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CHAPTER 8 QUIZ PHARMACOLOGY

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What two neurotransmitters in the brain appear to play the greatest role in seizures?
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GABA and glutamate
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What term is used to describe continuous tonic-clonic seizures, lasting over 30 minutes, during which consciousness may not return?
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status epiepticus
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With what type of seizure may patients display blank stares, rotating eyes and rapid blinking; not have generalized convulsions; and have up to 100 occurrences a day?
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absence seizure
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What are the most common side effects of antiseizure medications?
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sedation and some degradation of cognitive process
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What is the potential way in which antiepileptic medications can interact with each other and other drugs?
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They can alter the metabolism of other drugs
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Which of the following anticonvulsants is correctly paired with the process it most likely affects?
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diazepam (Valium)–GABA
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Which of the following anticonvulsants is a DEA scheduled controlled substance?
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diazepam (Valium)
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Which anticonvulsant is the drug of choice for absence seizures?
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ethosuximide (Zarontin)
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Which of the following anticonvulsants is also used to treat manic episodes in bipolar mood disorders?
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valproic acid (Depakene)
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The use of what anticonvulsant may result in physical or psychological dependence?
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Clonozepam (Klonopin)
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Which anticonvulsant does not appear to act via GABA receptors and is frequently used to treat neuropathic pain?
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gabapentin (Neurontin)
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The prevalence of Parkinson’s disease is highest in what age group?
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above age 60
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Which two neurotransmitters are out of balance in Parkinson disease?
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dopamine and acetylcholine
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Which neurotransmitter is deficient in the nigrostriatal pathways of patients with Parkinson disease?
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dopamine
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What dopamine precursor is used to treat Parkinson patients?
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levodopa (Dopar)
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What combination drug contains levodopa plus an inhibitor of peripheral levodopa metabolism?
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Sinemet
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What class of drugs may be used to diagnose and treat myasthenia gravis?
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aceylcholinesterase inhibitors
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Which drug used to treat ADD/ADHD is not a controlled substance?
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atomoxetine (Strattera)
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Which drug listed below is used to treat patients with multiple sclerosis?
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mitoxantrone (Novanttrone), interferon beta-1a (Avonex, Rebif), interferon beta-1b (Betaseron), baclofen (Lioresal)
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What antidepressant should not be prescribed for patients with Alzheimer disease
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amitriptyline
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Which of the following has been shown to improve the cognitive function and social behavior of patients with Alzheimer disease and is sold over the counter?
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gingko
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Involuntary contractions or series of contractions of the voluntary muscles are called…
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convulsions
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What percentage of people with epilepsy have partial seizures?
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65%
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A generalized seizure
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involves both hemishperes of the brain simultaneously
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What percentage of epilepsy patients are poorly conrolled with medication?
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30%
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Newer drugs for antiepileptic drug therapy
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are seizure-specific
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What anticonvulsant drug might be mixed by a nerse outside the pharmacy because it precipitats very quickly?
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phenytoin (Dilantin)
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Akinesia, a characteristic sign of Parkinson disease, refers to
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an absence of movement
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What drug is both a prophylaxis and treatment for influenza, and is used to treat Parkinson disease?
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amantadine (Symmetrel)
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Which anti-Parkinson agent is associated with the on-off phenomenon?
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levodopa (Dopar)
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Which is a new class of anti-Parkinson agents that increase patient “on-time”?
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catechol-o-methyl transferase inhibitors
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Dysphagia, a presenting sign of myasthenia gravis, refers to…
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difficulty swallowing
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Patients with myasthenia gravis experience weakness and fatigability due to
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autoimmune damage to acetylcholine receptors
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What is a common side effect of neostigmine (Prostigmin) and pyridostigmine (Mestinon)agents for myasthenia gravis?
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muscle fasciculation
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In the OROS system, what is the term for the part of a tablet that passes through the stool?
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ghost tablet
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Methylphenidat, an agent used to treat children with ADD/ADHD, can best be characterized as a(n)
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stimulant
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What term describes one or two or more compunds that contain the same number of and type of atoms but have different molecular structures?
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isomer
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what is a primary side effect of dexftroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall)?
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depression as the drug wears off
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Which statement is true regarding drug therapy for amyothrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?
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only one drug has been approved for ALS
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At the present time, drug therapy for multiple sclerosis seeks to…
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relieve muscle spasticity,slow the progression of the disease
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Which is not a side effect of gabapentin (Neurotonin)?
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seizures
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Which of the folowing is part of the profile for Alzheimer disease?
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depression
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Why might a precribing physician prefer donepezil (Aricept) over tacrin (Cognex) for Alzheimer disease?
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Donepezil is given once a day, Donepezil does not result in nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, Donepezil improves memory and alertness
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What drug blocks NMDA (N-methl-D-aspartate)in patients with Alzheimer disease?
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memantine (Namenda)
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What drug that is used to treat Alzheimer disease is derived from daffodil bulbs?
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galamtamine (Razadyne)