Chapters 1-8

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soft light/ misty
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The word sfumato
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stolen
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The Mona Lisa came to be at the Louvre Museum in Paris because the painting was ____.
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gold-leafed
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The Japanese sculptural group the Amida Buddha reflects the tastes of its aristocratic patrons by
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humans
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What subject in prehistoric cave art was rarely shown?
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fertility
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The early prehistoric sculpture, The Venus of Willendorf, is believed to have been ____.
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tribal art
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The art of any area of the world where people live or lived in a pre-industrial or pre-agricultural state is
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power and strength
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The purpose of a portrait of a king was to
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progress
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Futurism is a movement that celebrated
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visual poem
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Maya Lin called the concept of her design of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial
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chinese citizens
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Zhan Wang’s Urban Landscape is a comment on
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themselves
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The $21 million cost of The Gates by Christo and Jean-Claude were entirely funded by
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Frida Kahlo
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An artist who used the power of art to be self-expressive and cathartic after being in a terrible accident was
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childhood memories of Russia
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Marc Chagall’s artwork combines the influence of modern art with
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fine art
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Paul Klee’s Dance You Monster to My Soft Song! is an example of
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naive art
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Another word for folk art is
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craft/ decorative
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Jewelry and woven rugs are considered
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The Factory
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Andy Warhol produced work in his studio, which was known as
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Gustave Corbet
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Tony Oursler was referencing the nineteenth century artists __ in his work Studio: Seven Months of my Asethetic Experience (and then some).
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can be viewed from all sides
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Three-dimensional space
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reveals the action of the drawing
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A gestural line
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energy
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Diagonal lines in a work of art convey
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naturalistic
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Another word for organic shape
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a square
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An example of a geometric shape is
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abstract
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Simplified shapes are called ___ shapes.
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logic
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Geometric forms suggest
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light/dark
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Chiaroscuro in a work of art relates to
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created the illusion of paint by using light to create value.
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James Turrell’s artwork is surprising in that it
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texture
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If an object has a tactile quality, the object has
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neutral
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Black, white, and gray are considered
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white
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A tint is made by mixing a hue with
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Isaac Newton
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The discovery that white light creates the spectrum when refracted was done by
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adjacent
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Analogous colors are colors
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simultaneous
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If placed on a black background, an orange shape appearing reddish is an example of
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negative
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The empty space around an element in the picture plane is called the
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balance of life/ opposites
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The yin/yang symbol is a perfect balance of black and white, and it is a good example of
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equilibrium
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The visual weight in a work of art is affected by
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formal
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Another word for symmetrical balance is
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repetition
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The main way to create unity in a composition is by
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mathematical formula
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The Golden Mean is
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Mean, proportion, ratio, section
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The ratio 1:1.618 is known as the Golden __.
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reduce the width of the normal scale
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The modern sculptor Alberto Giacometti used proportion in his figurative works by
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General Services Administration (G.S.A.)
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The commission Richard Serra received for the sculpture Tilted Arc was funded by the
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120
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Tilted Arc was 12 feet tall and ___ feet long.
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dismantled
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The sculpture, Tilted Arc, was originally placed in the Federal Plaza in 1981, but it was ___.
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gets smaller
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In atmospheric perspective, what happens to the background the further back the depth goes?
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objects that are closer are placed at the bottom.
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How is depth implied in the Persian illuminated manuscript, The Court of Gayumars?
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Brunelleschy
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Linear perspective was discovered by the architect ___.
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vanishing point
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Th place where the lines of convergence end is called the __.
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the artist
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In linear perspective, what determines where the horizon line is located?
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mediums
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Artists’ materials, like oil paint or clay, are referred to as
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graphite is able to make similar lines and bold,dark, dramatic ones. It is also more conductive to creativity because metalpoint lines are nearly impossible to remove but graphite lines easily erase.
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Graphite sticks became popular among artist for the following reason(s)
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stick/ vine
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___ charcoal is created when wood is heated until only carbon remains.
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apply fixative
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When an artist works with charcoal, which can be easily erased, what can be done to ensure a permanent bond between the charcoal and the paper?
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Jean Antione Watteau
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__ is credited with having kept the first modern sketchbook, which was filled with a collection of the artist’s current ideas and interests.
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binder
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The substance that holds together the loose, dry pigment of pastels is referred to as the
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control is simpler and more direct
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According to the text, many artists like working in pastels because
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crayons
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___, which come in a variety of colors and degrees of hardness, have a waxy binder that enables them to adhere to paper better than charcoal or pastel.
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tall grass
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Pens have been in use since ancient times. The oldest pens were made from
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cross-hatching
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In ___, a series of parallel lines cross a netlike fashion as they describe the contours of the subject’s surface.
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Quill
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__ pens are made from bird feathers, and have been popular since the Medieval period.
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have to master the stroke
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Modern Chinese and Japanese artists continue to be trained in centuries-old brush techniques, which requires years of study because
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wash
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Diluted ink applied with a brush to add tonal values to a drawing is called a(n)
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erasing
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The essential part of William Kentridge’s drawing process is
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Kara Walker
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___ uses the silhouette to examine the conflict between images of slavery and romantic love in the South.
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gone with the wind
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The epic novel that served as a basis for Kara Walker’s work entitled Gone, An Historical Romance of Civil War as it Occurred Between the Dusky Thighs of Young Negress and Her Heart was
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wall-sized
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Kara Walker uses a folk art technique, traditionally used for portraits and small landscapes, yet the size of her own work is
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Cai Guo Quiang
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Which artist discussed in this chapter uses Japanese papers, gunpowder, and gunpowder fuses in their drawings?
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fervor and dangers of extreme nationalism
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When Cai Guo Quiang exploded a giant red flag on a Soviet-era truck, he stated that this symbolized
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a Chinese landscape painting of mountains and a waterfall in the sky.
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Cai Guo Quiang’s work at an air show in San Diego where he directed planes to draw a Chinese landscape, which then floated away, illustrates
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pigments + binder
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Paints is a combination of what two materials?
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surface
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The ground in a painting is the
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beeswax
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Encaustic painting uses ___ as a binder.
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fresco
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The most permanent painting medium is
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fresh
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The word fresco means ___ in Italian.
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adding several layers of glazes
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To create a modeled effect with tempera paint, values need to be built up by
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egg yolk
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The binder in tempera is usually
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chalk and animal glue
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Gesso is a white paste that helps to seal a surface and is made of
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wood
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The most common support for egg tempera is
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impasto
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Thick, stiff paint that creates a raised surface is called
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it dries so quickly
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Watercolors are often used for studies for larger works because
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chalk
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Gouache is essentially watercolor with ___ added to it.
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adheres to all surfaces
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Acrylic paint is a relatively new painting medium that
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soak and stain
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Helen Frankenthaler manipulated acrylic paint in the ___ method.
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Cubists
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Collage was legitimized as a fine art form by
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collage
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The technique of __ incorporates pasted paper.
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used perishable materials
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The art work of Vik Muniz deviates from traditional painting media in that Muniz
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edition
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The number of prints that an artists limits in one printing in called a(n)
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woodcut
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The first and simplest printmaking form is
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are the marks of various workers
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In Japanese printmaking, the characters at the sides of a print
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proper alignment
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Registration in printmaking means__.
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uses the engrain
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Wood engraving is different than wood cut in that wood engraving
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left uncut
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In a relief print, what prints is the area that was
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is the opposite of relief printmaking
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Intaglio printmaking
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China
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Paper was first invented in
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a tool for cutting and drawing
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Burins are
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Etching and aquatint
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The two printmaking processes that use acid to remove lines in metal plates are ___.
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japanese
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Mary Cassett was influenced by ___ prints in her work The Letter.
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to produce music sheets cheaply
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Lithography was first invented
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Bavarian stone
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The traditional material used as a printing plate in lithography is
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popular art
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The nineteenth century artist that helped to elevate color lithography to a fine art status was
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is copied from another image/print
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In contemporary art, an appropriated means that an image
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monotype
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The dark field is
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artist proof
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A single test print made by the artist to see what the image will look like when printed is called a
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camera obsura
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A(n)___ is a room-sized camera that was first used to study eclipses.
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daguerrotype
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The first permanent photographic image was called a
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Louis Daguerre
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The individual responsible for introducing the world to the first photographic image was a French painter named
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William Henry Fox Talbot
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The first photographic film using the \”negative-positive\” principle was invented by an Englishman named
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Julia Camera
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__ was a middle class Victorian wife and mother who attempted to capture the essence of beauty through her photographic portraits.
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prevents any unwanted light
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The function of the light-tight box that forms the main structure of a camera is
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aperture
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The___ is an adjustable opening that controls the amount of light entering the camera.
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kodak
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George Eastman introduced a box camera in 1887 called the
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Timothy O’Sullivan
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One of the pioneers of expeditionary photography, the precursor to landscape photography, who began his career as a Civil War photographer was
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Jacques-Henri Lartigue
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After receiving his first camera when he was seven years old, __ used it to record and hold onto the joys of upper-middle-class life in France before WW II.
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decisive moment
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Henri Cartier- Bresson is best known for capturing
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one who does not temper with the original
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A straight photographer is defined as
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documentary
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Authentic, unretouched photographs that record important social conditions and political events are called
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Stieglitz
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In 1902, the Photo-Secession group was founded by
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rayograph
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Man Ray created images by placing objects on photographic paper in a darkroom and then exposing the paper to light. He called these images
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photomontage
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The imaginative combination of photographic images in collages, an approach used by artists like Hannah Hoch, is called
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Sebastiao Salgado
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Contemporary photographer __ is best known for recording the plight of the poor and refugees at the turn of the twenty-first century.
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radioactive cats
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In the photograph ___, Sandy Skoglund constructed a set, clothed and posed models to create an image depicting a vivid fantasy of what the world might be like after a nuclear war.
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using enlarger by exposing only parts.
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Jerry Uelsmann creates his other worldy photographs such as Meditation Mystery by
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Eadweard Muybridge
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___ was a professional photographer who created exhaustive studies of figures and animals in motion.
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celebrate a new age and rejecting historical past
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Feeling the heavy burden of trying to create new art surrounded by the grandeur of Roman, Renaissance, and Baroque art, the Futurists saw the new age as the opportunity to
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kinetiscope
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The first motion picture camera was called the
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to shock and repulse the audience
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When Luis Bunuel and Salvador Dali created Un Chien Andalou, their goal was
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dreams of the unconscious mind
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Surrealist artists believed in an art that
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1950’s
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According to the text, television did not take its place as the center of American cultural life until the
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Nam June Paik
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The art for known as video art was originated by
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Bill Viola
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The Crossing, which highlights the artist’s belief that video is a medium that deals with movement, change, and transformation, was created by
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travel, water
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For Pipilotti Rist, the themes of __and___ are recurring ideas in her work.
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digital art
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The art form created with the aid of computer technology is referred to as
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whirlwind
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In the early 1950’s, an impressive demonstration of a ball bouncing and the playing of \”Jingle Bells\” was shown on CBS in 1951. This project from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was called
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plotters
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During the early stages of computer graphics, printing images too several hours and required expensive___,
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sketchpad
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In 1962, a graduate student at MIT, Ivan Sutherland developed a hardware and software system that included a nine-inch monitor and a light pen, which enabled Sutherland to draw directly on the screen. This hardware and software system is called
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1965
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The first exhibition of computer graphics was held at a gallery in Stuttgart, Germany in
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stylus
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When an artist prefers to creat their imagery by hand they can use a graphics or digitizing tablet rather than a mouse. To draw on the tablet, a pen or __ is needed.
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Maggie Taylor
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__uses a scanner like a camera to create images described as \”dream- like worlds inhabited by everyday objects.\”
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desktop publishing
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A revolution in graphic and type design began with a computer program called Adus PageMaker. This new approach to design and layout became known as
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Paul Pfeiffer
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___is an artist who is best known for editing video of sporting events by removing the athletes.
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Luxo Jr.
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John Lasseter’s first fully computer-animated film at Pixar was

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