Please enter something

Child Psych

question

Cognition
answer

refers to the inner processes and products of the mind that lead to “knowing.” It includes all mental activity– attending, remembering, symbolizing, categorizing, planning, reasoning, problem solving, creating, and fantasizing.
question

Constructive approach
answer

Piaget’s theory that viewed children as discovering, or constructing virtually all knowledge about their world through their own activity, his theory is described as a ____ _____ to cognitive development.
question

Schemes
answer

specific psychological structures which organized ways of making sense of experience.
question

Mental representations
answer

internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate.
question

Adaptation
answer

involves building schemes through direct interaction with the environment.
question

Assimulation
answer

we use our current schemes to interpret the external world.
question

Accomodation
answer

we create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current way of thinking does not capture the environment completely.
question

Equilibriation
answer

Piaget’s term for this back-and-forth movement between equilibrium and disequilibrium.
question

Organization
answer

a process that occurs internally, apart from direct contact with the environment. Once children form new schemes, they rearrange them, linking them with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system.
question

The sensorimotor stage
answer

spans the first two years of life. Its name reflects Piaget’s belief that infants and toddlers “think” with their eyes, ears, hands, and other sensorimotor equipment. They cannot yet carry out many activities mentally.
question

Circular reaction
answer

provides a special means of adapting their first schemes. It involves stumbling onto a new experience caused by the baby’s own motor activity. The reaction is “circular” because, as the infant tries to repeat the event again and again, a sensorimotor response that originally occurred by chance strengthens into a new scheme.
question

Intentional, or goal-directed behavior
answer

coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems.
question

Object permanence
answer

the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight. But this awareness is not yet complete.
question

A-not-B search error
answer

an error babies still make. if they reach several times for an object at one hiding place (A), then see it moved to another (B), they still search for it in the first hiding place (A).
question

Deferred imitation
answer

the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present.
question

Make-believe play
answer

in which children act out everyday and imaginary activities.
question

Violation-of-expectation method
answer

may habituate babies to a physical event (expose them to the event until their looking declines) to familiarize them with a situation in which their knowledge will be tested. Or they may simply show babies an expected event (one that follows physical laws) and an unexpected event (a variation of the first event that violates physical laws). Heightened attention to the unexpected event suggests that the infant is “surprised” by a deviation from physical reality- and, therefore, is aware of that aspect of the physical world.
question

Analogical problem solving
answer

applying a solution strategy from one problem to other relevant problems.
question

Displaced reference
answer

the realization that words can be used to cue mental images of things not phisically present– a symbolic capacity called _____ _____ that emerges around the first birthday.
question

Video deficit effect
answer

poorer performance after a video than a live demonstration.
question

Preoperational stage
answer

which spans the years 2 to 7, the most obvious change is an extraordinary increase in representational, or symbolic, activity.
question

Sociodramatic play
answer

the make-believe with others that is under way by the end of the second year and increases rapidly in complexity during early childhood.
question

Dual representation
answer

viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol.
question

Operations
answer

mental representations of actions that obey logical rules.
question

Egocentrism
answer

failure to distinguish others’ symbolic viewpoints from one’s own.
question

Conservation
answer

refers to the ides that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes.
question

Centration
answer

their understanding is centered, or characterized by.
question

Reversibility
answer

the ability to go through a series of steps in a problem and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
question

Hierarchial classification
answer

the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences.
question

Concrete Operational stage
answer

extends from about 7 to 11 years, marks a major turning point in cognitive development. Thought becomes far more logical, flexible, and organized.
question

Seriation
answer

the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight.
question

Transitive inference
answer

The concrete operational child can also seriate mentally.
question

Cognitive maps
answer

mental representations of familiar large-scale spaces, such as their neighborhood or school.
question

Formal operational stage
answer

they develop the capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking.
question

Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
answer

when faced with a problem, they start with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. Then they systematically isolate and combine variables to see which of these inferences are confirmed in the real world.
question

Propositional thought
answer

adolescents’ ability to evaluate the logic of propositions (verbal statements) without referring to real-world circumstances.
question

Private speech
answer

Children’s self-directed speech is now called _____ ____ instead of egocentric speech.
question

Zone of proximal development
answer

a range of tasks too difficult for the child to do alone but possible with the help of adults and more skilled peers.
question

Intersubjectivity
answer

the process whereby two participants who begin a task with different understandings arrive at a shared understanding.
question

Scaffolding
answer

adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child’s current level of performance.
question

Guided participation
answer

a broader concept than scaffolding. It refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the precise features of communication.
question

Metacognition
answer

awareness and understanding of various aspects of thought.
question

Theory of mind
answer

a coherent understanding of people as mental beings, which they revise as they encounter new evidence.
question

Cognitive self-recognition
answer

the process of continually monitoring and controlling progress toward a goal- planning, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts.
question

Factor Analysis
answer

a complicated correlational procedure which identifies sets of test items that cluster together, meaning that test-takers who do well on one item in a cluster tend to do well on the others. Distinct clusters are called factors.
question

General intelligence
answer

in Spearman’s theory, a common underlying factor, called g, believed to influence all aspects of intelligence.
question

Specific intelligence
answer

in Spearman’s theory, a mental ability that is unique to a task.
question

Crystallized intelligence
answer

refers to skills that depend on accumulated knowledge and experience, good judgement, and mastery of social customs.
question

Fluid intelligence
answer

depends on more heavily on basic information-processing skills- the ability to detect relationships among stimuli, the speed with which the individual can analyze information, and the capacity of working memory. It can be influenced more by conditions in the brain and less by culture.
question

Three-stratum theory of intelligence
answer

elaborates the models proposed by Spearman, Thurstone, and Cattel. Carroll represented the structure of intelligence as having three tiers.
question

Componential analyses
answer

Looks for relationships between aspects (or components) of information processing and children’s intelligence test performance.
question

Triarchic theory of successful intelligence
answer

made up of three broad, interacting intelligences: (1) analytical intelligence, or information-processing skills; (2) creative intelligence, the capacity to solve novel problems; and (3) practical intelligence, application of intellectual skills in everyday situations. Intelligent behavior involves balancing all three intelligences to achieve success in life, according to one’s personal goals and the requirements of one’s cultural community.
question

Emotional intelligence
answer

a set of emotional abilities that enable individuals to process and adapt to emotional information. To measure it, researchers have devised items tapping emotional skills that enable people to manage their own emotions and interact competently with others.
question

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition
answer

The modern descendant of Alfred Binet’s first successful intelligence test is called this. For individuals from age 2 to adulthood. This latest edition measures general intelligence and five intellectual factors: fluid reasoning, quantitative reasoning, knowledge, visual-spatial processing, and working memory.
question

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children- IV
answer

is the fourth edition of a widely used test for 6- through 16-year-olds.
question

Aptitude tests
answer

assess an individual’s potential to learn a specialized activity.
question

Achievement Tests
answer

aim to asses actual knowledge and skill attainment
question

Developmental quotients (DQs)
answer

instead of labeled IQs it is labeled such because most infant scores do not tap the same dimensions of intelligence assessed in older children.
question

Intelligent Quotient (IQ)
answer

indicates the extent to which the raw score (number of items passed_ deviates from the typical performance of the same-age individuals.
question

Standardization
answer

giving the test to a large, representative sample and using the results as the standard for interpreting scores.
question

Normal Distribution
answer

most scores cluster around the mean, or average, with progressively fewer falling toward each extreme. This bell-shaped distribution results whenever researchers measure individual differences in large samples.
question

Universal grammar
answer

a built-in storehouse of rules common to all human languages.
question

Broca’s area
answer

located in the left frontal lobe, supports grammatical processing and language production
question

Wernicke’s area
answer

located in the left temporal lobe, plays a role in comprehending word meaning
question

Recasts
answer

restructure inaccurate speech
question

Expansions
answer

elaborate, increase complexity
question

Phonemes
answer

the smallest sound units that signal a change in meaning, such as the difference between the consonant sounds in “pa” and “ba.”
question

Categorical Speech Perception
answer

The tendency to perceive as identical a range of sounds that belong to the same phonemic class
question

Infant-directed speech (IDS)
answer

a form of communication made up of short sentences with high-pitches, exaggerated expression, clear pronunciation, district pauses between speech segments, clear gestures to support verbal meaning, and repetition of new words in a variety of contexts.
question

Cooing
answer

vowel-like noises
question

Babbling
answer

appears in which infants repeat consonant-vowel combinations, often in long strings such as “bababababa” and “nanananana.”
question

Joint attention
answer

the child attends to the same object or event as the caregiver, contributes greatly to early language development.
question

Protodeclarative
answer

the baby points to, touches, or holds up an object while looking at others to make sure they notice.
question

Protoimperative
answer

the baby gets another person to do something by reaching, pointing, and often making sounds at the same time.
question

Comprehension
answer

the language they understand
question

Production
answer

the language they use
question

Fast-mapping
answer

children can connect a new word with an underlying concept after only a brief encounter.
question

Referential style
answer

their vocabularies consist of mainly words that refer to objects.
question

Expressive style
answer

compared with referential children, they initially produce many more social formulas and pronouns
question

Underextension
answer

an error that they may apply words too narrowly
question

Overextension
answer

applying a word to a wider collection of objects and events than is appropriate.
question

Phonological store
answer

Young children’s fast-mapping is supported by a special part of short-term memory. It permits us to retain speech-based information.
question

Mutual exclusivity bias
answer

the assumption that words refer to entirely separate categories.
question

Shape bias
answer

Once toddlers have acquired about 75 words, a ___ ___ is clearly evident; previous learning of nouns based on shape heightens attention to the shape properties of additional objects.
question

Syntactic bootstrapping
answer

according to one proposal, preschoolers discover many word meanings by observing how words are used in syntax or the structure of sentences.
question

Emergentist coalition model
answer

proposes that word-learning strategies emerge out of children’s efforts to decipher language. Children draw on a coalition of cues- perceptual, social, and linguistic-that shift in importance with age.
question

Telegraphic speech
answer

focus on high-content words and omit smaller, less important ones
question

Grammatical morphemes
answer

small markers that change the meaning of sentences as in “john’s dog” and ” he is eating”
question

Overregularication
answer

a type of error in which children apply a regular morphological rule, they extend it to words that are exceptions
question

Semantic bootstrapping
answer

they use word meanings to figure out sentence structure. Children might begin grouping together words with “agent qualities” as subjects and words with “action qualities” as verbs. Then they merge these categories with observations of how words are used in sentences.
question

Turnabout
answer

the speaker not only comments on why has just been said but also adds a request to get the partner to respond again.
question

Shading
answer

in which a sparker initiates a change of topic gradually by modifying the focus of discussion.
question

Illocutionary intent
answer

what a speaker means to say, even if the form of the utterance is not perfectly consistent with it.
question

Referential communication skills
answer

to communicate effectively we must produce clear verbal messages and recognize when messages we receive are unclear so we can ask for more information.
question

Speech registers
answer

language adaptations to social expectations.