Chapter Quizzes 1-16

Flashcard maker : Patricia Smith
The Wilmot Proviso of 1846 proposed that
slavery be prohibited throughout the entire area ceded by Mexico.
As the battle over the expansion of slavery intensified in the 1840s, Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan proposed the doctrine of \”popular sovereignty,\” a measure that would allow
people who settled the territories to decide whether or not they wanted slavery.
To reunite their party, the Whig strategy in the presidential campaign of 1848 was to nominate a
military hero and remain silent on the issue of slavery.
When Zachary Taylor became president in 1849, he enraged Southerners by
championing a free-soil solution to slavery by urging Congress to admit California and New Mexico to the union as free states.
The Compromise of 1850
was neither a true compromise nor a final settlement of all the issues it addressed.
The Fugitive Slave Act, part of the Compromise of 1850,
stipulated that all citizens were expected to assist officials in apprehending runaway slaves.
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) influenced Northerners’ attitudes toward slavery
because it was a compelling novel and a vehicle for a stirring moral indictment of slavery.
In 1853, the United States negotiated the Gadsden Purchase in order to
support the dream of a southern route for the transcontinental railroad.
In 1854, Stephen A. Douglas sponsored the Kansas-Nebraska Act and included a section repealing the Missouri Compromise because
he needed southern support to pass his legislation, the price of which was opening up the Nebraska territory to the possibility of slavery.
As a result of the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act, the
nation witnessed the demise of the Whig Party and the eventual rise of a system in which the Democrats dominated the South and the Republican Party was limited to the North.
The American Party, or Know-Nothings, appeared in the mid-1850s as
a reaction to large numbers of Roman Catholics coming to the United States from Germany and Ireland.
The common thread that wove together northern men into the Republican Party in 1854 was their
opposition to the extension of slavery into any territory of the United States.
When the first territorial legislature in Kansas met, it
enacted tough proslavery laws and prompted the organization of a rival government.
John Brown’s leadership of a massacre at Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas, led to
guerrilla war engulfing the territory.
Preston Brooks’s caning of Massachusetts senator Charles Sumner in 1856
further inflamed sectional passions over the institution of slavery and its future in the Republic.
In the 1857 Dred Scott decision, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that
Dred Scott could not legally claim violation of his constitutional rights because he was not a citizen of the United States.
In the mid-1850s, Abraham Lincoln’s search for a political home was based on his
opposition to the extension of slavery in the United States.
While Abraham Lincoln espoused a typical racial attitude for a white man of his day, he personally believed that slavery
was morally wrong.
Abraham Lincoln understood that humanitarian concerns for black people would not motivate Northerners to fight to keep slavery out of the territories, so he promoted the \”free labor\” concept by asserting that the territories were
excellent destinations for poor people seeking to improve their conditions.
In his 1857 campaign for reelection to the U.S. Senate, Illinois Democrat Stephen Douglas needed to overcome several challenges, including
his reputation as a racist.
When proslavery forces in Lecompton, Kansas, drafted a proslavery constitution in 1857 that many felt was fraudulent, Stephen A. Douglas
broke with the Buchanan administration and the southern members of his party by coming out against the proslavery constitution.
As a result of the Lincoln-Douglas debates,
Stephen A. Douglas won a senate seat, but Abraham Lincoln became nationally known.
When reflecting on John Brown’s raid on the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, most Northerners
concluded that his ideals couldn’t excuse violence.
. In 1860, Democrats meeting to choose a presidential candidate in Charleston, South Carolina, wound up
splitting the party into southern and northern factions over the issues of popular sovereignty and a federal code protecting slavery in the territories.
n the national crisis surrounding the presidential election of 1860, southern moderates refused to support the more radical members of the Democratic Party clamoring for a federal slave code. Instead, they
organized the Constitutional Union Party, a political party that had no platform.
In 1860, the increasingly confident Republican Party
expanded their platform to address other issues.
Abraham Lincoln became the Republican candidate for president in the election of 1860 because
he was a moderate on the volatile issue of slavery, demonstrated solid Republican credentials, and represented the crucial state of Illinois.
After Lincoln’s election, the vote to secede from the Union came first from
South Carolina
As the secession crisis loomed over the final weeks of the presidential administration of James Buchanan, his response was to
remain in Washington and do nothing.
In his first inaugural address, Abraham Lincoln was
reassuring and conciliatory toward the South on the issue of slavery but firm and inflexible concerning the perpetuity of the Union.
When the Civil War began, most Northerners viewed it as
a struggle to preserve the Union and uphold the Constitution.
On March 4, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln delivered an inaugural address in which he revealed his strategy to avoid disunion; that strategy was to
take measures to stop the contagion of secession and buy time in order for emotions to cool.
In 1861, armed hostilities between the North and South began officially with
Confederates firing on Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor in April 1861.
The border states of Missouri and Kentucky did not formally secede from the Union, but in these areas
a prosouthern minority remained sympathetic to the southern cause and sometimes resisted Union control.
Typically, Northerners viewed secession as
an attack on the best government on earth and a severe challenge to the rule of law.
Southerners believed they had a real chance of winning the Civil War based on
all of the above
When considering the wartime leadership of Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis, a central irony emerges in that
Abraham Lincoln brought little political experience to his presidency yet rose to the occasion to become a masterful leader, whereas Jefferson Davis, a seasoned politician, proved to be a relatively ineffectual chief executive.
The first battle at Manassas (or Bull Run) in July 1861 is significant because it
demonstrated that Americans were in for a real war, one that would be neither quick nor easy.
At the end of 1862, the eastern theater of the Civil War
had reached a stalemate.
The conflict between the Merrimack and the Monitor
marked the birth of the ironclad warship but had little impact on the Union’s conventional naval dominance.
Initially the Confederacy sought King Cotton diplomacy, a strategy based on the belief that
cotton-starved western European powers would be forced to enter the conflict by offering diplomatic recognition to the Confederacy and breaking the Union blockade to secure cotton.
When the Civil War broke out, President Lincoln chose not to make the conflict a struggle over slavery because he
doubted his right under the Constitution to tamper with the \”domestic institutions\” of any state, even those in rebellion.
In March 1862, Congress tilted toward emancipating slaves when it
forbade the practice of returning fugitive slaves to their masters.
On July 17, 1862, Congress adopted a second Confiscation Act, legislation that
declared all slaves of rebel masters \”forever free of their servitude.\”
Abraham Lincoln wrote the Emancipation Proclamation
because he considered emancipation to be \”a military necessity, absolutely essential to the preservation of the Union.\”
Among free black men of fighting age in the North,
most fought in the Union army.
From the beginning, the Confederacy faced formidable odds in pursuing its bid for independence; it had to succeed in
all of the above
Despite their ideological commitment to states’ rights and limited government, Confederate leaders
expanded their power by drafting soldiers into the Confederate army and confiscating large amounts of property for the war effort.
Aside from leading to the legal destruction of slavery, the Civil War itself helped destroy slavery in practice
by disrupting the routine, organization, and discipline necessary to keep slavery intact.
White Southerners’ greatest fear regarding their slaves during the Civil War was that they would
engage in violent revolt.
Slaves increasingly used the chaos and turmoil of the Civil War to whittle away at their bondage by
employing various means to undermine white mastery and expand control over their own lives.
In 1862, the Homestead Act
helped to encourage Westerners to be loyal to the Union.
While the North’s industrial production boomed during the Civil War, the working class there found that
inflation and taxes cut so deeply into their wages that their standard of living actually fell.
Dorothea Dix and Clara Barton are both known for their Civil War efforts as
nurses on the battlefield and behind the lines.
President Lincoln’s efforts to stifle opposition to the war
did suppress free speech.
What poor northern men found especially galling about the new draft law of 1863 was that
it allowed a draftee to hire a substitute or pay a $300 fee to avoid conscription.
Under Grant’s leadership, the war shifted in favor of the North and the Union armies
became a sophisticated and powerful war machine that continued to fight in the same bloody and ferocious manner.
The seige of Vicksburg in July 1863
was an important Union victory that opened up a large portion of the Mississippi River.
In strict military terms, the battle of Gettysburg in the summer of 1863
was a crucial turning point for Confederate armies because it proved to be the last time Confederates launched a major offensive above the Mason-Dixon line.
After his victory at Chattanooga, Tennessee, in 1864, General Ulysses S. Grant
launched a massive military campaign that would take his troops on a sweep through Virginia and get thousands of them killed in the process.
. In 1864, when General William T. Sherman stated that he intended to \”make Georgia howl,\” he was gearing up for
a scorched-earth military campaign aimed at destroying the will of the southern people.
President Lincoln’s determination to hold elections in 1864 is particularly noteworthy because
with the Union war effort stalled and many Northerners basically wearied by the burdens of the war, the Democrats had an excellent chance of ousting the Lincoln administration.
By the waning months of the war, Confederate soldiers were demoralized because
the toll of years of fighting, lack of supplies, and concern for their families had become too much.
General Robert E. Lee’s surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant near Appomattox Court House in Virginia on April 9, 1865,
ended the Confederate war effort, not because the South was out of troops, but because Lee’s surrender demoralized the armies remaining in the field.
The Civil War affected the United States by
establishing the sovereignty of the federal government and the dominance of industrial capitalism.
In the decades after 1820, the most important factor dividing the North and the South was
the existence of an ever-increasing number of slaves in the South.
After 1820, what caused slavery to become more vigorous and profitable, which in turn increased the South’s political power?
Cotton production expanded to the West.
The growth in the southern slave population between 1790 and 1869 occurred primarily because of
natural reproduction.
Southern whites of all classes were unanimous in their commitment to
white supremacy
Initially, the white South defended slavery as a \”necessary evil\”; eventually, however, southern intellectuals began to argue that slavery was
a positive good because it civilized blacks and brought them Christianity
The effect of the institution of slavery on southern society was that
whites were unified around race rather than divided by social class.
According to historians, a planter in the antebellum South may be distinguished from a farmer by virtue of his
owning at least twenty slaves.
Louisiana was dominated by plantations that cultivated
sugar
Before the Civil War, the southern economy was based on agriculture; the North developed a mixed economy based on
agriculture, commerce, and manufacturing.
Prior to the Civil War, why did the South remain agriculturally based instead of diversifying its economy?
Planters made good profits and feared that economic change would threaten the plantation system.
Because the South lacked economic diversity,
newly arrived European immigrants tended to settle in the North.
As late as 1850, there were no statewide public school systems in the South because
state legislatures failed to provide many essential services, and planters saw no need to educate their workforce.
Plantation owners often described the master-slave relationship in terms of \”paternalism,\”
a concept whereby a slave’s labor and obedience were exchanged for the master’s care and guidance.
As the price of slaves continued to rise, masters began to treat their slaves marginally better because
it was in the master’s best interest to treat his slaves well enough that they could have children.
Plantation mistresses were like slaves in that their husbands
demanded that they be subordinate.
The southern lady has been idealized in history; in reality
she could have the responsibility of managing servants, directing the slave hospital, and supervising the henhouse and dairy.
As a system, slavery by 1860 was
found in almost every skilled and unskilled occupation in the South.
When slaves became elderly, they
cared for small children, spun yarn, fed livestock, or cleaned stables.
There were several advantages to being a house servant in the old South; for instance, house servants
enjoyed somewhat less physically demanding work.
Central to slave life was the importance slaves placed on
family, religion, and community.
Planters in the nineteenth century promoted Christianity in the slave quarters because
they believed that the slaves’ salvation was part of their obligation and that religion would make slaves more obedient.
Among the ways slaves reacted to their bondage was
engaging in daily resistance such as feigning illness, breaking farm equipment, or playing dumb.
A widespread form of protest that particularly angered masters was
running away
Which of the following restrictions were placed on the 260,000 free blacks by 1860?
Free blacks were subjected to special taxes, prohibited from interstate travel, denied the right to have schools and to participate in politics, and forced to carry \”freedom papers.\”
Open slave revolts were uncommon in the South because
whites outnumbered blacks two to one by 1860 and were heavily armed, so rebels had almost no chance of success.
In 1860, the largest number of white Southerners
were nonslaveholding yeoman farmers.
Upcountry yeomen, who lived in the hills and mountains,
raised hogs, cattle, and sheep, and sought self-sufficiency and independence.
At the bottom of the social scale in the South were poor whites, who
worked ambitiously and hoped to move up and away from their miserable living conditions.
Southern plain folk, whether they lived upcountry or in the flatlands,
were more likely to attend a religious revival than a classroom lecture.
In the nineteenth century, southern politics were democratized, which meant that
a greater number of ordinary citizens voted, but yeomen and artisans were still only infrequently elected to the legislatures.
In attempting to establish a reconstruction policy after the Civil War,
Congress and the president disagreed about who had the authority to devise a plan of reconstruction.
Pardons granted to rebel soldiers under the terms of Lincoln’s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction were important in that they
restored property (except slaves) and political participation.
Members of Congress hoped Lincoln would not veto the Wade-Davis Bill because they wanted to
guarantee freedmen equal protection before the law.
Ex-slaves believed that ownership of land
was a moral right and was linked to their freedom.
\”Sherman land\” and the establishment of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
created an expectation among ex-slaves that they would become independent citizens and landowners.
Following emancipation, many ex-slaves aspired to
reunite family members sold away
Some ex-slaves who had formerly worshiped in biracial Methodist churches joined the African Methodist Episcopal Church, an all-black church from the North, because
they wanted religious autonomy and escape from white oversight.
Reformers were shocked by President Andrew Johnson’s quick reconstruction of ex-Confederate states because
his reconstruction plan seemed to contradict earlier statements in which he claimed a willingness to destroy the southern planter aristocracy.
Although Andrew Johnson had left the Democratic Party before becoming president, he seemed more a Democrat than a Republican as president because
he advocated states’ rights and limitations on federal power, especially in the economic realm.
Abraham Lincoln’s and Andrew Johnson’s reconstruction plans both promised reconciliation and the rapid restoration of civil government in the South; they also shared an emphasis on
pardons for most former rebel soldiers and ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment.
During the Reconstruction era, southern black codes
restricted freedmen’s economic opportunities and civil rights.
The black codes were essentially an attempt to
subordinate blacks to whites and regulate the labor supply.
The Civil Rights Act of 1866
made discrimination in state laws illegal.
The Fourteenth Amendment dealt with voting rights for blacks by
giving Congress the right to reduce a state’s representation in that body if the state refused to give all of its adult male population, including ex-slaves, the right to vote.
The voting rights provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment proved a major disappointment to
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and other advocates of female suffrage.
The impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson
effectively ended Johnson’s interference in reconstruction.
The Fifteenth Amendment
extended black male suffrage to the entire nation.
The constitutional amendment that prohibited states from depriving citizens of the right to vote on the basis of their \”race, color, or previous condition of servitude\”
was undermined by literacy and property qualifications in southern states.
The Ku Klux Klan developed into a paramilitary organization, but it began as
a social club for Confederate veterans who wanted to restore white supremacy.
As new constitutions were ratified in the South in the late 1860s, local and state Republican governments focused on
public education, the defense of civil rights, the abolition of racial discrimination, and the creation of a diversified economy.
The system of agricultural labor that emerged after 1865 often pitted ex-slaves and their expectations for freedom against former slave masters who wanted to restore the plantation system. In this struggle,
ex-slaves could decide who would work, for how long, and how hard, but still remained dependent
The system under which farmers rented small pieces of land, paid their rent with a portion of their crops, and were provided mules and tools by their landlord was known as
sharecropping
President Ulysses S. Grant’s administration saw
corruption at all levels of government, a severe economic depression, labor violence, and an attempt to annex Santo Domingo to provide the freedmen with a new home.
When southern Republicans pleaded with Congress for federal protection from the racism and violence of the Ku Klux Klan, Congress
responded by passing the Ku Klux Klan Act and the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
Supreme Court decisions in the years following the Civil War largely
undermined reconstruction.
In the Slaughterhouse cases (1873) and in United States v. Cruikshank (1876), the Supreme Court
restricted the ability of the federal government and Congress to protect individuals from discrimination by other individuals.
By the early 1870s, the congressional reconstruction goals of 1866
had been mostly abandoned by Northerners.
Redeemers were
southern Democrats who wanted to restore white supremacy in the South.
By the early 1870s, Democrats had adopted a two-pronged strategy to defeat the Republicans. That strategy consisted of
polarizing the political parties on the issue of color and relentlessly intimidating black voters.
In the presidential election of 1876,
the Democratic candidate won the popular vote but fell one vote short of victory in the electoral college, while the Republican candidate initially fell nineteen electoral votes short of victory.
In the Compromise of 1877,
southern Democrats accepted a Republican president in exchange for federal subsidies and the removal of federal troops from the South.
The Compromise of 1877 essentially
spelled the end of reconstruction and of the Republicans’ commitment to the civil rights of blacks.
Congressional reconstruction did not meet all of its goals, but among those it did meet were
the legacy of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments, and the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
Washington was elected president unanimously and gained the admiration of many Americans primarily because
he seemed to personify the eighteenth-century ideal of the disinterested republican political leader.
Washington chose which of the following men to be his secretary of the treasury?
Alexander Hamilton
In response to promises that had been made in order to obtain ratification of the Constitution, James Madison drew up the
first ten amendments to the Constitution, commonly called the Bill of Rights.
Which of the following was significantly omitted from the Bill of Rights?
the right to vote
In the new republic, traditional gender relations
remained largely unaltered from the norm.
American cotton production underwent a real boom in the late 1790s because of
market conditions and the invention of the cotton gin.
Alexander Hamilton publicly claimed that rolling the old certificates of debt into new government bonds would
infuse money into the economy and inspire citizens’ confidence in the government.
To restore faith in the credit of the federal government, Hamilton proposed
that the federal government assume the unpaid war debts of the states
The federal government’s decision to move its permanent home from Philadelphia to Washington D.C. came as a result of
controversy surrounding Hamilton’s proposal to assume the states’ war debts.
The main purpose of the moderate tariff that Hamilton proposed in his Report on Manufactures was to
protect and foster domestic manufacturing.
The Whiskey Rebellion
was a protest by grain farmers against the excise tax on whiskey.
To meet the interest payments on the national debt under his consolidation (\”assumption\”) plan, Alexander Hamilton convinced Congress to pass
a 25 percent excise tax on whiskey.
In response to the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794, President Washington
nationalized the Pennsylvania militia and led the effort to put down the revolt.
Alexander Hamilton viewed the Whiskey Rebellion as a(n)
serious threat to federal leadership within the country.
In 1794, General Anthony Wayne’s defeat of the Indians at Fallen Timbers resulted in
the Treaty of Greenville.
Which of the following goods offered to the Indians under the Treaty of Greenville was the most detrimental to the tribes?
liquor
What was President Washington’s first reaction to the war between England and France that began in 1793?
He issued a Neutrality Proclamation.
Which of the following best describes American sentiment regarding the English-French struggle in 1793?
Many Americans were angered by an official declaration of neutrality.
How did the Haitian Revolution of 1791-1804 affect white Americans?
They became fearful that the rebellion might spread to American shores.
The first signs of distinct rival U.S. political groups appeared
during Washington’s second term.
In his farewell address, President Washington spoke for a \”unified body politic\” and against
America forming permanent alliances with foreign countries.
In the 1796 presidential election, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson
ended up being president and vice president.
In the election of 1796, a procedural flaw resulted in the election of political rivals as president and vice president; this flaw was
corrected by passage of the Twelfth Amendment in 1804
. During President Adams’s one term in office, Vice President Jefferson
withdrew from active counsel of the president due to the influence of the Hamiltonian cabinet.
In the fall of 1797, in order to avert a war with France, President Adams
sent three men to negotiate peace with France.
X, Y, and Z were the code names for
three unnamed French agents sent by Talleyrand to meet with American commissioners.
The basic intent of the two Alien Acts passed by Congress was to
harass French immigrants already in the United States and discourage others from coming.
The Sedition Act targeted mainly
Republican newspaper editors who freely published criticism of the Adams administration.
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions put forth the novel idea that
states have the right to judge the constitutionality of federal laws and can nullify laws that infringe on liberties as defined in the Bill of Rights.
In the election of 1800,
party lines were drawn between Republicans and Federalists.
As the presidential election of 1800 played out in the House of Representatives, Federalist Alexander Hamilton supported Thomas Jefferson over Aaron Burr because
although Hamilton was no fan of Jefferson, he believed that Burr would prove far more dangerous to the republic should he be elected president.
The alleged plot by Gabriel, a 24-year-old slave, to stage a slave rebellion led white Virginians to
hang 27 black men for contemplating rebellion.
Thomas Jefferson made it a point to dress in plain, casual clothing to
make an important point about republican simplicity and manners.
According to Thomas Jefferson, the source of true freedom in America was the
virtuous, independent farmer who owned and worked his land both for himself and for the market.
President Jefferson believed that a properly limited federal government
ran the postal system, collected customs duties, staffed lighthouses, conducted a periodic census, and maintained federal courts.
In his last weeks as president in 1801, John Adams appointed his famous \”midnight judges\” as a way to
leave as many Federalists as possible in government positions as political counterweights to the incoming Republican administration.
The most lasting effect of Marbury v. Madison (1803) was
the Supreme Court’s action to disallow a law on the grounds that it was unconstitutional.
Events in the Louisiana Territory in 1802 alerted the United States to a potential national security problem, as
Spain had turned over the territory to France, which was then under the rule of powerful expansionist Napoleon.
The exploration of the Spanish and Indian territory west of the Mississippi River by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark was successful in
establishing good relations with many Indian tribes and collecting valuable information on the peoples, plants, animals, and geography of the region.
The Embargo Act of 1807 was passed by Congress to
forbid American ships from engaging in trade in any foreign port and thus make England suffer while preventing illegal trade through secondary ports.
The Embargo Act of 1807 affected the United States by
bringing U.S. exporting to a standstill, increasing unemployment, and seriously reducing government revenues.
Under the leadership of Dolley Madison, the White House
hosted members of Congress, cabinet officers, and other distinguished guests for weekly parties.
Women in early nineteenth-century Washington, D.C., played an important role in political circles
by influencing patronage, writing letters of recommendation, and shaping personal connections.
In negotiating the Treaty of Fort Wayne in 1809, William Henry Harrison angered the Shawnee chief Tecumseh by
negotiating with several Native American chiefs who had no legitimate claims to the land they ceded to the U.S. government.
The Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
prohibited trade with England and France and their colonies.
War Hawks were young congressmen who
were enthusiastic for expansion, ready to subdue Native Americans standing in the way of white settlement, and eager to declare war on England.
The war with Great Britain declared by Congress in 1812 was
passed by a vote that was divided along sectional lines.
When British soldiers entered Washington, D.C., in 1814, they
set fire to much of the city.
While Andrew Jackson’s defeat of the British at New Orleans cemented his status as a military hero, what he did not know at the time was that
the War of 1812 had been over for two weeks.
The Treaty of Ghent ending the War of 1812
actually settled few of the issues that had led to war.
The group that suffered the greatest losses in the War of 1812 was the
Indians
When faced with the opportunity to rewrite the laws of domestic relations, state legislatures generally
did little to change any laws relating to domestic relations.
By 1820, divorce in the United States
was the one aspect of family law that had changed since the eighteenth century and, while difficult to obtain, was possible in most states.
Jemima Wilkinson was an exhorting woman; specifically, she
dressed in men’s clothes and preached openly in Rhode Island and Philadelphia.
James Tallmadge Jr.’s amendments to the Missouri statehood bill of 1819 were controversial because their ultimate effect would have been to
make Missouri a free state
In the Adams-OnĂ­s Treaty, the United States obtained from Spain the territory of
Florida
In 1823, President James Monroe issued what became known as the Monroe Doctrine, a statement that the Americas
\”are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European power.\”
The presidential election of 1824 was complicated by
an unprecedented five candidates seeking the support of one political party.
The presidential election of 1824 was notable because it was the last
to be decided in the House of Representatives.
U.S. involvement in the War of 1812 encouraged economic growth in the
manufacturing sector, because the embargo and trade stoppages meant that American factories received a temporary respite from competition with the British.
Funding for transportation improvements in America between 1815 and 1840 came mostly from
private and state funding
The most horrifying hazard faced by people traveling on steamboats in the early nineteenth century was
being injured or killed by the frequent boiler explosions.
Steamboats had a detrimental effect on the environment because they
led to deforestation and air pollution.
Canals were an important innovation in the early nineteenth century because
they allowed cheaper transport by virtue of greatly increased loads
Employees of early textile mills in New England were
mainly young women who left rural farms and flocked to factory towns in the hope of gaining more autonomy.
For workers in early Massachusetts factories, wages were
low because workers were easily replaced.
In the economy of Jacksonian America, bankers
All of the above
Lawyers of the 1820s and 1830s created the legal foundation for an economy that gave priority to
ambitious individuals interested in maximizing their own wealth.
Because of their distrust of the economic elite, Andrew Jackson and many of his followers wanted to
end government support for business, thereby encouraging individual liberties and economic opportunities.
In large measure, the panic! of 1819 occurred as a result of
a contraction of the money supply and plummeting prices of commodities.
Between 1828 and 1836, the second American party system took shape; it
was, by 1836, a fully functioning, national, two-party political system.
An important transition in American politics took place during the Jacksonian era as
different campaigning tactics and increasingly democratic rhetoric made it necessary for candidates to appeal to common people.
One of the key elements in the political landscape of Jacksonian America was the upsurge of universal white male suffrage,
as most states abolished property qualifications for voting.
After 1828, political leaders considered the development of political parties to be
an effective way to encourage voter loyalty that transcended specific candidates and elections.
Andrew Jackson set an important political precedent when he selected his cabinet by
excluding members of political factions that were not loyal to him.
As president, Andrew Jackson favored
a limited federal government and the establishment of a federal Indian policy to remove the Indians.
In 1830, President Jackson convinced Congress to pass legislation that
forced Native Americans to relocate west of the Mississippi and opened up about 100 million acres of land for white settlers.
In Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the Supreme Court ruled that the
Cherokees in Georgia existed as \”a distinct community, occupying its own territory, in which the laws of Georgia can have no force.\”
The infamous Trail of Tears was
a 1,200-mile forced march by Cherokees who were expelled from their land.
In support of the doctrine of nullification, South Carolina’s leader pointed to
the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798.
A compelling reason underlying South Carolina’s argument for nullification in 1828 was that
a Northern-dominated federal government might decide to end slavery, which would threaten the very foundation of the South’s economic system.
Henry Clay wanted to force the issue of the renewal of the charter of the Bank of the United States before the presidential election of 1832 because he hoped to
force Andrew Jackson into an unpopular veto on the issue in order to secure support for Clay as president.
As a result of his lopsided win in the election of 1832, Andrew Jackson tried to
destroy the Bank of the United States before its charter expired, a process he began by removing federal deposits from the bank and depositing them in Democratic-leaning banks throughout the country.
A positive effect of the economic turmoil of Jackson’s second administration was that from 1835 to 1837, for the first and only time in U.S. history,
the government had a surplus of money.
After 1815, the idea of separate spheres and separate duties for men and women was strengthened by the fact that
men’s work was newly disconnected from the home and increasingly brought cash to the household.
The spread of public schools in the 1820s and 1830s made education more accessible to students and affected teaching by
initiating a shift toward hiring women as cheap instructors.
A typical pattern for boys not remaining on the farm in the 1820s and 1830s was to
leave school at the age of fourteen and become either an apprentice in a trade or an entry-level clerk.
The Second Great Awakening
brought forth an outpouring of evangelical religious fervor that offered salvation to the less than perfect.
The leading exemplar of the Second Great Awakening, Charles Grandison Finney, insisted that
Americans \”vote in the Lord Jesus Christ as the governor of the universe.\”
Alcohol consumption in America in the decades up to 1830 was
widespread, rising, and often tended toward abusive amounts.
By 1845, the American Temperance Union and other temperance advocates
had succeeded in decreasing alcohol consumption in the United States.
The nationally circulated Advocate of Moral Reform was a
newspaper published by women that took men to task for the sexual sin of frequenting prostitutes and perpetuating prostitution.
One of the most radical reform movements of the 1830s was the
effort to abolish slavery
In 1831, William Lloyd Garrison launched
the Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper advocating an immediate end to slavery.
Relatively few white Northerners got involved in the campaign to eradicate slavery because
even though they may have viewed slavery as counterproductive or immoral, they tended to be racists.
One of the precipitating causes of the panic! of 1837 was
that the Bank of England began call in loans made to American merchants.
In the presidential election of 1836, three Whig candidates ran against Democrat Van Buren
because each candidate had a solid popular regional base but none had the support of all regions.
Van Buren pushed for an independent treasury system, funded by government deposits, which would
deal only in hard money.
High rates of voter participation continued into the 1840s and 1850s because
politics remained the arena where different choices about economic development and social change were contested.
Angelina Grimké, Sarah Grimké, and Maria Stewart, women lecturers who conveyed a powerful antislavery message, encountered hostility in the North because
they affronted a rigid cultural norm by speaking in public and presuming to instruct men.
Andrew Jackson Home State
Tennesee
John C. Calhoun Home State
South Carolina
Martin Van Buren Home State
New York
Henry Clay Home State
Kentucky
John Quincy Adams Home State
Massamchusettes
One of the factors that fueled economic growth in the United States during the mid-1800s was
the movement of Americans from farms to cities, where they found jobs working in factories.
During the 1840s and 1850s, U.S. factories were able to become more productive because
steam engines began to be used as an energy source.
The population increased greatly in Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois between 1830 and 1860 because
the relatively treeless setting and rich soil made conditions favorable to farming.
Agricultural productivity in the Midwest increased in the late 1830s partly because of
John Deere’s steel plow.
Unlike European manufacturers in the first half of the nineteenth century, American manufacturers were spurred to invent labor-saving methods and devices because
workers were in limited supply and thus more expensive.
The growth of railroads in the 1850s
fostered iron production, coal production, and the telegraph industry.
The free-labor ideal affected attitudes toward education in mid-nineteenth century America because
education offered another opportunity for Americans to achieve their potential through hard work and self-discipline.
The free-labor ideal of the 1840s and 1850s
did not mesh with the economic inequalities of the times and led to a restless and mobile society.
Which of the following were among the reasons why immigrants left their homelands for the United States in the 1840s and 1850s?
famine and deteriorating economic conditions in their mother countries, along with the opportunities in America for skilled artisans
In contrast to the Germans, Irish immigrants in the 1840s and 1850s often
entered at the bottom rung of the free-labor ladder as wage laborers or domestic servants
In 1845, New York journalist and armchair expansionist John L. O’Sullivan coined the term manifest destiny, by which he meant that
Americans had the God-given right to expand their superior civilization across the continent.
The idea of manifest destiny gained considerable support because of
the American people’s strong desire for more land.
The increasing number of white settlers traveling west in wagon trains during the mid-1800s brought devastation to the Plains Indians because whites
brought with them alcohol and diseases like smallpox, measles, cholera, and scarlet fever.
Migration to Oregon
appealed to men more than women.
Mexico’s northern borderlands were vulnerable to American expansionists partly because
of sparse populations and hostile Native Americans.
Migrants who settled on the Texas land granted to Stephen F. Austin by Mexico in the 1820s were
Southerners who brought cotton and slaves with them.
In 1830, Mexico outlawed the introduction of additional slaves in Texas because
it hoped to discourage any more American settlers from coming to the area.
Texans gained their independence from Mexico in 1836
only after fierce fighting and much bloodshed.
Why did Congress refuse to annex Texas into the Union?
Texas would come into the Union as a slave state.
The dominant issue in the 1844 presidential election campaigns was
the annexation of Texas.
How was President Polk able to add Oregon to U.S. holdings?
He renewed an old offer to divide Oregon along the forty-ninth parallel, and the British accepted.
When Mexico refused the Polk administration’s offer to buy Mexico’s northern territories, the reaction of the United States was to
realize that it would take military force to achieve manifest destiny.
President Polk directed the war with Mexico personally; his strategy to win the war was
to occupy Mexico’s northern provinces and win a couple of major battles, after which Mexico would sue for peace.
President Polk’s battle strategy misfired because
Mexico refused to trade land for peace.
The Mexican-American War ended with the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which Mexico
gave up all claims to Texas above the Rio Grande and ceded the provinces of New Mexico and California to the United States.
In the late 1840s and early 1850s massive numbers of immigrants poured into California seeking
gold
The Gold Rush created a social environment that was
competitive, violent, and unhealthy, but growing rapidly.
In addition to some miners, the gold rush in California benefited
entrepreneurs who supplied the miners.
Members of the Oneida community
challenged sexual mores through the practice of complex marriage.
The convention at Seneca Falls in 1848 advocated
women’s rights and suffrage.
By 1860 women’s rights advocates succeeded in achieving
married women’s rights to their own wages and property.
. Abolitionists in the 1840s and 1850s made their issue more attractive to white Northerners by promoting
limitations on the geographic expansion of slavery.
In 1843, Henry Highland Garnet advocated
slaves rising in insurrection against their masters.
In 1855, African American leaders saw their most notable success to date when
public schools were integrated in Massachusetts.
Behind the scenes, Harriet Tubman and other free blacks helped fugitive slaves escape from the South
via the underground railroad.
The most important change in eighteenth-century colonial America was
phenomenal population growth.
In eighteenth-century America, the main sources of population growth and diversity were
immigration and natural increase
In the eighteenth century, the majority of immigrants coming to America were
Scots-Irish or slaves from Africa.
The colonial economy in the eighteenth century was unique because
the free population enjoyed a relatively high standard of living.
By 1770, New Englanders had only one-fourth as much wealth as free colonists in the South, in large part because
farms did not produce huge surpluses of cash crops in quantities necessary to become wealthy.
The commercial economy of New England was dominated by
merchants
Why were there so few slaves in New England during the eighteenth century?
New England’s family farming was not suited for slave labor.
Many Germans and Scots-Irish without passage money arrived in Philadelphia as \”redemptioners,\” who were
persons who had obtained money for passage from a friend or relative in the colonies or by selling themselves as servants once they arrived.
Which colony was known as \”the best poor Man’s Country in the World\”?
Pennsylvania
In the middle colonies of the eighteenth century, slaves
were not much needed on wheat farms, which operated mostly with family labor.
An early Pennsylvania policy encouraging settlement was
to negotiate with Indian tribes to purchase land, which reduced frontier clashes.
A result of the comparatively high standard of living in rural Pennsylvania and the surrounding middle colonies between 1720 and 1770 was that
the per capita consumption of imported goods from England more than doubled.
The dominant group in eighteenth-century Philadelphia society in terms of wealth and political power was
Quaker merchants.
Poor Richard’s Almanack mirrored the beliefs of its Pennsylvania readers in its glorification of
work and wealth.
The defining feature of the southern colonies in the eighteenth century was
slavery
In which southern colony did the black population outnumber the white population almost two to one?
South Carolina
The huge increase in the slave population in the South during the second half of the eighteenth century can be attributed to
natural increase and the Atlantic slave trade.
Southern planters tended to buy newly arrived Africans in small groups because
small groups of slaves ensured that newcomers could be trained by the planters’ seasoned slaves.
A \”country-born\” slave was one who
was born into slavery in the colonies.
The purpose of \”seasoning\” slaves was to
acclimate them to the physical and cultural environment of the southern colonies.
Southern masters preferred black slaves over white indentured servants because
slaves served for life and could be disciplined more harshly.
The Stono rebellion proved that eighteenth-century slaves
could neither overturn slavery nor win in the fight for freedom.
As the eighteenth century progressed, tobacco, rice, and indigo made the southern colonies
the richest in North America.
In the eighteenth century, the Southern slaveholding gentry dominated
both the politics and the economy of the South
An increased supply of items such as tobacco and sugar in eighteenth-century colonial America led to
a drop in prices and a resulting increase in the purchase of luxury goods by ordinary people.
The increasing presence of English goods in the colonial market in the eighteenth century
tied the colonists to the British economy while making them feel more British.
In colonial America, deists
were usually educated and followed the ideas of European Enlightenment thinkers.
The Great Awakening can best be described as a(n)
revival movement to convert nonbelievers and revive the piety of believers.
In addition to their competition for land, colonial settlers and Indians engaged in conflicts over
the fur trade
Colonial governors had difficulty gaining the trust and respect of influential colonists because
their terms of office were often less than five years, and they had little or no access to patronage positions.
The Seven Years’ War resulted from
a dispute between Indians, Virginians, Pennsylvanians, and the French over territory in the Ohio Valley.
The Albany Plan of Union, as proposed by Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Hutchinson, was
not approved by the colonies or by England.
The representatives of the Iroquois Nation at the Albany Congress
made no commitment to helping the British fight the French.
The turning point of the Seven Years’ War was most likely William Pitt’s
willingness to commit massive resources to the war.
The terms of the Treaty of Paris included
England receiving lands east of the Mississippi River, and Spain receiving lands west of the Mississippi River.
As a result of the Seven Years’ War,
Indians lost their land and had to face colonists moving west.
The Seven Years’ War taught colonists that
discipline within the British military was far more brutal than they had expected.
What effect did the Seven Years’ War have on England’s national debt?
The debt had doubled since William Pitt took office.
After the Seven Years’ War, the Earl of Bute decided to keep several thousand British troops in America, ostensibly to
maintain the peace between the colonists and the Indians.
The Proclamation of 1763 was meant to
prevent colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.
The Proclamation of 1763 was also meant to
keep the peace between Indians and colonists.
Growing colonial resentment of British authority during the 1760s could be attributed to
increased taxation and increased intrusion by Britain.
In 1764, in an effort to generate income for England, George Grenville initiated the
Sugar Act.
An important difference between the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act was that the latter
was an internal tax that few colonists could escape.
George Grenville claimed that Americans had \”virtual representation\” because
the members of the House of Commons represented all British subjects, wherever they were.
The Virginia Resolves suggested that
Virginia alone had the right to tax Virginians.
The Virginia Resolves, authored by Patrick Henry of Virginia, were a response to the
Stamp Act
The Stamp Act of 1765
set an ominous precedent in the eyes of the colonists.
The Sons of Liberty, protestors against the Stamp Act, organized a large demonstration that showed colonists
their ability to have a decisive impact on politics.
American opposition to the Stamp Act took the form of
burning an effigy of a stamp collector, breaking windows, and ransacking an official’s home.
In response to the colonial reaction to the Stamp Act, the British government
repealed the act but reaffirmed parliamentary power by passing the Declaratory Act
The Declaratory Act showed Britain’s refusal to compromise on Parliament’s power to tax because it
asserted Parliament’s right to legislate for the colonies \”in all cases whatsoever.\”
As chancellor of the exchequer in 1767, Charles Townshend
favored imposing taxes that would help pay off England’s war debt and make the colonists pay the cost of maintaining British troops in America.
In 1767, Charles Townshend enacted the Revenue Act, which
placed new duties on imported items such as tea, glass, lead, paper, and painters’ colors.
The Revenue Act of 1767
directed that some of the revenue generated from its application be used to pay the salaries of royal governors.
Many women demonstrated their patriotism during the anti-British boycott by
producing homespun cloth.
Mounting tensions between Bostonians and British soldiers in early 1770 led to the Boston Massacre,
a skirmish in which five people were killed.
Which of the following statements best characterizes the Boston Massacre of March 5, 1770?
It was over in minutes, and the British regiments were then moved to an island in the harbor for their protection.
John Adams, cousin of Samuel Adams, represented British captain Thomas Preston and his soldiers who were involved in the Boston Massacre to
show that the Boston leaders were defenders of British liberty and law.
In the early 1770s, several incidents brought the colonies’ conflict with England into sharp focus, including the
burning of the Gaspée.
The Gaspée incident of 1772 caused many towns in Massachusetts and in other colonies to set up a communications network of standing committees known as
\”committees of correspondence.\”
According to the British, the major purpose of the Tea Act of 1773 was to
boost sales for Britain’s East India Company.
Dissenting colonists believed that the real goal of the Tea Act of 1773 was to
generate increased revenue to pay the salaries of royal governors and judges—a reminder of Parliament’s taxation and legislative powers
Bostonian reaction to the Tea Act culminated in December of 1773 with the
dumping of thousands of pounds of tea into Boston harbor.
The Coercive Acts, passed by Parliament to punish Massachusetts, included
a law closing Boston harbor until the destroyed tea was paid for.
The Quebec Act affronted many Americans because it
gave Roman Catholic Quebec control of the Ohio Valley
The Coercive Acts (or Intolerable Acts) spread alarm among the colonists, who feared that
their liberties were insecure.
Delegates to the First Continental Congress
sought to identify their liberties as British subjects and debated possible responses to the Coercive Acts.
The First Continental Congress
denied Parliament’s right to tax and legislate for the colonies but acknowledged its authority to regulate their trade.
The First Continental Congress created the Continental Association, whose purpose was to
enforce a staggered and limited boycott of trade.
Early in 1775, as royal authority collapsed in Massachusetts, General Thomas Gage
realized the seriousness of the situation and requested twenty thousand additional troops from England.
General Gage planned a surprise attack on an ammunition storage site in Concord
because he was ordered to quell the dissenters before they became more organized.
The first shot at Lexington was fired by
an unknown person.
Following the battles of Lexington and Concord, Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia, issued a proclamation
promising freedom to defecting, able-bodied slaves who would fight for the British.
The Daughters of Liberty urged women to participate in public affairs and protest the Townshend duties by
participating in nonconsumption agreements.
About a month after the skirmishes at Lexington and Concord, delegates from all of the colonies met to discuss their course of action at the
Second Continental Congress
The initial goal of the Second Continental Congress was to
raise and supply an army and negotiate a reconciliation with England.
In 1775, most of the delegates to the Second Continental Congress remained reluctant to break with Britain because they
worried about the loss of Britain’s military support, the effect on their economies, and political stability.
Continental dollars were
merely paper backed by no precious metals.
The battle of Bunker Hill
was a costly victory for the British.
When George Washington took control of the Continental army, he found
enthusiastic but undisciplined troops.
The Olive Branch Petition of July 1775
affirmed loyalty to the monarch, blamed Parliament for all the troubles, and asked that American colonial assemblies be recognized as individual parliaments.
The author of the radical pamphlet Common Sense
called for independence and a republican government.
Revisions to the Declaration of Independence included those made by GA and SC, which removed
the issue of slavery
When New York delegates endorsed the Declaration of Independence on July 15, 1776, it meant that
the resolution for independence had passed unanimously.
One of the main obstacles the British army faced in the Revolutionary War was
the logistics of supplying an army with food and supplies across three thousand miles of water.
The British goal in fighting the war in America was to
regain colonial allegiance, not to destroy the colonies.
In order to raise the necessary troops for the Continental army, the congress
offered a bonus for enlistment and land grants to those who committed for the war’s duration.
Women served in the Continental army by
performing domestic tasks and nursing the wounded.
As manpower needs in the Continental army increased,
free blacks were welcomed into service in the northern states.
One of the many weaknesses of the Continental army was that
it was inexperienced and undermanned.
The American strategy in the war with Britain was to
turn back the British and defeat their invading armies.
The British strategy in the war in America was to
recapture the thirteen colonies in a divide-and-conquer approach, with loyalist help.
The American goal of capturing Montreal and Quebec early in the war
showed that the Americans were not just reacting to the British invasion of Massachusetts.
In one of the early battles of the war, the battle of Long Island,
British troops led by General Howe forced the Americans to retreat to Manhattan Island.
The Continental army enjoyed its first victory over the British on Christmas night in 1776, when the Americans
crossed the Delaware River to surprise the Hessians at Trenton.
The most visible and dedicated loyalists (also called Tories by their enemies) were
local judges, customs officers, wealthy merchants, and urban lawyers.
During the Revolutionary War, Indian tribes
first hoped to stay neutral, but many ended up fighting on the British side.
Treasonable acts, as defined by state laws in 1775 and 1776, included
joining the British army or supplying it with food or ammunition.
During the Revolution, the Continental Congress and various states issued paper money, which resulted in
devaluation of the money and escalating prices.
Well into the Revolutionary War, the Continental Congress was forced to procure supplies and labor and to pay soldiers by
offering land grant certificates and issuing certificates of debt.
When British troops under General Howe captured Philadelphia in September 1777, the British government
proposed a negotiated settlement that did not include American independence
Continental army morale during the winter of 1777-78 was
low because corruption was undermining the patriots’ cause.
Relationships between Americans and Indians during the Revolutionary War were increasingly characterized by
hostility and violent anti-Indian campaigns.
Burgoyne’s defeat at the battle of Saratoga was a decisive moment in the Revolutionary War because it
brought France into the war on the side of the patriots.
After the American victory at Saratoga, France allied with the Americans because it
saw an opportunity to defeat England, France’s archrival.
In their campaign in the South, beginning in 1778, the British
captured Georgia and South Carolina and dealt General Gates a devastating defeat at Camden, South Carolina.
In the final phases of the Revolutionary War, the British
attempted to recapture the southern colonies and place loyalists in power.
News of Benedict Arnold’s treason
inspired renewed patriotism in America.
After Gates’s defeat and Arnold’s treason,
England’s southern campaign faced small bands of American guerrillas fighting a series of fierce battles in the southern backcountry.
After Cornwallis achieved the upper hand in Virginia, the picture changed dramatically because
the French gave military support to Washington.
The most decisive factor in ending the Revolutionary War at Yorktown was
the French forces taking control of the Chesapeake, thus commanding the bay and the coasts of Virginia and North Carolina.
By the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1783,
the British acknowledged that the United States were \”free Sovereign and independent States.\”
For the Indians, the peace that began in 1783
meant displacement and only a temporary lull in fighting.
The British lost the Revolutionary War partly because
of America’s alliance with France, which provided artillery and ammunition, fresh troops, and naval support.
Under the Articles of Confederation, the confederation government lacked
an executive and judicial branch as well as the power to levy taxes.
Under the Articles of Confederation,
each state had a single vote in Congress.
The Articles of Confederation were finally approved in 1781 when all the states agreed to surrender their
claims to western lands.
Most of the new states spelled out their citizens’ rights and liberties in written contracts because
the unwritten nature of British political traditions led to Americans being denied liberties they had assumed they possessed.
A shared feature of all the state constitutions drawn up during the American Revolution was
the conviction that government rests on the consent of the governed.
In devising their new constitutions, most states
reduced the powers of the governor.
Virginia’s constitution was the first to
include a bill of rights.
Writers of the new state constitutions believed that voting requirements should
include property ownership because property owners had independence of mind.
Which state allowed free blacks and women to vote in the early years of the republic?
New Jersey
Some states were reluctant to include \”equality language\” in their bills of rights and constitutions because
they were afraid the words could be construed to apply to slaves.
In the quarter century after 1775, legislatures provided for the immediate or gradual abolition of slavery in
most northern states.
Factors leading to the postwar depression that began in the mid-1780s included
huge state and federal war debts, private debt, and rapid expenditure.
Robert Morris proposed to increase the revenue of the confederation government by
passing a 5 percent import tax (called an impost).
In the land ordinances of 1784 and 1785, Congress
set out a rectangular grid system for surveying land and established township perimeters.
Under the Ordinance of 1785’s guidelines for land sales in the Northwest Territory, land would be sold
by public auction at a minimum purchase price of a dollar per acre and in minimum parcels of 640 acres each.
The most serious obstacle to settlement in the Northwest Territory was
clashes with the Indian tribes that occupied the land.
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory.
Shays’s Rebellion of 1786 was the result of
increased taxes on farmers in Massachusetts.
Massachusetts responded to Shays’s Rebellion with a
dispatch of a private army of militiamen.
The major legacy of Shays’s Rebellion was
the realization that the Articles of Confederation were inadequate and thus a reworking of national government was needed.
The delegates to the Constitutional Convention in 1787 generally
were concerned about the weaknesses in the government under the Articles of Confederation.
The fundamental issue raised at the Constitutional Convention was
how to balance the conflicting interests of large and small states.
At the Constitutional Convention, the proposal to create a two-chamber legislature, with representation in both houses based on each state’s population, was known as the
Virginia Plan.
The major objection to the Virginia Plan by the smaller states at the Constitutional Convention was
that the representation of the states in both houses of the congress would be based on population.
The New Jersey Plan proposed at the Constitutional Convention
called for a one-chamber legislature in which each state would have one vote.
The Constitutional Convention deadlocked over the issue of
representation.
As a part of the Great Compromise, delegates at the Philadelphia convention agreed
on a lower house whose seats would be apportioned on the basis of population, and an upper house—the Senate—that would have two senators per state.
At the Philadelphia convention, which of the following was the compromise reached on the issue of who counted as population for the purpose of deciding representation?
Slaves were counted under the three-fifths clause
When the Constitution was drafted, slavery was
not named, but its existence was recognized and guaranteed.
In a new distinction between democracy and republicanism, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention
gave a direct voice to the people only in the House.
To create a presidency out of the reach of direct democracy, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention
devised the electoral college.
Before the Constitution could go into effect, it had to be ratified
by ratifying conventions in nine of the thirteen states.
The Constitution most clearly shifted the balance of power in favor of
national over state governments.
Pro-Constitution forces called themselves
Federalists
The first state to ratify the Constitution was
Delaware
Antifederalists were united mainly by
their desire to block the Constitution.
Antifederalism in New York centered on
the state’s size and power in relation to the new federal government.
The authors of the series of essays known as The Federalist Papers originally wrote them
as newspaper articles detailing the failures of the Articles of Confederation.
In essay number 10 of The Federalist, James Madison maintained that the constitutional government would
prevent any one faction from subverting the freedom of other groups.
The core of Antifederalists’ opposition to the Constitution centered on
fear that distant power might infringe on people’s liberties.
Which of the following does not accuarately describe the work of a historian?
historians seek artifacts over written documents to determine the attitudes of a people
though ancient americans lacked writing skills they
use dmany other kinds of symbolic representation
modern archaeologists study ancient peoples by
combining a variety of apporaches that include the study of artifacts and attention to environmental factors
although the exact time people began migrating to Noth America is debated by experts, the first migrants probably arrived
around 15,000 BP
after their arrival in the western hemisphere, paleo-indians migrated to the southern tip of south america and virtually everywhere else in the western hemisphere within approximately
1000 years
about 11,000 years ago the paleo-indians faced a major crisis because
the large aninmals they hunted had difficulty adapting to a warming climate
the apparent uniformity of the big-game-oriented clovis culture was replaced by great cultural diversity in the last eleven millenia because people devoted more energy to
foraging, which pushed them into other natural environments and lef to more profound environmental adaptations
in 1492, native american cultures were
so varied that they defy easy and simple description
archaic indians who hunted the bison herds of the great plains were
nomads who moved constantly to maintain contact with their prey
the most important source of food for archaic peoples inhabiting the great basin was
plants
the primary reason native people in california remained hunter and gatehrers for hundreds of years after europeans arrived int he western hemisphere was that
both land and ocean provided an abundant food supply
the cultures of the archaic peoples of the eastern woodland were shaped by their
forest environment
which of the following imporatnt changes occurred among the woodland cultures around 4000 bp
they incorporated agriculture and pottery making into their hunting-gathering lifestyle
corn became a food crop for southwestern cultures around
3500 bp
hohokam settlements utilized irrigation canals
to plant and harvest crops twice a year
multistory cliff dwelling and puevlos are residential atructures associated with the
anasazi communities
anasazi culture disappeared
because of a drought that lasted more than fifty years
burial mounds and chiefdoms are associated with
woodland cultures
archaeologists believe that the first ancient woodlan moun builders were organized into cheifdoms because
the impressive organization used in building the mounds and th aritfcats found within them suggest that the power to cmmand labor from others was in the hands of one person
the analysis of grave goods in burial mounds at hopewell sites shows that in this chiefdom at least
burial was reserved for the most important members of society
cahokia near present day st. louis missouri was
the largest mississippian site
scholars speculate that hopewell culture declined
because farming and new weapons encouraged local autonomy and made central authority unnecessary
at the time of columbu’s arrival in the new world the population of native americans in north america is prudently estimated to have been
4 million
in 1492 the population density of north america was
much less that of england
tha athapascan tribes mainly apache and navajo were
skillful warriors who preyed on the sedentary pueblo indians
around the time europeans arrived in the new world most native americans obtained much of their food
through a combination of hunting and gathering and farming
the greatest similarity among the many tribes that inhabited orth america at the dawn of european colonizatio was that
their distinct cultures had developed as adapations to their local natural environments
in ad 1492 the empire of the mexica
encompassed up to 25 million and became enriched by redistributing the wealth of those they conquered
the group that held the most exalted position in mexican society was
warriors
the mexica used an extensive tribute system to redistribute wealth from
poor, the common, and the conquered to the rich, the noble, and the conquerors
The government of which country sponsored Christopher Columbus’s 1492 exploration?
Spain
While it was catastrophic that the bubonic plague killed about a third of Europe’s population, it was beneficial in that it one major long-term consequence is that it
eased pressure on food resources and created greater opportunities for advancement.
Factors that encouraged exploration and territorial expansion included
technological advances in navigational instruments and monarchs who hoped to enlarge their realms, enrich their dynasties, and magnify their power and prestige.
The first European nation to attempt to break the Italian monopoly on trade with the Far East in the fifteenth century was
Portugal.
The most influential advocate of Portuguese exploration was
Prince Henry the Navigator.
Which of the following countries first navigated a sea route from Europe to Asia?
Portugal
A sea route to Asia impacted Europe in important ways, greatly influencing exploration and
destroying the monopoly that Mediterranean merchants had on Asian marketplaces.
When Columbus first arrived in the New World, he believed he was in
the East Indies.
When Columbus returned to Spain in 1493 Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand were
overjoyed to hear that he had discovered new lands.
The Tainos shared which of the following traits with the Europeans?
They farmed, knew how to build boats, and held religious beliefs.
If you were a statesman in the early to mid-1500s and followed the news of Columbus, you might argue that his most important contribution was
proving that it was possible to sail from Europe to the western Atlantic and return to Europe.
The Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal in 1494
drew an imaginary line down the Atlantic Ocean—territory west of the line belonged to Spain, and territory east of the line belonged to Portugal.
John Cabot was sponsored by the English monarch to search for a \”Northwest Passage\” to the Indies. Which area did he manage to reach and claim for England?
Newfoundland
The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvars Cabral accidentally made landfall on the coast of
Brazil
In the early 1500s, Martin WaldseemĂŒller was among the very first to understand that
the discoveries of Columbus, Balboa, and Vespucci proved there was a continent that existed separate from Europe and Asia.
Magellan’s circumnavigation of the globe left no doubt that America was separated from Asia by an enormous ocean. His voyage
convinced Europeans that a westward passage to the East was not a feasible route.
The transatlantic exchange of goods, people, and ideas between the New World and Europe is referred to as the
Columbian exchange.
Contact and trade between the peoples of the Old and New Worlds
exposed Indians to devastating Old World diseases.
HernĂĄn CortĂ©s’s dominance over Mexico was most significant because it
served as a model for future colonization and made Spain the most powerful nation in Europe.
A fourteen-year-old Indian girl named Malinali provided invaluable assistance to Hernån Cortés by
serving as an interpreter and a cultural broker.
Hernån Cortés was eventually able to defeat the Mexicans in 1521 by enlisting the help of
tens of thousands of Indian allies who favored the destruction of Mexico.
In 1517, Martin Luther publicized his criticism of the Catholic Church. The theological differences between Luther and the Catholic Church centered on
how salvation could be gained.
The grandson of Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain became King Charles I in 1516. He and his successors used the wealth of New Spain to
consolidate the largest empire in Europe and to fight religious wars with Protestants and Muslims
The first permanent European settlement within what would become the United States was
St. Augustine, Florida
The deaths of millions of Indians affected Spain
greatly. The lack of natives created a labor shortage that led to the purchase of African slaves.
Like many other European colonies in the New World, New Spain developed a pattern of social organization in which
Europeans became a dominant minority in a society stratified by race and social origin.
A new social class was made up of children who were born in the Spanish New World to parents who had emigrated from Spain, referred to as
creoles.
The gender and number of Spanish settlers in New Spain created a society in which
Spanish men frequently married Indian women and a class structure emerged with only 1 to 2 percent of the population dominating.
Between 1492 and 1592, the approximately 225,000 Spaniards who settled in the colonies were made up primarily of
poor young men of common lineage who were artisans, laborers, soldiers, and sailors.
After 1540, the most important economic activity in New Spain from the Spanish viewpoint was
silver mining.
King James’s land grant to the Virginia Company of over 6 million acres and everything they might contain was in essence a(n)
royal license to poach on Spanish claims and on Indian lands.
Only 38 of the 144 Englishmen who made the first voyage to what would become Jamestown, Virginia, survived the first year. This high mortality rate is explained primarily by
malnutrition, disease, and the failure to let go of traditional notions of class and labor.
Powhatan and his people were suspicious of English intentions because the colonists
often resorted to violence in their interactions with Indians.
The majority of the original settlers who came to Jamestown and the Virginia colony were
gentlemen and their servants.
Compared to the Spanish colonists in the New World in the sixteenth century, the English of the Virginia Company
expressed less concern for the conversion of the Indians to Christianity.
The Virginia colony in 1607 could have better survived had the colonists
been willing to learn how to farm.
Because of the success of the Virginia colony, Powhatan’s people
were almost exterminated.
King James revoked the Virginia Company charter and made Virginia a royal colony in 1624. Factors contributing to this decision included
Powhatan’s uprising and an investigative report showing that disease and mismanagement were responsible for high mortality rates among colonists.
The crop that turned Virginia into a stable colony was
tobacco.
If you wanted to become a highly profitable tobacco farmer in the 1600s in Virginia, the biggest obstacle you were most likely to face was
a lack of workers
Most hired workers
earned in one year in Chesapeake tobacco fields what they earned in two or three years of labor in England.
A servant labor system in the British colonies was created by
the New World’s labor shortage and the poverty of Englishmen who were willing to work.
After a servant served his or her indenture, an employer was required to give him or her
freedom dues.
Indentured servants tended to be
poor young men born in England.
Indentured servants could have their servitude extended by years if they
stole, became pregnant, or ran away.
Masters in the Chesapeake were so hungry for labor that they
did not hesitate to devise legal ways to extend the time their servants owed them.
Lord Baltimore received 6.5 million acres in the Chesapeake region and created the colony of Maryland as a refuge for Catholics;
however, the majority of settlers there were Protestants, few of whom were as wealthy as the Catholics, and conflict existed between the groups.
The term yeoman planter refers to a
farmer who owns a small plot of land that is worked primarily by himself and his family.
The decline in the price of tobacco in the third quarter of the seventeenth century contributed to the
end of the rough frontier equality within the Chesapeake population.
Mercantilism was a(n
economic policy that places the welfare of the mother country above the welfare of the colonies.
Bacon’s Rebellion erupted in 1676 as a dispute over Indian policy and ended as a conflict between
the planter elite and small farmers.
Nathaniel Bacon distressed the royal government and the elite planters of Virginia because his demands
threatened to transfer power from the traditional establishments to newcomers and small farmers.
After Bacon’s death,
royal officials removed Berkeley and nullified Bacon’s Laws.
The Spanish colonial outposts in New Mexico and Florida
stagnated and primarily attracted missionaries.
The slave labor system that was introduced to the Chesapeake was \”exported\” from
Barbados
By 1700, the British Caribbean annually exported nearly 50 million pounds of
sugar.
It is important to study the economy and slave labor system of the Caribbean sugar islands because it helps us better understand
that the West Indies had a direct influence on the development of slavery and plantations in Carolina.
The profitable export crop that depended on the expertise of slaves brought from West Africa to Carolina was
rice
Until the 1670s, almost all Chesapeake colonists were English. By 1700, one out of eight persons in the region was
African.
For planters, a slave labor system had important advantages over a servant labor system because slaves
could be controlled politically.
Roger Williams was
a vocal dissenter in early Massachusetts who challenged the religious and political leadership of the colony’s powerful men.
As Roger Williams spent a great deal of time with Native Americans, he believed that
Indian religion and culture was as good as that of the Puritans.
New England Puritanism owed its religious roots to the
Protestant Reformation of the early sixteenth century.
King Henry VIII saw in the Protestant Reformation the opportunity to
make himself the head of the church in England.
English Puritans rejected Catholic rituals and instead emphasized
introspection and a personal relationship with God.
The English monarchs James I and Charles I
enforced conformity to the Church of England.
The charter of the Massachusetts Bay Company was unique because it
contained a feature that allowed the government of the company to be located in the colony rather than in England.
The Puritans who founded Massachusetts Bay colony
had not broken completely with the Church of England and had no use for the Separatist beliefs of some of their fellow Englishmen who earlier had founded the Plymouth colony.
According to John Winthrop’s sermon aboard the Arbella, the Puritans had \”entered into a covenant\” with God, meaning that they
had been uniquely chosen to do God’s special work of building a holy community as an example to others.
The migration to Puritan New England included
a greater number of complete family units than most groups of immigrants in American history.
The Puritan doctrine of predestination held that before the creation of the world, God had decided who would achieve salvation, that nothing one did could alter one’s fate, and that
very few deserved or would achieve eternal life.
Puritan communities in the first half of the seventeenth century could be characterized by
a high degree of conformity in community members’ views on morality, order, and propriety.
The New England town meeting
brought together a town’s inhabitants and freemen in an exercise of voting and popular political participation that was unprecedented elsewhere during the seventeenth century.
Because of the seventeenth-century New England land distribution policy, towns
tended to consist of centrally located family homes and gardens surrounded by agricultural land.
Anne Hutchinson’s emphasis on the \”covenant of grace\” stirred religious controversy in early Massachusetts because
it was feared she was disrupting the good order of the colony.
In the seventeenth century, Puritan churches
experienced a growing number of divisions over issues of doctrine and church government.
The seventeenth-century New England economy mainly consisted of
subsistence farming mixed with fishing and timber harvesting for markets in Europe and the West Indies.
New England’s population continued to grow steadily during the seventeenth century primarily due to
a relatively high birthrate coupled with a climate that helped many children survive and live into adulthood.
By the 1680s, New England’s religious consensus had weakened to the point that
only 15 percent of adult males were church members in some towns.
The Halfway Covenant was a
measure instituted by Puritan leaders in 1662 allowing the unconverted children of visible saints to become halfway church members, a measure meant to keep communities as godly as possible.
Members of the Society of Friends, or Quakers, believed that
God spoke directly to each individual through an \”inner light\” and that neither a minister nor the Bible was necessary to discover God’s word.
King William’s War, an attack by Great Lakes and Canadian French forces on villages in New England and New York, demonstrated to the American colonists that
English military protection from hostile neighbors was still very valuable.
Witch trials in seventeenth-century New England signaled
an enduring belief in the supernatural origins of evil and gnawing doubt about the strength of Puritan New Englanders’ faith.
The colony of New Netherland was marked by a
small, remarkably diverse population.
In 1664, New Netherland
became New York when King Charles II presented it to his brother James, the Duke of York, as part of a larger grant of land.
The creation of New York led indirectly to the founding of which two other middle colonies?
New Jersey and Pennsylvania
William Penn aimed to
establish a genuinely Quaker colony in the Americas.
The Indian policy in seventeenth-century Pennsylvania
involved purchasing Indians’ land, respecting their claims, and dealing with them fairly.
The Navigation Acts of the 1650s and 1660s were designed to regulate colonial trade in order to
yield revenues for the crown and English merchants and divert the colonies’ trade from England’s competitors and enemies.
King Philip’s War (1676) left New England settlers with
a large war debt, a devastated frontier, and an enduring hatred of Indians.

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