Chapter 7 psych

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These are uncontrollable sleep attacks.
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narcolepsy.
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The simultaneous processing of information on many parallel tracks is most closely associated with:
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unconscious information processing.
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The term circadian rhythm refers to _____.
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a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour schedule
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his sleep disorder is typified by pausing or shallowness of breathing.
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sleep apnea
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1 in 10 adults complain of this sleep disorder, which is characterized by nightly problems falling or staying asleep.
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insomnia
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It is at the end of this stage that children may wet the bed or begin walking in their sleep.
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NREM-3 sleep
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_____ is our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
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consciousness
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Jasper stays up very late most Saturday nights. He finds Monday mornings very difficult because he often sleeps until noon on Sunday and has trouble going to sleep at a reasonable time on Sunday night. To prevent his Monday morning problem, Jasper should go to sleep each day at a(n) _____ time.
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regular
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Chronic sleep deprivation is most likely to contribute to:
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suppression of the immune system.
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Shortly after going to bed, some people claim to have been abducted by space aliens. These people commonly recall being floated off their beds. It is most likely that they have incorporated _____ into their memories.
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hypnagogic sensations
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You are trying to convince a group of parents that their elementary-school-aged children need more sleep. Which of the following pieces of information would you use to convince them?
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Sleep aids in the restoration and repair of brain tissue.Our memories of the day, including things learned in school, are restored while we sleep.The pituitary gland releases growth hormones while we are sleeping.
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You go to bed at your regular time, and as you begin to drift slowly off to sleep, you jump up suddenly as you feel you are falling down the stairs. This is best explained by a _____ sensation.
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hypnagogic
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Arnold goes to his psychotherapist and describes his recent dreams where he flies like an eagle through the sky. His therapist listens and then offers the interpretation that this dream signifies Arnold’s unconscious desires to be free of his family obligations. Arnold’s therapist is displaying an interest in:
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the latent content of Arnold’s dream.
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Every night, after a late dinner, Sasha has a strong cup of coffee before working out at the gym. On her way home, she likes to stop for a double-chocolate frozen yogurt. Finally, she watches the late news and drinks two glasses of red wine, because she has heard that red wine is good for you. Based on this routine, sleep experts might predict that Sasha would be likely to complain of _____.
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insomnia
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Which of the following states of consciousness occur spontaneously?
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Daydreaming
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After returning from her vacation in New Zealand, your roommate apologizes for forgetting the time difference and calling while you were asleep. She indicated that she could not understand what you attempted to say to her. You’re very puzzled by her comment because you have no recollection of the phone conversation. The phone conversation most likely occurred while you were experiencing NREM- _____ sleep.
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Stage 3
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Hypnosis, daydreaming, and meditation are example of:
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altered states of consciousness.
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When Maria goes into the bedroom to check on the child she is babysitting, she observes that his eyes are rapidly moving back and forth rapidly under his eyelids. The baby is also lying very still. It is likely that he is _____.
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dreaming
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Those who complain of insomnia typically _____ how long it actually takes them to fall asleep and underestimate how long they actually slept.
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overestimate
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stage of deep sleep.
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NREM-3 sleep.
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Hypnagogic sensations occur in
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NREM-1 sleep.
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Sleep spindles occur in:
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NREM-2 sleep.
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The sleep disorder _____ is likely to be accompanied by sleepwalking and sleeptalking.
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night terrors
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The _____ illusion illustrates how we have both a visual perception track and a visual action track.
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hollow face
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The sleep disorder _____ is most strongly associated with obesity.
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sleep apnea
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Staying up especially late on weekends is most likely to have an influence on the _____.
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circadian rhythm
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Selective attention is illustrated by which of the following?
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change blindness inattentional blindness cocktail party effect
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failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere while this question is asking about a change.
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inattentional bias.
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During commencement, a parent sat waiting for his child’s name to be called. He failed to realize that the person initially reading off the graduate names left and that a new person was now reading. This scenario illustrates:
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change deafness.
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The distinction between manifest content and latent content is central to _____ theory of dreams
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Freud’s wish-fulfillment
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Without fail, when you are talking to your best friend about something important, she continues to check her smart phone and watch for people she knows. Her behavior is evidence of _____.
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parallel processing
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vid dreams occur during this recurring sleep stage, also known as paradoxical sleep.
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REM
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_____ is an altered state of consciousness or psychological state of altered attention in which the individual is unusually receptive to suggestions.
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Hypnosis
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American, British, and Australian courts generally ban testimony from witnesses who have been hypnotized, because the procedure often results in:
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pseudomemories.
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Social-influence explanations and divided-consciousness explanations are converging toward a unified account of _____.
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hypnosis
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A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others is called:
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dissociation.
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Evidence from research on hypnotic susceptibility has demonstrated that on average ______ percent of people have high levels of hypnotic susceptibility.
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20
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Researcher Barber believes in the _____ explanation of hypnosis while researcher Hilgard believes in the divided consciousness explanation of hypnosis.
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social influence
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can inadvertently be created when hypnosis is used to aid recall.
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Pseudomemories:
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According to the social influence theory of hypnosis, hypnotized subjects are:
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responding to the social demands of the situation.
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While at a comedy club, you see a hypnotized person follow a hypnotic suggestion to stand on one leg (like a flamingo) for five minutes. If that person was not hypnotized, she _____ be able to perform this same feat.
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WOULD
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Hilgard’s dissociation theory of hypnosis:
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contends that hypnosis is a special state of consciousness.
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Research on hypnosis has found no evidence for claims related to:
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age regression.
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In an experiment, hypnotized subjects are told to scratch their ear every time they hear the word \”psychology.\” The results indicate that they do this only if they think the experiment is still under way. These findings most clearly support the theory that hypnosis involves _____.
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role playing
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Social-influence explanations and divided-consciousness explanations are converging toward a unified account of:
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hypnosis.
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_____ is considered by some people to be no more than a social interaction, during which one person suggests to another person that various feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will occur spontaneousl
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Hypnotism
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If a successfully hypnotized person places her arm in a bucket of ice, she will likely:
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view the water as cold but not painful.
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is considered by some people to be no more than a social interaction, during which one person suggests to another person that various feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will occur spontaneously.
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Hypnotism
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Researcher Barber believes in the _____ explanation of hypnosis while researcher Hilgard believes in the _____ explanation of hypnosis.
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social-influence; divided consciousness
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Which of the following statements about the effectiveness of hypnosis is FALSE?
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Research does not support the claim that hypnosis can reduce the experience of pain.
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While at a comedy club, you see a hypnotized person follow a hypnotic suggestion to stand on one leg (like a flamingo) for five minutes. What would you expect of that person when NOT hypnotized?
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Even without hypnosis, she would be able to perform this same feat.
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A person who responds successfully to a hypnotic suggestion that he NOT react to the smell of ammonia held under his nose is likely to be the type of person who is frequently engaged in _____ activities.
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imaginative
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People who are hypnotized are able to:
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There is no evidence that hypnotized people can do any of these things.
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A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others is called:
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dissociation
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A researcher is interested in studying hypnosis, but she only wants to include people with high hypnotic ability. She should choose study participants who:
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have rich fantasy lives.
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Dissociation has been used as an explanation for:
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hypnotic pain relief.
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After 4 years of working nights, Raymond now works days. His present difficulty in getting to sleep at night is most likely due to a disruption to his normal
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circadian rhythm
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After Carlos had been asleep for about an hour, his heart began to beat faster, his breathing became fast and irregular and his closed eyes began to dart back and forth Carlos was most likely experiencing
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REM sleep
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What is not a characteristic of REM sleep
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Voluntary muscles tense and become more active
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Paradoxical sleep is to slow wave sleep as ____ sleep is to ___ sleep
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REM; Stage 4
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Feli has been asleep for 3 hours. As he continues to sleep, we can expect that ____ sleep will diminish and that ____ sleep will increase in duration
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Stage 4; REM
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Stimulants are to caffeine as depressants are to
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Heroin
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Insomnia is a disorder involving
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recurring difficulty staying or falling asleep
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Which of the following sleep disorders would be the most incapacitating for a commercial airline pilot
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narcolepsy
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Mr. Dayton occasionally stops breathing while sleeping. He wakes up to snort air for a few seconds before falling back to sleep. Mrs. Dayton complains that her husband snores. Clearly, Mr. Dayton suffers from
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sleep apnea
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research studies of the content of dreams indicate that
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Females are more likely than males to dream about members of the opposite sex
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Freud called the remembered story line of a dream its ___ content
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manifest
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Those who study hypnosis agree that it is a state of
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heightened suggestibility
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Hypnotized people are more likely to perform dangerous acts than those who are asked to simulate hypnosis. This fact is most consistent with
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social influence theory
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Alcohol, Marijuana, cocaine, and a wide variety of other chemical agents that alter perceptions and moods are called
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psychoactive drugs
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Drug tolerance refers to the
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Reduced effect of a drug resulting form its regular usage
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The divided- Consciousness theory of hypnosis states that hypnosis involves
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dissociation
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Alcohol consumption ___ sympathetic nervous system activity, and ____ self awareness
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decreases; decreases
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What drug is classified as a stimulant
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alcohol, nicotine, and heroine
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LSD is most likely to produce
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hallucinations
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forty-year-old Lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably:
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experiences very little REM sleep
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terry has not had a decent night of sleep in over a week. if this sleep deprivation continues, he will become increasingly susceptible to:
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viral infections
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research on dreaming indicates that
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some people are able to test their state of consciousness while dreaming
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our awareness of ourselves and our environment
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consciousness
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mental processes
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by 1960 the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists’ renewed interest in:
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biological rhythms
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those who emphasize that mood fluctuations may be indicative of seasonal affective disorder are highlighting the importance of:
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the circadian rhythm
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our inability to fall asleep early as we had planned, is most likely a reflection of:
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physical growth
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deep sleep appears to play an important role in:
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people often experience sudden visual images during REM sleep
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the activation-synthesis theory best helps to explain why
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delta waves
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the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep are called:
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often a combination of fact and fiction
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research indicated that memories retrieved during hypnosis are:
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Nightmares are to _______ as night terrors are to ________
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REM sleep; stage 4 sleep
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drink a glass of wine 15 mins before bed
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what is bad advice to someone trying to overcome insomnia?
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relax and drink a glass of milk before bed
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which is the best advice for someone concerned about occasional insomnia?
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serial processing; parallel processing
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consciousness is to unconsciousness as ______ is to _________
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ecstasy
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which is an amphetamine derivative that acts as a mild hallucinogen
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alpha waves
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_____ are associated with a relaxed and awake state
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hypnosis has been associated with quackery, thanks to the false claims made by:
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Anton Mesmer
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fantasy-prone personalities
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someone who imagines and recalls experiences with lifelike vividness and who spends considerable time fantasizing
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annual cycles (seasons), twenty-eight-days cycle (menstrual cycle), twenty-four-hour cycles (day), ninety-minute cycles (sleep)
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biological rhythms
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biological rhythms
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periodic physiological fluctuations
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circadian rhythm
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the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24 hour cycle
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REM
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rapid eye movement; recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur
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alpha waves
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the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state
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sleep
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periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness – as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernations
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hallucinations
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false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
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delta waves
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the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
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insomnia
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recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
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narcolepsy
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a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks
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sleep apnea
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a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings
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night terrors
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a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within 2-3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
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dream
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a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind
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manifest content
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the remembered storyline of a dream
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latent content
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the underlying meaning of a dream; a safety valve according to Freud
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REM rebound
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the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
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hypnosis
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a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
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posthypnotic amnesia
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supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion
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posthypnotic suggestion
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a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
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dissociation
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a split in consciousness which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
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hidden observer
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Hilgard’s term describing a subject’s awareness of experiences; such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
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psychoactive drug
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a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
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tolerance
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the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect
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withdrawal
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the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drugs
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physical dependence
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physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
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psychological dependence
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a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
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depressants
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drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
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stimulants
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drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
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hallucinogens
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psychedelic drugs like LSD that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
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barbiturates
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drugs that depress the activity of the CNS reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment
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opiates
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opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they dress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
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amphetamines
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drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
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LSD
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a powerful hallucinogenic drug
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THC
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the major active ingredient in marijuana
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information processing theory
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theory that dreams help sift, sort, and fix the day’s experiences in our memory
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role theory
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when a person is not in an alternate state of consciousness, but rather is acting out the role of a hypnotized person
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state theory
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when a person is actually hypnotized and therefore he or she is in a different, or altered, state of mind

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