Chapter 9 CS104

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Manual Calculator
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Device that assists in the process of numeric calculations, but requires the human operator to keep track of the algorithm.
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abacus
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Manual calculator used in ancient Rome, Greece, India, China and Japan.
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Napier’s Bones
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Device in which the rods were made out of bones. Used for calculation, made by John Napier.
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slide rule
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Device constructed using Napier’s logarithms. Remained a tool for students and engineers until the 1060s.
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Mechanical calculator
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Implements algorithms autonomously. The operator enters the numbers for a calculation and then pulls a lever or turns a wheel to carry out the calculation.
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Shickard’s Calculator
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Mechanical calculator with a series of mechanic gears.
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Pascaline
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Mechanical device that could be used to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
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Leibniz Calculator
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Mechanical calculator created by German baron named gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz in 1973.
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de Colmar’s Arithmometer
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Became the first mass produced calculator.
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Difference Engine
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Would operate using steam power, cutting edge technology in 1822.
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Analytical Engine
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Produced in 1834 by Charles Babbage. Was never completed, computer historians believe that is design embodies many of the concepts that define the modern computer. Memory, processor, output device. User definable inputs and programs.
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Hollerith Tabulating Machine
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Punch card method device that was won a competition organized by the U.S. Census Bureau for the 1890 census.
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prototype
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Experimental device that typically must be further developed and perfected before going into production and becoming widely available.
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Atanasoff-Berry Computer
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First to use vacuum tubes instead of mechanical switches for processing circuitry.
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Z3
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Designed to work with binary numbers.
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Harvard Mark I
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Single unified computing unit constructed in 1939. One of the first working computer prototypes.
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COLOSSUS
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Electronic device designed to decode messages encrypted by the German Enigma machine.
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ENIAC
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Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. Designed to calculate trajectory tables for the U.S. Army, wasn’t finished until November 1945.
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UNIVAC
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Considered by most historians to be the first commercially successful digital computer.
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First generation computers
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Characterized by their use of a vacuum tubes to store individuals bits of data.
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vacuum tube
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Electronic device that controls the flow of electrons in a vacuum.
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Second-generation computers
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Used transistors instead of tubes.
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Transistor
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First demonstrated in 1947 by AT&T’s Bell Laboratories. Regulate current or voltage flow and act as a switch for electronic signals. Similar to tubes but were smaller, cheaper and less power hungry.
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Third-generation computers
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Became possible in 1958 when Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor, independently developed integrated circuits. They were have to incorporate the equivalent of thousands of tubes or trasistors into a single chip.
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RCA spectra 70, IBM 360
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One of the first computers to use this technology.
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DEC PDP-8
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First Commercially successful mini computer. in 1965.
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IBM AS/400
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One of the few remaining devices that could be labeled as a mini computer in 2000
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fourth generation computers
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Appeared in 1971 when Ted Hoff developed the first general-purpose microprocessor. Called the Intel 2004, this processor dramatically changed the computer industry.
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Mark-8
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Developed by Jonathan A Titus. Built by himself. Based on integrated circuit and microprocessor technologies.
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MITS Altair
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First commercial micro computer. Based on the Intel 8080 processor. Intended for the computer hobbyist.
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Apple I
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Kit containing a system board. had 4KB or RAM.
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Apple II
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Preassembled. Very successful product. One of the main reasons behind its sucess was a commercial software called VisiCalc.
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Visical
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First Electronic spreadsheet.
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IBM PC, IBM PC XT
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Constructed with off the shelf parts that could be easily obtained from many electronic wholesalers.
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Apple Lisa
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Key feature was the graphical user interface. Ended up being too expensive.
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Apple Macintosh
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Featured graphical user interface that made programs easier to use than those on the command-line based IBM PC.
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computer Industry
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Encompasses those companies that manufacture computers and computer components, such as microprocessors.
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Information Technology Industry
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IT industry. Typically used to refer to the companies that develop, produce, sell, or support computers, software, and computer-related products.
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Equipment manufacturers
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Design and manufacture hardware and communications products.
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Chipmakers
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Design and manufacture computer chips and circuit boards.
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Software publishers
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Create computer software.
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Service companies
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Provide computer-related services, including business consulting.
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Computer retailers
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Sometimes called resellers. Include companies that sell computer products through retail stores.
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Outsourcing
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Defined as the use of components or labor from outside suppliers.
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Offshoring
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Defined as relocating business processes, such as development and production, to lower-cost locations in other countries.
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vaporware
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Products that are announced but never produced.
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MSRP
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Manufacturer’s suggested retail price.
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Street price
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Price decreased after supply and demand for a product reach equilibrium.
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alpha test
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First phase of testing carried out by the software publisher’s in-house testing team.
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beta test
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second phase of testing, usually conducted by off-site testers, such as a professional testing company.
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market share
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Refers to the company’s share, or percentage of the total market.
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market tiers
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Classification by industry analysts that try to make sense of the many companies that produce personal computers.
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marketing channels
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Outlets used to sell computer hardware and software.
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Mail order
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special type of retailing in which a vendor takes orders by telephone or from an internet site, then ships product directly to consumers.
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manufacturer direct
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Refers to hardware manufacturers that sell their products directly to consumers without a middleman, such as a retail store.
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VAR
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Value added reseller. Combines commercially available products with specialty hardware of software to create a computer system designed to meet the needs of a specific industry.
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channel conflict
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Vendors from one channel find vendors from other channels pirate their sales.
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Computer professional
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any person whose primary occupation involves the design, configuration, analysis, development, modification, testing, or security of computer hardware or software.
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Chief information officer
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CIO. Head of a hierarchy of computer professionals.
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systems analyst
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Investigates the requirements of a business or organization, its employees, and its customers in order to plan and implement new or improved computer services.
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computer programmer
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Designs, codes, tests computer programs. In addition programmers modify existing programs to meet new requirements or eliminate bugs.
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Security specialist
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Analyzes a computer system’s vulnerability to threats from viruses, worms, unauthorized access, physical damage.
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Database adminitrator
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Analyzes company’s data to determine the most effective way to collect and store it.
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network specialist/administrator
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Plans, installs, and maintains one or more local area networks. These specialists also provide network accounts and access rights to approved users.
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Computer operator
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typically works with network servers, mainframes and supercomputers.
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Technical support specialist
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Troubleshoots hardware and software problems.
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Web site designer
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Creates, tests, posts, and modifies web pages.
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technical writer
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Creates documentation for large programming projects and writes the online or printed user manuals that accompany computers, peripheral devices and software.
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Computer salesperson
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Sales rep, sells computers. Sales reaps may pay personal visits to potential corporate customers or staff the order desk of a mail-order computer company.
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quality assurance specialist
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participates in alpha and beta test cycles of software, looking for bugs or other usability problems.
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Computer engineer
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designs and tests new hardware products such as computer chips, circuit boards, computers and peripheral devices.
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Manufacturing technician
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participates in the fabrication of computer chips, circuit boards, system units, or peripheral devices.
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contract worker
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Not official employees of a company. They are usually paid the job, rather than by the hour, not eligible for benefits.
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telecommuting
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Using available technology to work from home or an off-site location.
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computer engineering
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focuses on the design of computer hardware and peripheral devices, often at the chip level.
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Computer science
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focuses on computer architecture and how to program computers to make them work effectively and efficiently.
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Information systems
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typically offered by a university’s College of Business, focus on applying computers to business problems.
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Information technology
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Focus on computer equipment and software used by businesses and organizations, how they work and how they are secured, upgraded, maintained and replaced.
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Software engineering
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Takes disciplined approach to developing software that is reliable, efficient, affordable, user-friendly, and scalable.
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certificates of completion
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offered to students who successfully complete one or more courses on a specific topic.
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certification exam
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objective test that verifies your level of knowledge about a particular technology or subject.
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web portfolio
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Hypertext version of your resume, which might contain links to relevant Web sites, such as past employers, your alma mater, samples of your work.
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online job bank
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maintains database that contains thousands of job openings posted by employers.
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job search agent
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automated program that searches one or more data bases and notifies you when it finds any leads that match your specified criteria.
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metasearch tool
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software program that performs broad-based Web searches, such as searching more than one job database at a time.
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professional ethics
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Refers to on-the-job choices and actions that reflect on a person’s values.
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confidentiality
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obligation not to disclose willingly any information that should be kept private.
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proprietary information
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Company finances, procedures, products, and research that competitors would find valuable.
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code of ethics
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set of guidelines designed to help professionals thread their way through a sometimes tangled web of ethical on-the-job decisions.
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whistleblowing
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disclosure by an employee of confidential information that relates to some danger, fraud, or other illegal or unethical conduct connected with the workplace, bet it of the employer or of fellow employees.
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repetitive stress injury
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not a specific disease but a group of similar overuse disorders that affect tendons, muscles and nerves.
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ergonomics
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study of safe and efficient environments, particularly working environments.
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native resolution
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displays one pixel for each tiny light in the display matrix.
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break reminder software
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RSIguard, stress buster, helps you remember when it’s time to take a break from your work.

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