Chapter 9 Section 9.2

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Reputational Method
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Individuals rank other community members
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Subjective Method
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Individuals rank themselves
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Objective Method
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Sociologist define social class by income, occupation, and education.
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Upper Class
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Owners of large businesses, investors, heirs to family fortunes, some top business executives
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Upper Middle Class
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The members of this class are primarily high-income businesspeople and professionals
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Lower Middle Class
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Most individuals in this class hold white-collar jobs, work that does not involve manual labor
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Working Class
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Mant members of this class hold jobs that require manual labor
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Working Poor
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Have the lowest-paying jobs these jobs are often temporary of seasonal
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Underclass
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Families that have experienced unemployment and poverty over several generations
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Social Mobility
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The movement between or within social classes or strata- is an important of the open class system
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Horizontal Mobility
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Refers to movement within a social class or stratum
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Vertical Mobility
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Is the movement between social classes or strata
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Intergeneration Mobility
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Status differences between generations in the same family- a special form of vertical mobility
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Upward Mobility
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Individual effort often plays a major role in a person’s movement up the social-class ladder
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Downward Mobility
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Can result from such personal factors as illness, divorce, widowhood, and retirement

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