Chapter 7 question Flashcards

1.The textbook states that early psychologists often used introspection to study cognition. These psychologists probably reflected the _____ perspective.
A) psychodynamic
B) behaviorist
C) humanist
D) structuralist
D
2.Cognition was relatively neglected in psychology:
A) before 1930.
B) between 1930 and 1950.
C) until 1950.
D) from 1950 until the 1970s.
B
3.The “cognitive revolution” in psychology began in the:
A) 1890s.
B) 1930s.
C) 1950s.
D) 1980s.
C
4.Obtaining, converting, and using knowledge is called:
A) cognition.
B) thinking.
C) introspection.
D) rumination.
A
5.Which statement BEST expresses the relationship between cognition and thinking?
A) Cognition is the same thing as thinking.
B) Cognition is a type of thinking.
C) Thinking is a type of cognition.
D) Cognition and thinking are distinct processes.
C
6.Mental representations of categories of objects, situations, or ideas that share common features are called:
A) prototypes.
B) concepts.
C) heuristics.
D) images.
B
7.Which of the following is MOST nearly synonymous with the term “concept” as it is used by cognitive psychologists?
A) idea
B) relationship
C) category
D) discovery
C
8.Specific instances of a category are represented at the _____ level of the concept hierarchy.
A) subordinate
B) basic
C) ordinate
D) superordinate
A
9.The _____ level is the broadest or topmost level of the concept hierarchy.
A) subordinate
B) superordinate
C) ordinate
D) basic
B
10.Which sequence correctly arranges the levels of the concept hierarchy from the broadest to the most specific?
A) superordinate > subordinate > basic
B) basic > subordinate > superordinate
C) basic > superordinate > subordinate
D) superordinate > basic > subordinate
D
11.”Gin rummy, games, cards.” With reference to the concept hierarchy, this phrase denotes the _____, _____, and _____ levels, respectively.
A) subordinate; superordinate; basic
B) basic; subordinate; superordinate
C) basic; superordinate; subordinate
D) subordinate; basic; superordinate
A
12.Consider nonalcoholic beverages. Which alternative correctly matches a level of the concept hierarchy with an example?
A) subordinate – beverage
B) basic – ginger ale
C) superordinate – soft drink
D) subordinate – cola
D
13.”Would you like a beverage? Maybe some tea?” “I could go for cup of Earl Grey.” In order, this conversation mentions the _____, _____, and _____ levels of the concept hierarchy, respectively.
A) subordinate; superordinate; basic
B) superordinate; subordinate; basic
C) subordinate: basic; superordinate
D) superordinate; basic; subordinate
D
14.”I need some Palmolive,” Loretta remarks upon entering a large, unfamiliar discount store. “Excuse me. Could you point me to the dish liquid?” her friend asks a nearby sales associate. “Aisle 9, in household cleaners,” the associate responds. Loretta referred to the _____ level in the concept hierarchy. Her friend referenced the _____ level. The associate identified the _____ level.
A) subordinate; superordinate; basic
B) superordinate; subordinate; basic
C) subordinate; basic; superordinate
D) superordinate; basic; subordinate
C
15.”I adopted a third cat,” Leonie reports. “Is it another Siamese?” Salvatore asks. With respect to the concept hierarchy, Leonie made reference to the _____, whereas Salvatore referred to the _____ level.
A) basic; subordinate
B) basic; superordinate
C) superordinate; basic
D) superordinate; subordinate
A
16.With respect to the concept hierarchy, children generally learn to name the _____ level
first.
A) subordinate
B) superordinate
C) ordinate
D) basic
D
17.”Kitty sleep,” 2-year-old Isabella remarks. Isabella is referring to her pet at the _____ level of the concept hierarchy.
A) ordinate
B) basic
C) subordinate
D) superordinate
B
18.With respect to the concept hierarchy, the _____ level is used MOST often to identify objects in everyday life.
A) superordinate
B) ordinate
C) basic
D) subordinate
C
19.Formal concepts are:
A) defined by a prototype.
B) more common than natural concepts.
C) defined by specific rules.
D) learned through everyday experience.
C
20._____ concepts are defined by precise rules.
A) Formal
B) Natural
C) Prototypical
D) Superordinate
A
21._____ concepts are defined by general characteristics.
A) Formal
B) Natural
C) Artificial
D) Basic
B
22.Triangles are three-sided polygons whose interior angles sum to 180 degrees. Based on this definition, “triangle” is a _____ concept.
A) natural
B) superordinate
C) formal
D) prototypical
C
23.Consider the concepts “game” and “rational number.” Which of these is a formal concept?
A) “Game” is a formal concept.
B) “Rational number” is a formal concept.
C) “Rational number” is a natural concept.
D) Both “game” and “rational number” are formal concepts.
B
24.Which of these is a natural concept?
A) octagon
B) identical twin
C) prime number
D) sport
D
25.Which concept is correctly classified?
A) prime number – natural
B) pentagon – natural26.A prototype is the:
A) most representative example of a concept.
B) most distinctive example of a concept.
C) first example of a concept that one encounters.
D) example that best fits the rules defining a concept.
A
26.A prototype is the:
A) most representative example of a concept.
B) most distinctive example of a concept.
C) first example of a concept that one encounters.
D) example that best fits the rules defining a concept.
A
27.Which is MOST likely the prototype for the concept “fruit”?
A) persimmon
B) apple
C) blueberry
D) coconut
B
28.Which should be identified more quickly as a fruit, an orange or an olive? Why?
A) An orange should be identified as a fruit more quickly because an orange is more prototypical.
B) An olive should be identified as a fruit more quickly because an olive is more distinctive.
C) An orange should be identified as a fruit more quickly because an orange is more distinctive.
D) An olive should be identified as a fruit more quickly because an olive is more
prototypical.
A
29.The classic study of mental rotation was conducted by:
A) Rosch and Mervin (1975).
B) Shepard and Metzler (1971).
C) Kosslyn, Ball, and Reiser (1978).
D) Kahneman and Tversky (1973).
B
30.Dr. Randazza shows participants a stylized map of a fictitious city. The map includes landmarks, such as a post office, a library, a shopping mall, a bus depot, and an airport. Some of the landmarks are close together, such as the library and the post office. Others are far apart, such as the airport and the shopping mall. Dr. Randazza removes the map. Participants are asked to imagine walking from one landmark to another, either a nearby one or a more distant one. Participants press a key when they’ve reached the destination in their minds. What should Dr. Randazza find? What would such a result say about mental imagery?
A) Participants should take the same amount of time to travel mentally between distant landmarks as between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery reflects the actual actions people perform with respect to real objects.
B) Participants should take the same amount of time to travel mentally between distant landmarks as between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery does not reflect the actual actions people perform with respect to real objects.
C) Participants should take longer to travel mentally between distant landmarks than between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery reflects the actual actions people perform with respect to real objects.
D) Participants should take longer to travel mentally between distant landmarks than between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery does not reflect the actual actions people perform with respect to real objects.
C
31.Research by _____ supports the idea that mental imagery preserves the perceptual and physical operations people perform on actual objects.
A) Rosch and Mervin (1975)
B) Shepard and Metzler (1971)
C) Kosslyn, Ball, and Reiser (1978)
D) Shepard and Metzler (1971) and by Kosslyn, Ball, and Reiser (1978)
D
⁻32.The textbook relates the story of Dr. Jill Bolte Taylor, a Harvard neuroscientist who suffered a stroke. The stroke affected her _____ lobe, a brain region associated with processing emotions, making plans, and controlling impulses.
A) frontal
B) parietal
C) temporal
D) occipital
A
33.The textbook relates the story of Dr. Jill Bolte Taylor, a Harvard neuroscientist who suffered a stroke. After the stroke, the healing of Jill’s brain began with changes to neurons. The general term for these kinds of changes is:
A) neuroadaptation.
B) neuroplasticity.
C) synaptogenesis.
D) neurogenesis.
B
34.After a stroke, increased efficiency of synaptic connections can aid recovery by facilitating learning and memory formation. Psychologists use the term _____ to refer to this increase in the efficiency of neural connections.
A) consolidation
B) neurogenesis
C) elaboration
D) long-term potentiation
D
35.CT scans:
A) detect abnormalities, such as tumors.
B) provide information about normal cognitive functioning.
C) may be used to treat psychological disorders.
D) detect abnormalities and provide information about normal functioning.
D
36.Suppose a researcher uses strong magnets to track changes in blood oxygen levels across the brain when participants are viewing a scene and also when they are imagining the scene. The ______ variable in this study is ______.
A) independent; changes in blood oxygen levels
B) experimental; whether participants imagined or viewed a scene
C) control; whether participants imagined or viewed a scene
D) dependent; changes in blood oxygen levels
D
37.Suppose a researcher uses strong magnets to track changes in blood oxygen levels across the brain when participants are viewing a scene and also when they are imagining the scene. Which device is the researcher MOST likely using?
A) EEG
B) PET
C) fMRI
D) CAT
C
38.Thinking in the service of a goal is called:
A) creativity.
B) cognition.
C) problem solving.
D) mental representation.
C
39.When one tries to solve a problem by using a variety of strategies and eliminating those that do not work, one is using:
A) an algorithm.
B) insight.
C) trial and error.
D) a heuristic.
C
40.Trial and error is MOST useful as a problem solving tactic when:
A) the stakes are high.
B) the solution is relatively obvious.
C) there are a large number of possible solutions.
D) the stakes are relatively low
D
41.A rule that guarantees the solution to a problem when it is correctly applied is called a(n):
A) concept.
B) heuristic.
C) algorithm.
D) morpheme.
C
42.”Convert to a mixed numeral: 18/5,” states a problem in a fifth-grade arithmetic text. This problem’s _____ state is 3 3/5; it may be solved through a(n) _____.
A) goal; algorithm
B) goal; heuristic
C) initial; algorithm
D) initial; heuristic
A
43.”Solve: 22 + 5 = x – 9,” states a problem in an eighth-grade algebra text. This problem’s _____ state is 22 + 5 = x – 9; it is BEST solved through _____.
A) goal; an algorithm
B) goal; trial and error
C) initial; an algorithm
D) initial; trial and error
C
44.A high school physics teacher reassures his class that no matter how confusing this week’s word problems appear, they all may be solved quite handily through the use of the formula F = MA. The teacher has offered his students a(n):
A) algorithm.
B) heuristic.
C) insight.
D) analogy.
A
45.”Express as an improper fraction: 4 7/8,” states a problem in a fifth-grade arithmetic text. This problem is BEST solved through:
A) trial and error.
B) insight.
C) an algorithm.
D) a heuristic.
C
46.Broad rules of thumb for solving problems are called:
A) heuristics.
B) algorithms.
C) insights.
D) subgoals.
A
47.Which word BEST captures the meaning of the term “heuristic,” as cognitive psychologists use it?
A) recipe
B) formula
C) strategy
D) program
C
48.When one solves a crossword puzzle using certain mental shortcuts, he or she is using cognitive strategies psychologists call:
A) algorithms.
B) mental sets.
C) heuristics.
D) insights.
C
49.Matt picks up a pamphlet at the university counseling center titled How to Succeed at College Course Work. What kinds of problem-solving strategies are MOST likely offered in this pamphlet?
A) algorithms
B) insights
C) mental sets
D) heuristics
D
50.Which item MOST likely makes use of heuristics?
A) a chemical equation for the synthesis of sulfuric acid
B) a recipe for making cookies on the back of a box of cornflakes
C) an article by a Nobel Prize winner entitled “How to Succeed in Science”
D) a computer program for keeping track of inventory at a department store
C
51.”When you have trouble in a class, try outlining the book in your own words.” What is this general “rule of thumb” for solving a common academic problem called?
A) a heuristic
B) a hierarchy
C) a mental set
D) an algorithm
A
52.Frank lost a contact lens in his kitchen; he searches for it by examining each linoleum tile in turn to see if the lens is contained within the square. Gemma lost a lens in her kitchen; she looks for it near the base of the fridge and around the stove because these are the two appliances she remembers using when she was last in the kitchen. Which of these individuals is using a heuristic?
A) Only Frank is using a heuristic.
B) Only Gemma is using a heuristic.
C) Both Frank and Gemma are using heuristics.
D) Neither Frank nor Gemma is using a heuristic.
B
53.Lori and Monica are looking at the cans of coffee on display at a local supermarket. They are trying to decide which of two different-sized cans is a better buy. Lori attempts to divide the price of each can by the number of ounces of coffee each contains. Monica suggests that “the larger size is usually a better buy.” Lori is using a(n) _____; Monica is using a(n) ______.
A) heuristic; algorithm
B) algorithm; heuristic
C) prototype; algorithm
D) heuristic; prototype
B
54.If algorithms guarantee problem solutions, why do people ever use heuristics, which do not?
A) Sometimes no algorithm is available to solve a particular problem.
B) Heuristics often require less time and effort to apply than do algorithms.
C) Heuristics produce successful problem solutions with sufficient frequency to justify their use.
D) People use heuristics for all these reasons.
D
55.One advantage of using heuristics is that heuristics:
A) present a clearly defined solution to a problem.
B) are usually efficient.
C) are guaranteed to result in a correct solution.
D) result in a single solution to a problem.
B
56.Which statement about heuristics is true?
A) Heuristics always lead to the correct solution of a problem.
B) Heuristics are a slower way to solve problems than are other strategies.
C) Heuristics represent commonly used approaches to the solution of a problem.
D) Heuristics are used as problem-solving strategies by computers, but not by humans.
C
57.Common heuristics include:
A) means-end analysis.
B) subgoals.
C) both means-end analysis and subgoals.
D) neither means-end analysis nor subgoals.
C
58.Renee has an idea of how she wants her living room to look. She’s moving furniture, paintings, and accessories to get closer and closer to that picture in her head. Renee is using _____ to reach her goal.
A) trial and error
B) means-end analysis
C) subgoals
D) insight
B
59.A political science professor attempts to facilitate her students’ completion of a term paper assignment by requiring them to first submit a topic statement, then a list of references, then a draft of the introduction, and then, finally, the completed paper. The professor is encouraging her students to use the problem-solving strategy of:
A) trial and error.
B) means-end analysis.
C) subgoals.
D) insight.
C
60.Kent and Kirsten are both trying to reduce their consumer debt. Kent decides to pay the highest-interest debts first and freeze credit-card spending. Kirsten simply pays her largest debt first, because this would seem to be the fastest way to move her debt as close to zero as possible. Kent’s plan reflects the problem-solving strategy of _____. Kirsten’s
method illustrates the strategy of _____.
A) forming subgoals; trial and error
B) means-end analysis; forming subgoals
C) trial and error; means-end analysis
D) forming subgoals; means-end analysis
D
61._____ is defined as a sudden understanding of a problem’s solution.
A) Convergent thinking
B) Divergent thinking
C) Creativity
D) Insight
D
62.”Eureka! I’ve got it!” That sudden awareness of the path toward a problem’s solution is called:
A) creativity.
B) cognition.
C) insight.
D) fluency.
C
63.The text’s discussion of insight suggests that its key characteristic is its: A) suddenness.
B) uniqueness.
C) brevity.
D) complexity.
A
64.The study of insight is associated with the German psychologist ____; he studied problem solving among _____.
A) Kohler; chimpanzees
B) Kohler; humans
C) Wundt; cats
D) Wundt; humans
A
65.Which problem-solving approach is correctly matched with its definition?
A) means-end analysis – dividing a problem into smaller, more manageable tasks
B) using subgoals – discovering a problem’s solution in a sudden moment of clarity
C) trial and error – solving a problem by making a series of attempts and eliminating unsuccessful ones
D) insight – progressively reducing the discrepancy between a problem’s current state and the goal state
C
66.In one study, Subramaniam and her colleagues found that participants who watched a comedy film performed better on an insight puzzle than did participants who watched dull or frightening films. The type of film participants watched is a(n) _____ variable in
this study.
A) control
B) dependent
C) experimental
D) independent
D
67.Which impediment to effective problem solving is correctly matched with its definition?
A) functional fixedness – the tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist
B) mental set – the tendency to think of an object only in terms of its customary use
C) Neither functional fixedness nor mental set is correctly defined.
D) Both functional fixedness and mental set are correctly defined.
C
68.Making several minor household repairs, Alyssa uses a shoe as a hammer and a butter knife as a screwdriver. Which of the following statements BEST characterizes Alyssa’s problem solving?
A) She is constrained by a powerful mental set.
B) She is taking advantage of the availability heuristic.
C) She is not constrained by functional fixedness.
D) She is forming subgoals.
C
69.A jeweler is unable to fix a particular mounting in a ring because she can imagine only
the conventional uses for her tools. This situation demonstrates:
A) insight.
B) trial and error.
C) algorithmic thinking.
D) functional fixedness.
D
70.Henry’s dog, Sparky, has been rolling in the mud. Henry must bathe Sparky before the dog gets mud all over the carpet. However, Henry is unable to find the plug for the tub. Sitting on the counter right beside the tub is a fifty-cent piece. In his frustration, Henry fails to see that the coin could be used as an emergency plug for the tub. What happened to Henry?
A) He took a heuristic approach.
B) He fell prey to the confirmation bias.
C) He suffered from functional fixedness.
D) He employed representational thought.
C
71.When one tries to solve a problem, one brings to the situation all sorts of assumptions, habits of mind, and pre-existing knowledge and expectations. All these elements together make up one’s usual problem-solving strategy, which is called a(n):
A) confirmation bias.
B) mental set.
C) solution frame.
D) algorithm.
B
72.Zelma is asked to think of all the words she can, beginning with the letters “squ,” as in “squeak.” Later she is given a fill-in-the-blank task on which one of the items is “s _ _ o n g.” Zelma keeps trying to make “squong” a word, and has trouble thinking of the common word “strong.” Zelma’s ability to solve this problem has been hampered by:
A) a mental set.
B) confirmation bias.
C) functional fixedness.
D) an algorithm.
A
73.Which of the following statements is false?
A) Individualistic cultures generally favor action-oriented problem solving strategies
B) People from collectivist cultures tend to be more careful when generating solutions to problems.
C) Research shows that Americans are the world’s most “action-oriented” problem solvers.
D) Cultures vary in the extent to which they avoid uncertainty.
C
74.Katie sums the scores. Katie is using the _____ approach to make her decision.
is weighing several job offers. She gives each job a score on several criteria, then
A) additive model
B) single feature
C) framing
D) representativeness
A
75.A decision-making strategy in which one uses the ease with which examples come to mind as the basis for judging how common events really are is called the _____ heuristic.
A) frequency
B) availability
C) representativeness
D) familiarity
B
76.Stereotypes spring to mind easily. Therefore, people sometimes use them to judge the frequency of certain events, such as crimes in a given neighborhood. This example BEST describes the use of the _____ heuristic.
A) framing
B) representativeness
C) availability
D) familiarity
C
80.Last week, Mike heard about five separate airplane crashes on the news. Even though, overall, motorcycle accidents account for more accidents than plane crashes do, Mike decides to ride his motorcycle from Philadelphia to Atlanta instead of flying. Which bias is reflected in Mike’s decision?
A) the confirmation bias
B) the availability heuristic
C) the representativeness heuristic
D) the framing effect
B
77.When people are asked which is more common, death by homicide or death by stroke, they often choose homicide because they hear about more murders than they do about strokes. In this instance, people are led astray in their judgments by:
A) the representativeness heuristic.
B) the framing effect.
C) a mental set.
D) the availability heuristic.
D
79.Joanne will not go out at night because she hears from her local news station about the large number of muggings and robberies that occur in her city. However, crime in Joanne’s city has actually gone down in the past few years. To which bias is Joanne falling victim?
A) the representativeness heuristic
B) functional fixedness
C) the availability heuristic
D) a mental set
C
78.”You always clam up when I ask you what’s wrong,” Iris tells her boyfriend. Iris is probably making this frequency judgment because she can remember a few times that her boyfriend wouldn’t tell her what was bothering him. Iris is using the _______ heuristic.
A) representativeness
B) framing
C) means-end
D) availability
D
81.Following the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York City, many Americans elected to drive rather than fly. The media coverage of the hijackings caused Americans to overestimate the danger of flying. This example illustrates:
A) the availability heuristic.
B) the representativeness heuristic.
C) a mental set.
D) the confirmation bias.
A
82.An event’s availability in memory is NOT based on its:
A) frequency.
B) vividness.
C) familiarity.
D) primacy effect.
D
83.In round figures, the likelihood of getting into a fatal auto accident is about 1 in _____. The likelihood of a fatal airplane crash is about 1 in _____.
A) 100; 100
B) 100; 10,000
C) 1,000; 100
D) 1,000; 10,000
B
84.When one uses the representativeness heuristic, one is:
A) assuming that something is typical of its class.
B) overcoming functional fixedness.
C) making probability estimates based on the ease with which things come to mind.
D) reducing the distance between a problem’s current state and its goal state.
A
85.Sometimes one is prone to judge an individual based on one’s notion of the category of people he or she most closely resembles. When this happens, one falls prey to the:
A) representativeness heuristic.
B) means-end effect.
C) confirmation bias.
D) availability heuristic.
A
86.Karl is the one person Craig has ever met from New Zealand. Karl strikes Craig as being quite friendly and funny. When asked what he would expect he went to New Zealand, Craig says that the people would be friendly and funny. What might he have used to make this judgment?
A) a mental set.
B) insight.
C) the confirmation bias.
D) the representativeness heuristic.
D
87.Suppose Henry meets a woman who opposes the death penalty. From this, Henry decides that women are more likely than men to oppose the death penalty. Henry assumes that the individual case is typical of its category. Henry has fallen prey to:
A) the confirmation bias.
B) functional fixedness.
C) the representativeness heuristic.
D) the framing effect.
C
88.People seek and remember evidence that supports their existing hypotheses; they ignore or discount contradictory evidence. In other words, people are prone to the:
A) representativeness heuristic.
B) framing effect.
C) confirmation bias.
D) availability heuristic.
C
89.Nigel ignores editorials critical of the candidate. Nigel appears prone to:
often cites newspaper editorials favoring the presidential candidate he supports and A) the representativeness heuristic.
B) functional fixedness.
C) the confirmation bias.
D) the availability heuristic.
C
90.Mandy, a true believer in astrology, reads in her horoscope that today is her lucky day. She gets so excited that she spills coffee all over herself, necessitating a change of clothes. As a result, she is late for work and for a very important meeting, which in turn gets her into serious trouble with her boss. That evening, her brother is taken to the emergency room. On her way to visit him, Mandy finds a dime in the hospital parking lot. What does research on the confirmation bias suggest that Mandy will do?
A) Mandy will renounce astrology as completely wrong because of all the horrible things that happened on her “lucky day.”
B) Mandy will begin to question her belief in astrology because of all the horrible things that happened on her “lucky day.”
C) Mandy will forget finding the dime because of the all the horrible things that happened to her.
D) Mandy will seize on the dime she found as evidence of astrology’s accuracy.
D
91.Roger views himself lucky, while his friend Larry views himself unlucky. They each take $100 to a casino and play blackjack for 3 hours. When they leave, they have each lost $20. What does research on the confirmation bias suggest will happen?
A) Due to their losses, Larry will maintain his view of himself and Roger will begin to change his view of himself.
B) Both men will reason that they were willing to lose $100 but only lost $20, so it is as if they won $80; so, Roger will maintain his view of himself and Larry will begin to change his.
C) Larry will begin to change his view of himself, reasoning that he was willing to lose $100 but he only lost $20, so it is as if he won $80. Since he lost money, Roger will also begin to change his view of himself.
D) Larry will maintain his view of himself because of his loss. Roger will also maintain his view of himself, reasoning that he was willing to lose $100 but he only lost $20, so it is actually like he won $80.
D
92.In the framing effect:
A) people’s decision-making can be influenced by the wording of a question or the context of a problem.
B) people seek evidence that affirms their beliefs and discount evidence that does not.
C) people base decisions on categories or stereotypes.
D) people estimate probabilities based on how easily events come to mind.
A
93.The public might think the economic situation is not as bad as it really is if the government reported employment at 88 percent, rather than saying that the unemployment rate is 12 percent. Which phenomenon is influencing the public’s judgment in this situation?
A) a confirmation bias
B) a framing effect
C) a mental set
D) the availability heuristic
B
94.According to the textbook, the average English speaker is familiar with _____ words.
A) 5000 to 10,000
B) 20,000 to 30,000
C) 30,000 to 60,000
D) over 100,000
C
95.”Sound it out,” Mrs. Sands encourages her first-grade students when they struggle to read a word aloud. Mrs. Sands is introducing her students to:
A) phonemes.
B) syntax.
C) pragmatics.
D) semantics.
A
96.Based on the textbook’s discussion, phonology is the study of:
A) gestures.
B) word order.
C) meaning.
D) speech sounds.
D
97.At a faculty-student mixer, Mildred’s psychology professor introduces her to a faculty member from the linguistics department. Mildred’s professor remarks that the linguist is “one of North America’s foremost phonologists.” Based on her study of the psychology of language, Mildred surmises that the faculty member studies:
A) grammar.
B) meaning.
C) sounds.
D) conversations.
C
98.Sound is to meaning as ______ is to _____.
A) morpheme; phoneme
B) phoneme; morpheme
C) syntax; morpheme
D) syntax; pragmatics
B
99.In written language, letters most closely represent _____, whereas sentences may be said to reflect _____.
A) syntax; phonemes
B) morphemes; syntax
C) phonemes; syntax
D) phonemes; morphemes
C
100.How many morphemes does the word “firefighters” contain?
A) 2
B) 3
C) 4
D) 9
B
101.Dr. Salim is a linguist, studying the rules guiding the order of words and phrases in several of the world’s languages. Dr. Salim studies:
A) phonemes.
B) morphemes.
C) syntax.
D) pragmatics.
C
102.A number of psychologists have attempted to teach language to nonhuman primates. In most instances, the primates learned many signs or word symbols; they could not, however, communicate about abstract or hypothetical concepts. With respect to the elements of language reviewed in the textbook, the primates mastered _____, but not _____.
A) morphemes; displacement
B) morphemes; phonemes
C) displacement; morphemes
D) displacement; phonemes
A
103.With respect to the elements of language reviewed in the textbook, cultural influences are probably MOST apparent at the level of:
A) phonemes.
B) morphemes.
C) syntax.
D) pragmatics.
D
104.Which sequence correctly orders language components from the most specific to the most general?
A) pragmatics > morpheme > phoneme
B) phoneme > syntax > morpheme
C) phoneme > morpheme > semantics
D) pragmatics > phoneme > morpheme
C
105.Which component of language is correctly matched with its definition?
A) pragmatics – social communication
B) syntax – speech sounds
C) semantics – word order
D) phoneme – meaning
A
110.The linguistic relativity hypothesis states that:
A) thought produces language.
B) language influences thought.
C) language is uniquely human.
D) languages share a universal grammar.
Ans: B
106.Which component of language is correctly matched with its usual representation in written language?
A) syntax – syllable or word
B) phoneme – letter
C) morpheme – sentence
D) semantics – letter
B
109.The notion of an innate language acquisition device is associated with:
A) Noam Chomsky.
B) B. F. Skinner.
C) Benjamin Whorf.
D) Wolfgang Kohler.
A
107.Which language example is correctly matched with its element?
A) /-ing/ – semantics
B) /k/ – syntax
C) Melody stirred cream into her coffee. – phoneme
D) desk – morpheme
D
108.Psychologists adhering to the _____ perspective believe that language is acquired through reinforcement and modeling.
A) psychodynamic
B) cognitive
C) functionalist
D) behaviorist
D
111.”We think the way our language lets us,” muses Damien’s French literature professor. Immediately, the linguistic _____ hypothesis pops into his head.
A) validity
B) universality
C) specificity
D) relativity
D
112.Which of these facts casts doubt on the linguistic relativity hypothesis?
A) The English language actually has many words and phrases to describe snow.
B) The Dani are just as able to make fine color discriminations as English speakers are.
C) Both of these facts cast doubt on the linguistic relativity hypothesis.
D) Neither of these facts casts doubt on the linguistic relatively hypothesis.
C
113.In the Mayan Yucatec language, all nouns are accompanied by a term specifying the material of which an object is made (Lucy, 2005). Members of this culture appear to pay more attention to what an object is made of than to its overall shape; English speakers, by contrast, focus on an object’s overall shape. This finding:
A) contradicts Benjamin Whorf’s argument.
B) refutes the linguistic relativity hypothesis.
C) supports the linguistic relativity hypothesis.
D) is irrelevant to the linguistic relativity hypothesis.
C
114.Which statement BEST expresses the linguistic relativity hypothesis?
A) Language is equivalent to thought.
B) Language influences thought.
C) Thought determines language.
D) Language is unrelated to thought.
B
115.Evidence evaluating the linguistic relativity hypothesis comes from _____ psychology.
A) evolutionary
B) cross-cultural
C) behavioral
D) neuroscientific
B
120.Ashley, a psychology major, remarks that she has become interested in the study of intelligence. Thus, Ashley is interested in:
A) the capacity to solve problems, adapt to the environment, and learn from experience.
B) how behavior changes as a result of experience.
C) obtaining, using, and converting knowledge.
D) the ability to generate valuable and original solutions to problems.
A
119.Psychologists define _____ as the capacity to solve problems, adapt to the environment, and learn from experience.
A) creativity
B) cognition
C) reasoning
D) intelligence
D
118.Based on the textbook’s discussion, which statement BEST expresses the linguistic capacity of nonhuman animals?
A) Animals have only rudimentary communication abilities.
B) Animals are capable of sophisticated communication.
C) Animals display basic syntactical abilities.
D) Animals display complex syntactical abilities.
B
117.Which statement BEST captures the textbook’s position with respect to the relationship between language and thought?
A) Thought is impossible without language.
B) One’s language determines the nature of one’s thoughts.
C) Language influences thought.
D) Language and thought are essentially unrelated.
C
116.A researcher shows pairs of color patches to American college students and members of the Dani culture in Papua New Guinea. The members of each pair are the same or slightly different in hue. Both groups of participants are asked if the members of each color pair or different. The researcher records the accuracy of all participants’ color discrimination. Which is the dependent variable in this study? What should the researcher find?
A) Color discrimination accuracy is the dependent variable. The researcher should find no difference in color discrimination accuracy between the two groups.
B) Color discrimination accuracy is the dependent variable. The researcher should find that color discrimination accuracy is higher among the American than among the Dani participants.
C) The participant group is the dependent variable. The researcher should find no difference in color discrimination accuracy between the two groups.
D) The participant group is the dependent variable. The researcher should find that color discrimination accuracy is higher among the American than among the Dani participants.
A
121.An individual’s potential for learning is called:
A) creativity.
B) aptitude.
C) flexibility.
D) intelligence.
B
122.The g-factor is:
A) a component of Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence.
B) a broad factor that underlies every aspect of intelligence.
C) one of several components of intelligence.
D) the same thing as Gardner’s linguistic intelligence.
B
123.If intelligence is a singular, unitary phenomenon, rather than a diverse collection of specialized abilities, then one might expect:
A) a good deal of variability in scores across the different components of an IQ test.
B) little variability in scores across the different components of an IQ test.
C) low average scores on an IQ test.
D) high average scores on an IQ test.
B
124.Laverne’s scores on different parts of an IQ test are very different from one another. Laverne’s profile of scores on the test:
A) contradicts the view of intelligence offered by such early theorists as Spearman.
B) supports the view of intelligence offered by such early theorists as Spearman.
C) contradicts contemporary theories of intelligence such as Gardner’s.
D) contradicts both early and contemporary views of intelligence.
A
125.Early theorists such as Spearman argued that g represented basic intelligence. According to these theorists, individuals high in g probably excel at:
A) most, if not all, intellectual tasks.
B) numerical but not verbal tasks.
C) visual but not verbal tasks.
D) verbal and numerical tasks, but not visual ones.
A
130.Kyana is an excellent salesperson because she can usually find a way of connecting with a potential client. Based on this information, in which kind of intelligence would Gardner expect Kyana to be high?
A) creative
B) analytical
C) interpersonal
D) linguistic
C
129._____ intelligence is NOT among Gardner’s “frames of mind,” or types of intelligence.
A) Musical
B) Analytical
C) Linguistic
D) Spatial
B
128._____ intelligence is one of Gardner’s “frames of mind,” or forms of intelligence.
A) General
B) Analytical
C) Practical
D) Spatial
D
126.Do current theories of intelligence differ from those offered earlier in psychology’s history?
A) Yes. Contemporary theories propose that there may be many multiple forms of intelligence, rather than just one.
B) Yes. Contemporary theories propose that there may be a single broad factor underlying every aspect of intelligence; earlier theories proposed multiple forms of intelligence.
C) Yes. Contemporary theories tend to dismiss the notion that cultural differences are important to a definition of intelligence.
D) No. Theories of intelligence really haven’t changed that much in the past 100 years.
A
127._____ is associated with a theory of intelligence proposing seven or more distinct forms of intelligence.
A) Sternberg
B) Spearman
C) Gardner
D) Binet
C
131.Collectivist cultures, such as Taiwan’s, place a high priority on how individuals relate to each other. It might be reasonable to hypothesize that Taiwanese adults would outscore American adults on a test of Gardner’s ______ intelligence.
A) naturalistic
B) intrapersonal
C) practical
D) interpersonal
Ans: D
132.Etta is taking an intelligence test based on Gardner’s theory. How is Etta’s performance likely to be scored?
A) She will receive a score for each of seven types of intelligence.
B) She will receive a score for each of three types of intelligence.
C) She will be classified as having one of seven types of intelligence.
D) She will receive an overall intelligence score, like an IQ.
Ans: A
133.______ is NOT among the three types of intelligence in Gardner’s theory.
A) Bodily-kinesthetic
B) Spatial
C) Practical
D) Intrapersonal Ans: C
134.In Sternberg’s terms, _____ intelligence drives one’s ability to adjust to different environments.
A) creative
B) practical
C) analytical
D) logical
Ans: B
135.The notion of creative intelligence is associated with:
A) Gardner.
B) Spearman.
C) Sternberg.
D) Binet.
Ans: C
136.Mavis has advanced rapidly in the corporate world, despite her middling scores on such tests as the WAIS-IV, the SAT, and GRE. Sternberg would infer that Mavis has high _____ intelligence.
A) practical
B) general
C) analytical D) linguistic Ans: A
137.If one wished to predict an individual’s ability or potential for success in a given area, one would use an _____ test. If one wished to measure an individual’s level of knowledge in a given area, one would use an _____ test.
A) achievement; achievement
B) achievement; aptitude
C) aptitude; achievement
D) aptitude; aptitude
Ans: C
138.Aptitude test is to achievement test as ______ is to ______.
A) g-factor; IQ
B) assessing past performance; predicting future performance
C) IQ; g-factor
D) predicting future performance; assessing past performance
Ans: D
139.The first intelligence test was devised by:
A) Binet.
B) Stern.
C) Weschler. D) Spearman. Ans: A
140.The practical problem Alfred Binet wanted to solve when he developed his intelligence test was:
A) devising a culturally fair measure of intelligence.
B) devising a “pure” measure of intelligence.
C) identifying gifted children for accelerated programs.
D) identifying children with learning difficulties.
D
150.A psychological test is reliable to the extent that it:
A) measures what it is supposed to measure.
B) has been normed using samples representative of those for whom the test was designed.
C) yields consistent measurements.
D) minimizes potential cultural biases.
Ans: C
141.Imagine that overall, 6-year-olds can complete a particular block design puzzle in 5 minutes. It takes 6-year-old Bailey almost 8 minutes to complete the task. In Binet’s terms, Bailey’s _____ age is _____ than 6.
A) chronological; higher
B) chronological; lower
C) mental; higher
D) mental; lower
Ans: D
142.The formula for the intelligence quotient as Stern defined it is:
A) CA/MA x 100.
B) MA/CA x 100.
C) CA/(MA x 100).
D) MA/(CA x 100). Ans: B
143.Laura is 8; her performance on a series of cognitive tasks is equivalent to that of the average 10-year-old child. Her intelligence quotient is:
A) 125.
B) 80.
C) 110.
D) 10.
Ans: A
144.Which statement BEST describes Binet’s intelligence test?
A) It has had little lasting influence on contemporary intelligence testing.
B) It is still used in virtually the same form as Binet’s original test.
C) It was used for a number of decades but was then abandoned.
D) It is still used in a heavily revised form.
Ans: D
145.Each of these is a widely-used intelligence test EXCEPT:
A) WISC-IV.
B) WAIS-IV.
C) Spearman G Scale.
D) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
Ans: C
146.The MOST commonly used IQ test in the United States is the:
A) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
B) WAIS-IV.
C) Spearman G Scale.
D) Terman Intelligence Battery.
Ans: B
147.Which statement BEST describes the relationships between the WAIS-IV and WISC-IV?
A) The WAIS-IV and the WISC-IV are alternative forms of the same test.
B) The WAIS-IV is a test of verbal intelligence, whereas the WISC-IV is a test of nonverbal intelligence.
C) The WAIS-IV is used to test adult intelligence, whereas the WISC-IV is used to test children’s intelligence.
D) The WAIS-IV is the current successor to the WISC-IV, an older test of intelligence.
Ans: C
148.If one were to plot the IQ scores of every person in the United States on a graph, one would end up with a:
A) sore hand.
B) messy piece of paper.
C) uniform distribution—that is, a straight horizontal line
D) bell-shaped curve.
Ans: D
149.A psychological test is valid to the extent that it:
A) measures what it is supposed to measure.
B) has been normed using samples representative of those for whom the test was designed.
C) yields consistent measurements.
D) minimizes potential cultural biases.
Ans: A
151.A psychological test is standardized to the extent that it:
A) measures what it is supposed to measure.
B) has been normed using samples representative of those for whom the test was designed.
C) yields consistent measurements.
D) minimizes potential cultural biases.
Ans: B
152.As a condition for a test’s validity, a test’s reliability is:
A) B) C) D) Ans:
necessary.
sufficient.
both necessary and sufficient. neither necessary nor sufficient. A
153.An online intelligence test yields a different IQ each time a person takes it. The test is:
A) possibly reliable but definitely not valid.
B) not reliable and probably not valid either.
C) not reliable but possibly valid.
D) possibly reliable and potentially valid.
Ans: B
154.Dr. English develops a test that she believes will predict the academic success of college freshmen. Dr. English finds a correlation coefficient of .70 between high-school seniors’ scores on the test and their freshman GPAs one year later. What can one conclude regarding Dr. English’s test?
A) It is not reliable.
B) It is reasonably reliable.
C) It is not valid.
D) It is reasonably valid.
Ans: D
155.Dr. Feng devises a questionnaire to measure adults’ extraversion, a stable personality trait. Dr. Feng computes the questionnaire scores of a large sample of adults. Six months later, he gives the same sample the same test. The correlation between the two sets of scores is . 10. What can one conclude regarding Dr. Feng’s test?
A) It is not reliable.
B) It is reasonably reliable.
C) It is not valid.
D) It is reasonably valid.
Ans: A
156.A researcher develops a questionnaire to assess the personality trait of impulsivity among adults. In a journal article, she presents evidence that college students tend to get essentially the same score if they take the test twice, 2 months apart. She also presents the average score, the highest score, and the lowest score obtained by two large samples: one done with 2,000 college students and another done with 750 adults who are not in college. However, when one reviews the sample questionnaire items, it seems clear that they relate more to whether a person is sociable, outgoing, and fun than to whether an individual is impulsive. As a result, one would question the _____ of the researcher’s questionnaire.
A) reliability
B) validity
C) standardization
D) reliability and validity
Ans: B
157.Dr. Cavanaugh examines the relationship between the personality trait of resilience and
senior citizens’ compliance with medication regimes; however, the resilience measure he uses was normed on college students. Based on this information, what is the weakness of Dr. Cavanaugh’s resilience measure?
A) its reliability
B) its standardization
C) its validity
D) its bell curve
Ans: B
158.A persistent finding in the study of group differences in intelligence is that compared to Caucasian Americans’ IQ scores, African Americans’ scores are, on average:
A) the same.
B) 5 points lower.
C) 10-15 points lower.
D) 20 points lower.
Ans: C
159.Angie is computing the correlation between the intelligence test scores and the household incomes of a large sample of American adults. Angie should find a ____ correlation.
A) zero
B) negative
C) positive
D) perfect
Ans: C
160.A researcher finds a significant correlation between the IQ scores and the SES of a large sample of American adults. What can she conclude?
A) Low IQ produces low SES.
B) Low SES results in low IQ.
C) High IQ is associated with high SES.
D) SES is unrelated to IQ.
Ans: C
161.Approximately _____% of the population has an IQ score between 85 and 115.
A) 50
B) 68
C) 75
D) 85
Ans: B
162.Coral’s IQ score is 104. She is in good company: nearly _____ out of 10 people have IQ scores between 85 and 115.
A) 5 B) 7 C) 8 D) 9 Ans: B
163.About 95% of the population has an IQ score between _____ and _____.
A) 70; 130
B) 85; 115
C) 90; 110
D) 55; 145
Ans: A
164.A test that does not discriminate against the members of any minority group is termed a _____ test.
A) culture-fair
B) culture-free
C) culture-neutral
D) culture-positive
Ans: A
165.Approximately what proportion of the population as a whole may be described as intellectually disabled?
A) 1 in 1,000 persons
B) 1 in 200 persons
C) 2 in 100 persons
D) 5 in 100 persons
Ans: C
166.Is there a difference between the terms “mental retardation” and “intellectual disability”? A) No. The terms are used interchangeably and equally often.
B) Yes. “Intellectual disability” is now the preferred term, although “mental retardation” is still used often.
C) Yes. The term “mental retardation” has replaced the term “intellectual disability” among psychologists.
D) Yes. The terms refer to different types of deficits in functioning.
Ans: B
167.How do the proportions of the population compare that are identified as intellectually disabled or as gifted?
A) There are twice as many individuals classified as intellectually disabled as there are who are identified as gifted.
B) There are twice as many individuals classified as gifted as there are who are identified as intellectually disabled.
C) We don’t know the exact differences in proportions, but more individuals are classified as intellectually disabled then are identified as gifted.
D) Equal proportions of the population are identified as belonging in these two groups of intellectual abilities.
Ans: D
168.A cause cannot be identified in approximately _____% of the cases of intellectual disability.
A) 10
B) 25
C) 50
D) 75
Ans: C
169.The IQ of intellectually gifted individuals is _____ or above.
A) 100
B) 120
C) 130
D) 140
Ans: C
170.Terman’s long-term study of the intellectually gifted found that the gifted tend to be:
A) socially awkward.
B) physically weak.
C) both socially awkward and physically weak.
D) neither socially awkward nor physically weak.
Ans: D
171.Compared to more typical individuals, the intellectually gifted are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT:
A) higher incomes.
B) lower life satisfaction.
C) physical attractiveness.
D) higher educational attainment.
Ans: B
172.Emotional intelligence is positively associated with: A) academic success.
B) occupational success.
C) both academic and occupational success.
D) neither academic nor occupational success.
Ans: C
173.Dyslexia reflects atypical connections in the _____ cortex.
A) left parietotemporal
B) right parietotemporal
C) left prefrontal
D) right prefrontal
Ans: A
174.A persisting issue or controversy in psychology that is especially relevant to the study of intelligence is that of:
A) nature vs. nurture.
B) free will vs. determinism.
C) unconscious vs. conscious roots of behavior.
D) observable behavior vs. mental processes.
Ans: A
175.The term ______ refers to a measure of the degree to which a characteristic can be attributed to genetic factors.
A) correlation
B) concordance
C) inheritance
D) heritability
Ans: D
176.The correlation between identical twins’ IQ scores is:
A) about .50.
B) nearly .75.
C) approximately .90.
D) 1.00.
Ans: C
177.The ability to construct valuable results in innovative ways is known as:
A) convergent thinking.
B) insight.
C) creativity.
D) divergent thinking.
Ans: C
178.According to the text, scores on creativity measures are _____ correlated with scores on intelligence tests.
A) negatively
B) weakly
C) positively
D) variably Ans: C
179.Generating many potential solutions for a problem is called:
A) originality.
B) fluency.
C) creativity.
D) convergent thinking.
Ans: B
180.According to the text, divergent thinking is a component of creativity. Therefore, scores on measures of divergent thinking should be _____ correlated with scores on creativity measures.
A) perfectly
B) weakly
C) negatively
D) positively
D
240.”Bach, Brahms, and Beethoven exemplify high musical intelligence.” This statement reflects one aspect of Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence.
A) True
B) False
Ans: B
261.What is meant by a concept? Define the superordinate, basic, and subordinate levels of concept representation. Provide an example related to a familiar concept for each level.
A concept is the mental representation of a category of objects, situations, or ideas.
Level Superordinate Basic or midlevel Subordinate Definition This is the broadest level and includes all the examples belonging to the concept. This is the level used most often to identify objects in everyday life.
This is specific types or instances of the category. Example clothing shoe sneakers; high heel; tennis shoe; boot
262.Identify and describe three different problem-solving strategies described in the text. Suggest how each strategy might be fruitfully applied in one or more college courses.
Means-ends analysis. Means-ends analysis involves repeatedly comparing the current state of the problem to the goal state and attempting to reduce the difference between the two. In an art course, for example, one might have an idea of the piece one would like to create; one might try to reduce the difference between the current piece and the desired one by shading here, adding a brush stroke there, smoothing this portion of the clay a little, and so on. Forming subgoals. This strategy involves dividing a problem into a series of intermediate steps, then solving those. A computer program assignment might offer an example: one might code one section of the program, then another, and so on. A term paper might be divided into completing separate parts such as the introduction, body, conclusion, and reference pages. Insight. Insight entails the sudden discovery of a problem’s solution. This “aha!” experience is preceded by temporal and frontal lobe activity. Insight is especially important in creative or complex activities, such as a difficult physics problem or a design assignment in an architecture class. Insight can be encouraged by positive moods or by a break from the problem-solving process.
263.Describe how the availability heuristic, representative heuristic, and the confirmation bias may contribute to prejudice and discrimination. Provide as much detail as possible.
Availability heuristic. The availability heuristic refers to the tendency to base estimates of the frequency or probability of events on the ease with which instances of the events come to mind. One might overestimate the frequency with which members of a particular sociocultural group commit crimes if media coverage of a member of the group committing a crime comes easily to mind. One might similarly overestimate the frequency of crime in a particular neighborhood or section of town if media coverage of a crime in that area comes easily to mind. These estimates may lead an individual to behave differently toward members of a particular sociocultural group than one would toward one’s own group. Representativeness heuristic. The representativeness heuristic refers to the tendency to form hypotheses, make decisions, or draw conclusions about an individual based on one’s representation of the category of people the individual most closely resembles. If one holds a negative stereotype regarding a particular group, one might judge a newly encountered member of the group in terms of the stereotype; the stereotype may in turn drive discriminatory behavior toward the individual. Confirmation bias. The confirmation bias refers to the tendency for people to attend to and endorse evidence that supports their existing hypotheses or beliefs and to ignore or discount evidence that does not. Incidents that confirm a negative stereotype concerning a particular sociocultural group will be taken as critical evidence; incidents that do not will be ignored or discounted.
264.LaToya tells her friend, “Last night I met two friends for dinner.” Use the words in LaToya’s sentence to illustrate phonemes, morphemes, and syntax. How does her response illustrate displacement?
Phonemes: These are speech sounds. The vowel sound in “I” and the beginning consonant in “met” are examples of phonemes. Morphemes: A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning. The word “night” is a single morpheme. The word “friends,” for instance, contains two morphemes: the root word “friend” and the “- s” ending. The ending is a morpheme because it changes the meaning from one friend to more than one friend. Syntax: These are the rules to order words so that the appropriate meaning is communicated. For example “friends dinner night” would not convey the idea that it was LaToya who met the friends for dinner. Similarly, “met dinner friends last” would not get across the idea of what happened, either. Her response illustrates displacement because it refers to events that are not occurring right now; they come from her memory. Displacement allows communication about the past, the future, and the merely hypothetical.
266.Describe in detail the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV).
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale—In the early 1900s, American psychologist Louis Terman revised Binet’s test for use in the United States. The Stanford-Binet is now in its fifth edition. It assesses verbal and nonverbal aspects of intelligence. The test yields an overall score as well as scores on specific abilities, such as reasoning or visual processing. Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale—also known as the WAIS-IV, is the most commonly used assessment of adult intelligence. It has 10 subtests assessing intelligence in four domains: verbal ability, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. The test yields an overall score, as well as scores for each of the four domains. Psychologists are especially interested in consistency among an individual’s domain and overall scores. IQ tests are scored in such a way that the average score is assigned a value of 100; IQs are calculated based on an individual’s deviation from that mean.
268.Support this statement using empirical data: The discrepancy in IQ scores between whites and blacks in the United States has nothing to do with race.
On average, Blacks in the United States score about 10 to 15 points lower on IQ tests than do Whites. Evidence suggests that this difference stems from environmental rather than genetic causes; Black and mixed-race children adopted by White families had higher IQ scores than did Black and mixed-race children adopted by Black families; Stress can harm the parts of the brain responsible for attention and memory. Many Black families live in more stressful environments than do most White families; The relationship between race and IQ scores may actually reflect the relationship between SES and IQ scores; Lower SES is associated with lower IQ.
269.Identify what is meant by heritability, and what the data on genetic influences on intelligence tells us about the role of nature versus nurture on intellectual ability.
Heritability refers to the degree to which heredity is responsible for a particular characteristic or trait. Twin studies have helped demonstrate the role of genetics in intellectual abilities. Identical twins or monozygotic twins are more similar in their IQ scores than fraternal or dizygotic twins. This research and others have led psychologists to conclude that the heritability for intelligence is about 50%. This means that half of the variability in intellectual ability is related to genetic contributions and 50% is attributable to environmental influences. It is important to note that heritability estimates apply only at the population level; we can’t conclude that 50% of any single individual’s intellectual ability is due to genes or the environment.
260.Convergent thinking is useful when there are many potential solutions to a problem.
A) True
B) False
B
259.Unique solutions are to multiple solutions as originality is to fluency.
A) True
B) False
A
258.Creativity is unrelated to intelligence.
A) True
B) False
B
257.The IQ scores of identical twins are perfectly correlated.
A) True
B) False
B
256.Shiloh is skilled at regulating her feelings and adapting to social situations; in Goleman’s
terms, Shiloh is high in practical intelligence.
A) True
B) False
B
253.In about 75% of all cases, the cause of intellectual disability is unknown.
A) True
B) False
B
254.Children with IQ scores above 130 are classified as gifted.
A) True
B) False
A
255.Emotional intelligence scores are positively associated with occupational success.
A) True
B) False
A
252.Just over two-thirds of the population has an IQ score between 85 and 115.
A) True
B) False
A
250.Racial differences in IQ scores have largely disappeared.
A) True
B) False
B
251.Racial differences in IQ scores probably reflect nurture not nature.
A) True
B) False
A
247.A valid test is necessarily reliable.
A) True
B) False
A
246.If a test is reliable, it is also valid.
A) True
B) False
B
241.In their song “Sassy,” the contemporary jazz vocal group The Manhattan Transfer admired legendary jazz singer Sarah Vaughn for “blowing over changes that would give most gals a fright.” In Sternberg’s terms, Vaughn’s ability to adapt to new situations reflects creative intelligence.
A) True
B) False
A
242.The intelligence quotient formula was devised by Binet.
A) True
B) False
B
243.The IQ of a 6-year-old child with a mental age of 8 is 125.
A) True
B) False
B
244.Five-year-old Aliyah has an IQ of 80; thus, her mental age is 4.
A) True
B) False
B
245.A plot of the IQ scores of any population would yield a bell-shaped distribution.
A) True
B) False
A
239.Howard Gardner proposed three distinct forms of intelligence.
A) True
B) False
B
238.Today’s psychologists generally endorse the notion that there is a single intelligence factor.
A) True
B) False
B
237.Spearman proposed that a broad intelligence factor contributed to many different abilities.
A) True
B) False
A
236.The definition of intelligence varies from culture to culture.
A) True
B) False
A
235.Aptitude is a synonym for intelligence.
A) True
B) False
B
231.Displacement refers to the rules governing the order of words in sentences.
A) True
B) False
B
232.Research with the Dani of Papua New Guinea affirms the linguistic relativity hypothesis.
A) True
B) False
B
233.According to the text, using male pronouns when gender is unspecified may reinforce gender biases.
A) True
B) False
A
181.The textbook defines fluency as the ability to create many potential solutions. It defines divergent thinking as the ability to devise many solutions to a problem. Based on these definitions, which coefficient is probably closest to the correlation a researcher would find between fluency scores and divergent thinking scores?
A) -.45
B) -.15
C) .15
D) .45
D
182.Solving an algebra problem exemplifies:
A) convergent thinking.
B) flexibility.
C) divergent thinking.
D) originality.
A
183.”How many uses can you think of for a brick?” Norman is asked by the examiner. Norman is taking a test of _____ thinking.
A) convergent
B) algorithmic
C) divergent
D) heuristic
C
184.Compared to less creative individuals, creative persons:
A) have a narrower range of knowledge.
B) are less open to experience.
C) take fewer risks.
D) think more divergently.
D
230.The process of language acquisition is the same for signed language as it is for spoken language.
A) True
B) False
A
234.Animals show basic syntactic capabilities.
A) True
B) False
B
229.B. F. Skinner proposed the notion of an innate language acquisition device.
A) True
B) False
B
228.Pragmatics refers to the rules indicating how words and phrases may be combined to form legitimate sentences.
A) True
B) False
B
186.Cognition is the same thing as thinking.
A) True
B) False
B
185.An fMRI study of freestyling rappers’ brains suggested that the relaxed mental constraint necessary for fluency, flexibility, and divergent thinking may reflect _____ activity in the _____ prefrontal cortex.
A) increased; dorsolateral
B) increased; medial
C) reduced; dorsolateral
D) reduced; medial
C
227.In French, endings such as “-ez” and “-ons” inflect a verb’s meaning. They are therefore morphemes.
A) True
B) False
A
187.Midlevel concepts are also called ordinate-level concepts.
A) True
B) False
B
226.The roots of dyslexia lie in difficulties with syntactic processing.
A) True
B) False
B
188.Most of the time, people refer to concepts at the basic level.
A) True
B) False
A
221.A problem’s wording or context influences decision making; this is called the representativeness effect.
A) True
B) False
B
189.When Cherelle says, “I’m in the market to buy a Ford Focus,” she is referring to a subordinate-level concept.
A) True
B) False
A
222.Stress may contribute to poorer decision making.
A) True
B) False
A
190.Building is to hospital as subordinate-level is to midlevel.
A) True
B) False
B
191.”Vehicle” is a formal concept.
A) True
B) False
B
192.Formal concepts are also called artificial concepts.
A) True
B) False
A
193.Rules are to experience as formal concept is to natural concept.
A) True
B) False
A
194.A lizard is a prototypical pet.
A) True
B) False
B
195.There are few cultural differences in the prototypes for natural concepts.
A) True
B) False
B
223.A language may be composed entirely of gestures.
A) True
B) False
A
224.Until they are about 9 months old, infants can recognize all sounds from all languages.
A) True
B) False
A
225.Bilingual children even as young as 7 months of age show an executive control advantage over monolingual children.
A) True
B) False
A
219.The confirmation bias operates unconsciously.
A) True
B) False
A
196.The classic early study of mental rotation was performed by Kosslyn and his colleagues.
A) True
B) False
B
220.When people seek evidence that reinforces their beliefs, it is termed a mental set.
A) True
B) False
B
197.Training and experience can influence the accuracy of auditory imagery.
A) True
B) False
A
218.When people use the representativeness heuristic, they overemphasize base rates.
A) True
B) False
B
198.Auditory imagery relies on different brain areas than does auditory perception.
A) True
B) False
B
217.When one’s memory for an event is especially vivid, one may overestimate the likelihood of the event’s future occurrence.
A) True
B) False
A
199.After a stroke, Daphne has difficulty formulating plans and regulating her emotions; it is probably her occipital lobe that was damaged.
A) True
B) False
B
216.The availability heuristic may lead people to exaggerate the frequency of school shootings.
A) True
B) False
A
200.CT scans are useful for detecting tumors and other brain abnormalities, but they say little about normal brain functioning.
A) True
B) False
B
201.The same brain areas are activated whether people view objects or simply imagine them.
A) True
B) False
A
202.Multiple brain study techniques support the idea that cognition and perception activate the same brain areas.
A) True
B) False
A
203.Erik is manipulating a Rubik’s cube. Finally, each side is a single color. This is known as the problem’s terminal state.
A) True
B) False
B
204.Trial-and-error problem solving is MOST appropriate in low-risk situations.
A) True
B) False
A
205.Trial and error ultimately guarantees a problem’s solution.
A) True
B) False Ans: B
B
211.Insight is associated with increased activity in the frontal and temporal lobes.
A) True
B) False
A
214.Additive model is to single feature approach as simple decisions are to complex decisions.
A) True
B) False
B
215.Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky pioneered the study of decision-making heuristics.
A) True
B) False
A
213.Research suggests that a positive mood may encourage insight.
A) True
B) False
A
206.Two-and-one-half ounces of gin and one-half ounce of vermouth yields a perfect martini every time; in problem solving terms, this recipe is an algorithm.
A) True
B) False
A
212.Victoria demonstrates freedom from functional fixedness when she uses an automatic- drip coffeemaker to cook Ramen noodles.
A) True
B) False
A
207.Both algorithms and heuristics guarantee a problem’s solution.
A) True
B) False
B
210.Kohler studied insight by observing cats escaping from puzzle boxes.
A) True
B) False
B
208.Ladamion checks an algebra problem’s solution in the back of the textbook. He then applies operations to reduce the difference between the problem’s initial state and the solution. In this example, Ladamion is using means-end analysis.
A) True
B) False
A
209.Creating subgoals is one example of an algorithm.
A) True
B) False
B
248.”Every time I take it, it tells me something different!” complains Hendrik’s friend, turning away from the online personality quiz she just completed. She is complaining about the test’s validity.
A) True
B) False
B
249.”That’s so wrong! This test can’t have anything to do with my ability to attract women!” Ignacio protests. Ignacio is disputing the test’s validity.
A) True
B) False
A
265.Outline both theories of multiple intelligences.
Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. This theory proposes that there are at least seven distinct forms of intelligence: musical, bodily kinesthetic, logical, mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. There may exist even more types of intelligence, such as naturalist and existential. Based on evidence from individuals with savant syndrome, the different types of intelligence may be linked to independent brain systems. Each individual possesses each type of intelligence to either a greater or lesser extent; that is, an individual has an intelligence “profile” across the types. While the types of intelligence may be associated with different neural systems, most tasks involve the cooperation of multiple forms of intelligence: an architect’s work, for example, may involve both spatial and mathematical intelligence. Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence. Sternberg proposes three forms of intelligence: analytical—the type of intelligence that drives the solution of the sorts of abstract problems typically found on intelligence tests and refers to one’s capacity to solve problems; practical, “street smarts”—the intelligence that underlies adapting to different environments; and creative—the intelligence that represents the knowledge and skills one uses to handle new situations.
267.Suppose a psychologist was to develop a new intelligence test. Describe how he or she would establish the reliability and validity of the new test. Outline how he or she would standardize the test.
Reliability—Reliability refers to the consistency with which a test measures a

construct such as intelligence. One way to establish reliability might be to give a sample the test twice, weeks or months apart. If the test is reliable, any individual’s two scores should be nearly identical. Validity—Validity refers to the degree that a test actually measures what it intends to measure. One could establish a new test’s validity by showing that it correlates to measures of academic success in the same way that well-established intelligence tests do. The validity of a new test might also be established by showing that scores on the new test correlate well with scores on more well-established tests of intelligence. Standardization—The test should be normed using a sample representative of the intended respondents. If the test is intended to assess the intelligence of adults, a sample representative of the American population should be used. The average score of the sample should be determined, as should the typical variability of the scores around the mean.

270.Briefly describe Terman’s study of the intellectually gifted and suggest how its results contradict popular stereotypes of the intellectually gifted.
Beginning in the early part of the 20th century, psychologist Lewis Terman began tracking over 1,500 children with IQs ranging from 130 to 200. The results showed that from the start, the participants were more successful academically and professionally than were their non-gifted peers. More surprisingly, they were better adjusted socially than were their non-gifted peers, contradicting the stereotype of the intellectually gifted as social misfits. In addition, the gifted participants were attractive and physically healthy, countering the stereotype of the frail “bookworm.” Finally, Terman’s participants also reported more life satisfaction than did non-gifted individuals, contradicting the “tortured genius” stereotype.