Chemistry 111

Atom & composition
-basic unit of an element that can enter into a chemical combination
-composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Protons(charge and mass)
– (+) or +1
– m=1837 times that of an electron
– actual mass= 1.673 x10^(-24)
Electron(charge and mass)
-(-) or -1
– mass=9.110×10^(-28)
– mass=1/1837 of a H atom
Ions (names of (+/-))
– cations- (+) – loses electrons
-anions- (-) – gains electrons
Atomic number is the number of..
– number of protons
Mass number is the number of..
– protons and neutrons
– atoms with the same number of protons/atomic# but has different mass numbers
Atomic weight
– average mass of all naturally occuring isotopes of that element
– takes into account relative abundance of the elements isotopes
Percent abundance
– % of atoms of a natural sample of the pure element represented by a particular isotope to describe isotope composition for an element
Periodic Table (horiz/vert)
– Horizontal- period
– Vertical- group
Group 1A
– alkali metals
– very reactive
-shiny solids that react vigorously with air, water,
Group 2A
– alkaline earth metals
– not quite as reactive
– react with water to form alkaline solutions
Group 6A
– chalogens
Group 7A
– halogens
Group 8A
– noble gases
– rare gases/ inert gases
– least reactive elements
Representative elements
– main group elements
– group number followed by letter A
Transition metals
– Group # followed by letter B
Lanthanides and Actinides
– portions of periods 6 and 7 that are below the main body
Metal properties
– good conductors of heat and electricity
-high luster (shiny)
– high melting point
– high density
– solids at room temperature (Hg- mercury- liquid)
Nonmetal properties
-poor conductors of heat and electricity
– no lustrous, relative dull
– low melting point and density
– C, P, S, SE, I are solids
-Br- liquid
– the rest are gases H, N, O, F, Cl, He, Ar, Kr, Xe, Ra
Metalloids or semimetals
– intermediate between properties of metal and nonmetals
– raw materials or semiconductors device that make the electronic industry possible
– B, Si, Ge, Te, Sb, As, Po
– aggregate of at least 2 atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical forces/ chemical bonds
-smallest unit of a compound
Diatomic molecule
– 2 atoms
– one or two or more distinct forms of an element
– differ in chemical and physical propterties
Covalent (molecular) compound
– all elements in the compund are nonmetals
– contain discrete molecular units
– inorganic acids
-many are binary compounds (02)
Molecular covalent compound
-molecule formed by covalent bonds in which atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons
Network Covalent Compound
– chemical compound in which atoms are bonded by covalent bonds in a continuous network (SiO2)
– there are no individual molecules and the entire crystal may be considered a macromolecule
Molecular vs Empirical formula
-Molecular- shows the exact # of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance
-Empirical- shows the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms in a substance molecule
Structural Forumula
-shows linkage of all the atoms in the molecule
Condensed structural forumla
-lists atoms present in groups to indicate connectivity between the atoms
Molecular Compound naming
– cation first, then anion
-first element listed is the one “more metal like”
-prefixes are written before the name of the element to indicate # of atoms present
Mono, Di, Tri, deca, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca, dodeca
Molecular compound exceptions-NH3
Molecular compound exceptions-CH4
Molecular compound exceptions-H20
Molecular compound exceptions-PH3
Molecular compound exceptions-H2S
-hydrogen sulfide
Molecular compound exceptions-B2H6
– diborane
-carbon and hydrogen compounds
-simplest of all organic compounds
-used as fuels starting material for chemistry industry
How are organic compounds determined
-by functional groups chemically bound to parents compound
Functional group -OH
-hydroxyl group
Functional group -NH2
– amino group
Functional group -COOH
-carbonxyl group
-carboxylic acid- organic acid
Organic chemistry
-the branch of chemistry that deals with carbon compound and functional groups
-have no branches
-*SINGLE* carbon chain/bond
-formula: CnH2n+2 where n is greater or equal to 1
-contains *at least one* carbon-carbon *double bond*
-formula: CnH2n where n is greater or equal to 1
-contain at *least one* carbon-carbon *triple bond*
-formula: CnH2n-2 where n is greater or equal to 1
-produces H+ ions in water
– any substance that dissolves and dissociated into ions and one is H+
Naming acids
– H cation called hydro-
– anion with the -ide ending becomes -ic
Rules to writing acids
-write the prefix hydro-
– followed by the stem of the 2nd element of the suffix add ic
-add the word acid
-make sure to add aqueous (aq) after the word “acid”
– acids where anion is polyatomic
How to name Oxoacids
-if the ending is -ite -> change to -ous
if the ending is -ate -> change to -ic
– if there are more than 2 ions in the series, prefixes “hypo” (less than) and “per” (more than) are used
NO3- (name and oxoacidic name & formula if applicable)
-HNO3 nitric acid
– polyatomic ions containing oxygen
– contain different numbers of oxygen
-are named by the number of oxygen in the ion
-if there are 2 in series, the one with more oxygen atoms ends in -ate
-the one with few ends with -ite
-more than 2 ions in the series, “hypo” and “per” are used
Ionic Compounds
-formed from cations and anions
-species that carry a net (+) or(-) charge
-most are solids with a high melting point
Monatomic ion
-single atom ion
-EX:K+, O-2, Al3+
Polyatomic ion
– two or more ions
Polyatomic ion: SO42-
Polyatomic ion:No3-
Polyatomic ion: NH4+
Polyatomic ion: OH-
Elements in the same group have…
-similar chemical and physical properties
A groups
-are the main-group elements
-also called the representative elements
B groups
-are transition metals
Crisscross rule
-the subscript on the cation is numerically equal to the charge of the anion and the subscript of the anion is numerically equal to the charge of the cation
Polyatomic ions
-groups of covalently bonded ions
Carbonate Formula
Hydrocarbonate or bicarbonate Formula
Nitrate Formula
Permaganate Formula
Phosphate Formula
Ionic compund rules and properties
-formula written in the empirical
-they are 3-D crystal networks
-formula tells cations to anions
-charges in ionic compounds MUST equal 0
Chemical forumlas
– express the composition of molecules and ionic compounds in terms of chemical symbols
-indicates number of elements and relative number of atoms in a compound
-change the number in a subscript and you change the compound
Ionic Compound naming rules
-write the name of the cation
-write the name of the stem for the anion and add the suffix “-ide”
Name the polyatomic ion: KNO3
-KNO3= potassium nitrate
Name the polyatomic ion: Fe(OH)2
– iron(II) hydroxide
Name the polyatomic ion: KNO2
– Potassium nitrite
Inorganic compounds
– formed from more than 3 elements
-one or more of the ions is polyatomic
Only metal liquid at RT
-mercury (Hg)
Only liquid nonmetal at RT
-bromine Br
11 gases at RT
-hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and
Naming Inorganic Compounds
-identify the ions
-name the cations in order given and follow with the names of the anions
Sodium Hydrogen carbonate
Sodium hydrogen sulfate
Transition metals
-uses the stock
Stock system
– for transition metals
-when a compound contains a metal that forms more than one cation, the charge on the cation or the metal is designated by a roman numeral immediately following the name of the metal
Transition metals naming rules
-Write the name of the cation
-write the charge of the cation as roman numerals in (…)
– write the stem of the anion and add “-ide”
Copper(II) oxide
Iron(III) chloride
Chromium(VI) sulfide
Classical nomenclature
-when a metaalic ion has only 2 types of cations, the name of the metal is modified with suffixes -ous (for the lower charge) and “-ic” (for the higher charge)
-contain only nonmetals
-are named using prefixes to indicate # of each element in the formula
-contain monatomic and polyatomic ions
-usually contain metals and nonmetals
-NEVER named using prefixes
-sometimes name with cation charge in roman numerals
Wedge-and-dash Model
-is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional
structure that can easily be drawn on paper
– bonds are represented by lines (bonds that lie in the plane of the paper)
-wedges (bonds that lie in front of the plane of the paper)
-dashes (bonds that lie behind the plane of the paper)
Ball and-stick Model
-shows atoms as colored spheres connected by sticks that represent
covalent bonds.
Space-filling model
-interpenetrating spheres represent the relative amount of
space occupied by each atom in the molecule
Most common covalent bond categories
-binary nonmetals and inorganic acids
Binary nonmetal compounds
-consist of only two elements, both nonmetals
– named using prefixes and -ide
Hydrogen peroxide
Nitric oxide
Inorganic acids
-form H+ ions when dissolved in water
-compounds that contain hyderogen and one or more nonmetals
Inorganic acids are named…
-like binary compounds but without prefixes
hydrogen halides are named… gas phase…aqueous phase….
-like binary compounds *when in gas form*
– are named with common names when aqueous
Metals in Groups 1A, 2A, and 3A form…. ions and there charge is
-equal to the group number of the element.
Nonmetals in Groups 5A, 6A, and 7A form….ions and there charge is
-equal to 8 minus the group number of the element.
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