CHapter 9–essay

question

In what ways did the Agricultural Revolution pave the way for the Industrial Revolution?
answer

Agricultural Revolution brought about new inventions and efficient methods like crop rotating, enclosures (which allow for experimentation with new agricultural methods), breeding, etc. These new inventions and innovations led to inventions and innovation in industry, as well.
question

How did roads, the railroad, and the steam engine impact industrialization?
answer

The steam engine impacted Industrialization by providing cheaper and more convenient power. Increase and better water transportation and roads allowed for more goods to be transported more quickly and easily. Also, bringing goods to more places.
question

What was it like to work in a factory?
answer

Low pay, terrible working conditions like hot, dangerous, high risk for injuries, long hours
question

What were the pros and cons of living in cities?
answer

Pros: More people in condensed area=more ideas spread quickly, quicker trade Cons: Over-crowding, dangerous because of crime and fire
question

What was the new class structure that resulted from the Industrial Revolution, and what was life like in each social class?
answer

The wealthy stayed wealthy because they became entrepreneurs by investing and owning factories, which produced more wealth. The middle class got new job opportunities. The lower class suffered, and they became even poorer, having to work long hours, poor pay, and poor working conditions.
question

What were the positive and negative effects of the Industrial Revolution?
answer

Positive: New technology, new means of transportation, more efficiency is business, new inventions and power Negative: Lower class suffered, horrible pollution, widened the gap between rich and poor
question

How did the Napoleonic wars and French revolution impact the industrialization of Continental Europe?
answer

All of Frances resources, like money, energy, and human resources were dedicated to the war effort rather than industrialization.
question

How did the Industrial Revolution lead to imperialism?
answer

Imperialism (the policy of extending one country’s rule over many other lands) was born. It was born out of the cycle of industrialization, the development of new markets throughout the world, and the need for resources to supply the factories of Europe.
question

What was the laissez-faire philosophy, and how did it influence early industrialists?
answer

Refers to the economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions.
question

Why did unions form, and what tactics did they use?
answer

They formed as a response to the Industrial Revolution. Workers were treated badly, with poor pay and harmful working conditions. They formed unions to have “power in numbers.” These were like “pact.” Tactics they used were strikes, collective bargaining (compromising between workers and bosses).
question

Why did the Industrial Revolution occur in Great Britain before it occurred elsewhere in Europe?
answer

Britain had natural resources–coal, iron, rivers, harbors–> coal used to fuel engines, iron to make machinery, rivers allowed for boats to transfer goods also water-powered machinery Expanding economy encouraged investments–>investors feel more secure in a good economy Had factors of production–land, labor (workers), capital (money & resources)–>more land provides more resources and space to work; labor-a large labor force means that the owner can pay workers less since there is a higher need for jobs; more capital means more money to invest
question

Why might the philosophy of communism have appealed to many 19th-century factory workers?
answer

Communism appealed to them because it would better their own lifestyle. Communism, which means that all forms of production would be owned by the people, allowed their to be total equality amongst people. In a communist country, the factory workers would not be treated badly, would not have poor working conditions, and would have equal pay and goods as their “bosses.” There would be no private industry; so, big corporations could not harm them.

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