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Chapter 8 – Flashcard Answers

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African diaspora
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The spread of people of African descent throughout the Americas and Western European as a result of the slave trade, eventually spreading African culture throughout the western world.
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circuit
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the area of jurisdiction of a federal court of appeals
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jurisdiction
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a court's authority to hear and decide cases
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exclusive jurisdiction
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authority of only federal courts to hear and decide cases
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concurrent jurisdiction
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authority for both state and federal courts to hear and decide cases
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district court
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federal court where trails are held and lawsuits are begun
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original jurisdiction
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the authority to hear cases for the first time
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appeals court
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a court that reviews decisions made in lower courts
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appellate jurisdiction
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the authority of a court to hear a case appealed from a lower court
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remand
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to send a case back to a lower court to be tried again
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opinion
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a detailed explanation of a courts legal thinking behind the decision in a case
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precedent
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a ruling that is used as the basis for a judicial decision in a later, similar case
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judicial review
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the power of the supreme court to say whether a federal, state, or local law or government action goes against the constitution
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constitutional
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in accordance with the constitution
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docket
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a court's calendar, showing the schedule of cases it is to hear
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brief
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a written document explaining the position of one side or the other in a case
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majority opinion
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a statement that presents the views of the majority of the supreme court justices regarding a case
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unanimous opinion
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the supreme court ruling on a case in which all the supreme court justices agree on the ruling
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concurring opinion
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a statement written by a supreme court justice who votes with the majority, but for a different reason
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dissenting opinion
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a statement written by a supreme court justice who disagrees with the majority opinion, presenting his or her opinion
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stare decisis
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the practice of using earlier judicial rulings s a basis or deciding cases