central government. Anti-federalists thought state government was better and insisted the Bill of Rights be included to protect the individuals and the states rights.
What are the four parts of the Declaration of Independence?
Introduction/Ideals, Arguments, Complaints, Conclusion/Declaration
was angry about the Intolerable Acts, wanted to work it out, decided to boycott trade with Great Britain, and protest the many taxes
1st Continental Congress
was angry about the Intolerable Acts, but gave up trying to work with Parliament, decided it was time to start a revolution, wrote the Declaration of Independence
2nd Continental Congress
the first US Constitution, didn’t give central government enough power to function, there were too many weaknesses
Articles of Confederation
1787 group of 55 delegates gathered in Philadelphia PA to fix the Articles, instead they rewrote from the beginning
Constitutional Convention
when federal laws and state laws are in conflict, the federal laws will apply
supremacy
We the people of the United States of America, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
the Preamble
what is the introduction to the Constitution
the Preamble
what document was the first example of self-government
Mayflower Compact
what document was the first constitution in history
Magna Carta
what document was the first example of citizens rights
English Bill of Rights