Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution modern world history

Flashcard maker : Carol Rushing
Industrial Revolution
Greatly increased output of machine-made goods began in England mid 1700s
Robert Bakewell
Increased his mutton output by allowing only his best sheep to breed. He used artificial selection to produce the best sheep.
Jethro Tull
1701, one of the first scientific farmers. He invented the seed drill which allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths. Boosted crop fields.
A product of the Industrial Revolution, wealthy landowners were able to cultivate these larger fields. They were then able to experiment with more productive seeding and harvesting methods to boost crop yields. Another important result was that large landowners forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or to give up farming and move to the cities.
Crop Rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Agriculture Revolution
New experimenting and inventing with productive seeding and harvesting methods led to more land being cultivated which produced more food. The surplus of food led to small farmers moving to the cities to work in factories. This started the industrial revolution because of the labor the goods needing manufacturing and new ideas.
English Industrialization
Development of a system which supports machine production of goods which needed resources.
English Industrialization (natural resources)
Natural resources necessary for industrialization are:
1. Water power and coal to fuel new machines
2. Iron ore to construct machines, tools, and buildings
3. Rivers for inland transportation
4. harbors for trade ships
English Industrialization (economic resources)
Economic resources for industrialization:
1. Steady and expanding economy
2. Businesspeople invested in manufacture of new inventions
3. Highly developed banking system
4. People invested with loan availability- new machinery
5. Military successes=Patriotism
6. wars occurred on foreign soils
7. Parliament passed laws to encourage and protect business ventures
Factors of production
Land, labor, and capital=wealthy; the three groups of resources that are used to make all goods and services.
Textile inventions/industry
First industry to be transformed was the textile industry. (Wool, linen, and cotton)
1. John Kay-1733- made the flying shuttle
2. James Hargreaves-1764-invented the Spinning Jenny
3. Richard Arkwright-1769-water frame
4. Samuel Crompton-1779-Water frame+ Spinning Jenny= Spinning mule
5. Edmund Cartwright-1787-created a power loom speed weaving by water power
6. Eli Whitney (american)-1793- invented the cotton gin
A method of production that brought many workers and machines together into one building that produce goods at a fast rate and at the beginning required running water power
A person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risk of business.
Middle class
Laissez faire
Adam Smith
Karl Marx
Steam engine led to steam boats led to steam driven locomotives. This led to inland travel with out water. This made it easier to move around cheaply.
James watt
Made the steam engine more efficient.

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