chapter 8 psychology

One disadvantage of the longitudinal design is:
the lengthy amount of time involved

Many researchers believe that ________ is necessary to break away from childhood dependence on parents and become self-sufficient adults.
conflict and rebellion

A child who criticizes his parent for speeding because speeding is against the law is demonstrating ________ morality.
conventional

Wakefield’s study linking the MMR vaccine to autism ______________________________________.
has been discredited

Early in life, infants will demonstrate their personalities through their _________________.
temperaments

In Eleanor Gibson and Michael Walk’s classic study:
babies showed depth perception by refusing to crawl over the “visual cliff.”

The visual cliff experiment showed that babies have:
some depth perception

Erikson believed that:
social interactions were important in development

Pete and Evelyn are decorating the room for the baby they are expecting. To ensure that the baby’s room provides appropriate stimulation, the couple seek the advice of a developmental psychologist, who tells them that newborns prefer to look at:
human faces

In his theories of development, Piaget focused on ______________________.
the child’s internal cognitive development

Vygotsky emphasized the importance of social interactions in cognitive development, whereas ________ stressed the importance of the child’s interactions with objects.
Piaget

At birth, infants show a preference for ________ tastes.
sweet

_________ is a recessive gene disorder that can result in severe intellectual disabilities.
PKU

________ is carried by recessive genes and inherited when a child inherits two recessive genes.
Cystic fibrosis

Genes are located on:
chromosomes

During critical periods:
environmental influences can have an impact on a developing infant

The most likely time for a miscarriage is in the:
first 3 months

The process by which an egg cell (or an ovum) and a sperm cell unite is called:
fertilization

Sylvia is a middle-aged woman who volunteers as a youth coordinator at her church and as a Girl Scout leader. She is developing what Erikson referred to as:
generativity

The changes that women experience 5 to 10 years prior to menopause are:
perimenopause

In Erikson’s view, unfinished issues of identity lead to ______ in young adulthood.
isolation

The cessation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle is called:
menopause

Martin, who is male, and Martina, who is female, are twins. What type of twins MUST they be?
dizygotic

The _______ believe that a person who has died is in the underworld.
Navajo