CHAPTER 8 PSYCHOLOGY

Aspects of thinking
forming concepts
making decisions
reflecting critically or creatively
creativity
is the ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and come up with unconventional solutions to problems
Gardner types of intelligence
verbal
intrapersonal
bodily-kinesthetic
spatial
problem solving
finding the appropriate way to attain a goal when the goal is not readily available
intrapersonal
the ability to understand oneself
cognitive
the study of consciousness, memory, and neuroscience
intelligence
describes individual differences in problem-solving skills and the ability to adapt to and learn from life’s everyday experiences
functional fixedness
refers to a tendency to be rigid in thinking about an object’s function
spatial intelligence
the ability to think three-dimensionally
hindsight bias
the tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that we accurately predicted an outcome
steps in problem solving
find and frame problems
develop good problem-solving strategies
evaluate solutions
rethink and redefine problems over time
bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
ability to manipulate objects and be physically adept
verbal intelligence
ability to think in words and use language to express meaning
describes the controlled system of conscious and reasoning and decision making
effortful
analytical
inductive reasoning
reasoning from the specific to the general
guarantee a solution to a problem
algorithms
heuristics
shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest, but do not guarantee, a solution to a problem; cognitive shortcuts
-enabling a person to discover or learn something for themselves
fixation
involves using a prior strategy and failing to look at a problem from a fresh new perspective
decision making
evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
-missing info
-cant predict future
-rely on automatic processing
interpersonal intelligence
ability to understand and relate well to others
cognitive appraisal
individuals interpretation of a situation (harmful, threatening, or challenging) determines whether they can cope with the events
convergent thinking
thinking that produces one correct answer
heritability
portion of observable differences in a group that can be explained by difference in genes of the groups members
reliability
extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance
confirmation bias
tendency to search for and use information that supports, rather than refutes, our ideas
analytical intelligence
ability to judge, evaluate, compare and contrast
normal distribution
symmetrical, bell-shaped curve; majority of scores fall in the middle of the range and few scores appear toward the extremes
finding solutions
initial state
goal state
operators
path constraints
efficient problem solving
algorithms
goal state
barriers
solution
(don’t think of every solution)
hill climbing strategy
choose option that moves you in direction of goal, many problems may require you to move away from a goal
creativity
characteristics: brainstorm
flexibility and playful thinking
inner motivation
willingness to face risk
objective evaluation of work
critical thinking
thinking relatively and productively and evaluating evidence
mindfulness
alert and mentally present
open-mindedness
receptive to new ways of looking at things
divergent thinking
open ended no correct answer
thinking of novel uses for objects
creative intelligence
create, design, invent, originate, imagine
practical intelligence
use, apply implement, put ideas into practice
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