Chem 1 – Chemistry

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Chemistry

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The study of change, study of matter and the changes it undergoes

*the making and breaking of chemical bonds  it properties, the energy associated with these changes

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The study of chemistry
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+establishing models

 

+models: explaining observed phenomena

-ball and stick

-statement

-equation

+macroscopic phenomena are caused by microscopic events

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Scientific Method
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Shows how models are built, a systematic approach to research

 

Observation->Representation->Interpretation->repeat

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hypothesis
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is a tentative explanation for a set of oberservations

 

Tested->modified->Tested->Modified

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Law
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is a concise statement of a relationship between phenomena that is always the same under the same conditions

 

ex: force: mass x acceleration

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Theory
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Is a unifying principle that explains a whole body of facts/ or those that are based ontheory

 

ex: atomic theory

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Big Bang Theory
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George Gamow (1940’s) The universe began w/ gigantic explosion (hypothesis)

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experimental report:

+expanding universe

+cosmic background radiation

+primordial helium

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Matter
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has mass ; volume – books, planets, trees, YOU!
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Composition of matter
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types and amounts of simpler substances within
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Properties

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characteristics identifying a substance

(physical and chemical properties)

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Compositions of matter
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*Element

*Compound

*Mixtures

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Element
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ON the periodic table, only one type of atom present

+ cant be broken down chemically

+ elements not found on table :graphite, diamond, ozone (all carbon)

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Compound
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Ex: water, sugar, salt

+at least 2 types of atoms (elements)

*break down chemically

* still have a constant composition

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Mixtures
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can’t be expressed by a formula 

 

Ex: coal, crude oil

*at least 2 types of atoms

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Mixtures vs. Pure Substances
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+chemists usually deal with mixtures

+ reactions deal mostly with pure substances

 

 

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Mixture types
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heterogenous: can see different parts (layers) 

ex: oil & water, sand & sulfer

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Three states of matter
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Solid

liquid

gas

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Solid
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definite shape and volume

+molecules held togehter , little

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Liquid
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Indefinite shape, takes a containers shape (does not fill)
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Gas
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indefinite shape & volume 

* molecules spaced apart, completely fill container (more dense, less dense)

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Physical
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Observed w/e doing a chemical reacion 

* color, melting pt, boiling pt, density 

(no breaking of chemical bonds)

ice melts-> water

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Chemical
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Chemical reaction must be done

* substance-> another substance

* Chemical bonds are broken and/or formed

* flammability corrosiveness

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Extensive Properties
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depends on how much matter is there

* mass 

* volume (how much matter you have)

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intensive property
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does not depend on amount of matter

*density

* temperature

*color

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Qualitative 
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cloud, warm, thick (no numbers!)
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Quantitative
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* need measurements

*number

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Quantitative
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Need mesurement

number

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SI Units (Metric System)
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Mass
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Kilogram : Kg
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Length
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Meter: m
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Temperature
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Kelvin : k
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amount of substance
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Mole, mol
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Dimensional Analysis Method of solving
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1. which unit conversions is/are needed?

2. Carry units through calculations

3. All units should cancel except for the desired

 

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carry units through caculation
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1.000 lb =
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453.6 g
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1 inch
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2.54 cm
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1.000 mi
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1.609 km
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1 qt
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0.946 L
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1 cm3
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1 mL
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1000 m 
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1 km
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1 lb
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16 oz
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3 ft
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1 yd
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1 mi
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5280 ft
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4 qt
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1 gal
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1000 m
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1 km
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NH4+
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ammonium
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H3O+
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hydronium
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CH3COO-

C2H3O2-

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acetate
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CN-
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Cyanide
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OH-
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hydroxide
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ClO-
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hypochlorite
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ClO2-
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chlorite
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ClO3-
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chlorate
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ClO4-
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perchlorate
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NO2-
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nitrite
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NO3-
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nitrate
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MnO4-
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permanganate
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CO3(2-)
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carbonate
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HCO3(-)
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hydrogen carbonate 
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CrO4(2-)
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chromate
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Cr2O4(2-)
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chromate
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Cr2O7(2-)
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dichromate
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O2(2-)
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peroxide
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PO4(3-)
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phosphate
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HPO4(2-)
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hydrogen phosphate
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H2PO4(-)
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dihydrogen phosphate
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SO3(2-)
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sulfite
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SO4(2-)
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sulfate
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HSO4(-)
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hydrogen sulfate
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Volume
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space taken up

*cm3

*1 mL= 1 cm3= cc

* 1m3= 100cmx100cmx100cm= 1,000,000 cm3 (not 100 cm3!)

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mass (weight)
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amount of matter

-kilogram (kg)

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Density
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*mass per unit volume

*lbs/in3

*g/l

*g/cm3

*water: 1 g/cm3

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Celsius to Kelvin
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K= C+273.15
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C= (F-32) 5/9
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Significant figures
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*any digit that is not a zero is signifcant

*zeros: between nonzeros: significant

*positive #: > 1: zeros to the right of the decimal: significant

*<1: “leading” zeros: not significant

 

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Significant figures 

Addition or subtraction

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*cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal pt than any of the original numbers
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Significant Figures

Multiplication & division

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*set by the number w/ the smallest number sign. figures
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Exact numbers
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infinite number of significant figures
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Why do we care about significant figures?
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they reflect accuracy
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Accuracy
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how close a measurement is to the true value
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Precision
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how close a set of measurement are to each other
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Fundamental laws
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*conservation of mass

* definite composition

* multiple proportion

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Law of conservation 
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Matter is neither created nor destroyed

*atoms cant be created, destroyed or converted into other kinds of reactions are the rearrangement of atoms

Ex: 16X + 8Y -> 8X2Y

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Law of definite composition (LDC)
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* Joseph Proust

* Break down water : 2:1: hydrogen :oxygen

* table salt 1:1 sodium: chlorine

Always same ratios

*Atoms combine in specific ratios 

*atoms have specific masses

-> each element has a fixed fraction of compounds mass

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Law of multiple proportions (LMP)
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* John Dalton

* Same kind of atom -> same mass

atoms are indivisible

*reactions:atoms combine in small, whole number rations

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The postulates
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1. all matter is made of atoms

2. atoms can’t become different kinds of atoms

3. atoms of one kind are identical ; different

from any other kind. Oxygen and gold are different atoms

4. compounds: combinations of atoms in specific ratios

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Rutherford’s model of the atom 
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atomic radius~ 100 pm= 1x10E-10

Nuclear radius~ 5x10E-3pm = 5x10E-15

*example of how small a nucleus is to the atom. “If the atom is the edward jones dome, then the nucleus is a marble on the 50 yd line”

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Electrons
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*negatively charged (-1)

– orbit atom nucleus

– very tiny

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protons
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+ positively charged (+1)

+ in nucleus

+ 2000 x electrons sz

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atomic number (z)
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number of protons
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Mass number (A)
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protons + neutrons
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isotopes
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are atoms of the same element (x) with different numbers of neutrons in their cuclei

 

*hydrogen is weird with isotopes (can have different amounts)

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Changing # of Particles
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* change # of protons: change identity of atom

* Change # of neurons: isotope (different physical properties)

* Change # of electrons: ion (later)

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Look at extra notess about postulates (rawr page)
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Organizing Elements

How periodic table is organized

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* Increasing atomic #

* Similar reactivity

* Row: Period

* Column: group (similar in reactivity)

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Row
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Period
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Column
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Group (similar reactivity)
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Group Name of 1A
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Alkali Metals
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Group Name of 2A
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Alkaline Earth Metals (reactive)
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Group Name of 7A
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Halogens (show up a lot)
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Group Name of 8A
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Noble Gases
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Group Name of 1B-8B
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Transition Metals
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Ion
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atom (or group) with a charge
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Cation
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Positive Charge

*Neutral atom and it loses electrons

*an ion with a net positive charge

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Anion
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* negative charge

*neutral atom gains electrons

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Ionic Compounds
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*Made up of charged particles of ions

* (cations and anions present)

* combo of + and –

* Sum of charges = Zero

* Formula empircal formula

Ex: Sodium Chloride

Sodium= +1

Chloride= -1

1:1 ratio

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Monatomic Ion
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*contains only one atom 

Ex: Na+, Cl-, Ca 2+

Metals positive, gas negative for ionic compounds

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Polyotomic Ion
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*contains more than one atom

Ex: OH-, NH4+, No3-

* Covalently bonded atoms

* Charged

* many atoms

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Monatomic ion: 1A
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+1
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Monatomic Ion : 2A
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+2
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Monatomic Ion : 3A
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+3
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Monatomic Ion: 4A
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-4
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Monatomic Ion: 5A
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-3
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Monatomic Ion: 6A
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-2
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Monatomic Ion: 7A
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-1
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Silver, Ag
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+1, 1B
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Zinc, Zn
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2+, 2B
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Cadmium,Cd
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2B, 2+
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Molecular Formula
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Number of & type of each element
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Empirical formula
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Simplest whole-number ratio

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