Chapter 7 – Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood

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Which of the following statements best describes the key elements of Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development?
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All the following are true: (1) Children from stable concepts and begin to reason (2) Children continue to be egocentric and have magical beliefs (3) Children are able to use words to describe their world
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Experts recommend that young children get between ________and ________ hours of sleep each night.
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11 and 13
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Which of the following is a government program that provides lower socioeconomic status children in the United States with skills for school success?
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Head Start
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Which of the following symptoms are associated with autistic children?
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All apply: (1) High rates of repetitive behavior (2) Deficits in communication (3) Deficits in social interactions
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Which of the following are major cognitive theories of development that address the early childhood years?
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All apply: (1) Vygotsky’s theory (2) Information processing theory (3) Piaget’s theory
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Children and adolescents above the BMI’s 97th percentile are classified as_______________, whereas children and adolescents in the 95th or 96th percentile are considered overweight.
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obese
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The second stage of Piaget’s cognitive theory of development lasts from ages 2 to 7 and is called the:
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preoperational stage
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Piaget’s theory
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(1) Children organize and reorganize previous knowledge (2) Focuses on the individual
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Vygotsky’s theory
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(1) Children organize through social interactions (2) Focuses on context and collaboration
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Which of the following are major cognitive theories of development that address the early childhood years?
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(1) Vygotsky’s theory (2) Information processing theory (3) Piaget’s theory
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The disorder known as _______________________ is typically diagnosed by the age of 3 and has been linked to both genetic and brain abnormalities.
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autism
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This is the hallmark aspect of the intuitive thought substage in Piaget’s preoperational stage:
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primitive reasoning
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Engagement in pretend play and the ability to represent objects that are not present are associate with the symbolic function substage, which is the first substage of the ____________________ stage of cognitive development.
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preoperational
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According to Vygotsky’s theory, the social__________________ approach focuses on the social context of learning and the building of knowledge through social interactions.
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constructivist
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Regarding growing in early childhood, which of the following statements are true?
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All these apply: (1) Head size is more in proportion to the rest of the body than it was during infancy. (2) There is a slow, steady decline in percentage of body fat.
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The theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, and information processing are major theories of _________________________ development in early childhood.
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cognitive
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The failure to conserve demonstrates centration and an inability to mentally _____________________ actions.
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reverse
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Which of the following statements accurately present the conflicting ideas regarding autism and theory of mind involvement?
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All apply: (1) Autistic children do not solely express impairments in the theory of mind but exhibit problems in focusing attention (2) Autistic children’s theory of mind is related to deficits in executive functioning
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All of the following would prevent many of the incidences of deaths among young children living in poverty around the world, except:
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a crackdown on generic medication
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The two most obvious physical changes seen in early childhood include a growth in height and an increase in
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weight
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Two aspects of attention that develop in early childhood are:
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executive attention and sustained attention
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The focusing of attention on one characteristic while excluding all other characteristics is known as
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centration
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Children who understand morphology rules use all of the following parts of speech, except:
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conjunctions
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When processing information, autistic children tend to focus on the:
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details but not the big picture
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The preoperational thought substage that is called ____________ thought is considered the period when children seek answers to all sorts of questions.
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intuitive
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Which of these are words that could best describe a typical 3 year old’s drawings?
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All these apply: (1) fanciful (2) symbolic (3) imaginative
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As a preschool child grows older, the percentage of increase in weight and height ____________________ with each year of growth.
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decreases
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When it comes to the development of their literacy skills, children:
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All these apply: (1) need to be active participants (2) should experience listening, talking and writing, as well as reading (3) need to be immersed in a wide range of experiences
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_____________ increases the speed and efficiency of information travelling through the nervous system, and helps children develop abilities such as hand-eye coordination.
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Myelination
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According to Piaget, the first substage of preoperational thought is the ____________ ______________ substage, in which the child gains ability to mentally represent an object that is not present.
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symbolic function
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Which of the following environmental factors strongly influence the child mortality rate worldwide?
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All these apply: (1) safe sanitation (2) access to clean water (3) safety in child’s environment
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In early childhood ____________________ functioning involves developmental advances in cognitive flexibility, goal – setting, and cognitive inhibition.
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executive
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What type of memory increases during early childhood until approximately the age of seven?
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Which of the following activities factor into children’s literacy abilities?
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All these apply: (1) Listening (2) Writing (3) Reading (4) Talking
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Which of the following statements are “true” regarding early childhood education?
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All these apply: (1) Research indicated that universal early childhood education can prepare a child for school (2) Research indicates that universal early childhood education decreases the dropout rate. (3) Research indicates that universal childhood education results in less need for remedial services, which is cost-effective in the long term.
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________________ in education focuses on both the age-appropriate patterns in a child’s growth, as well as the child’s unique individual differences.
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Developmentally appropriate practice
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Vygotsky’s theory maintained that language and ____________ develop independently before merging.
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thought
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Because of preschool children’s impulsivity, they are likely to pay attention to:
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salient features rather than relevant features
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Ethnic origin and _________________ are the two most important contributors to height.
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nutrition
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A five-year-old child’s ability to move his or her hand, arm and body with accurate eye coordination demonstrates improved:
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fine motor skills
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Guidelines recommend that preschool children engage in ______________ of physical activity per day.
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2 hours
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Which of the following statements best describe the concept of private speech?
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All these apply: (1) Vygotsky found private speech was a positive addition to children’s development. (2) According to Vygotsky, children who use private speech exhibit improved attention and performance. (3) According to Vygotsky, children use private speech to help with difficult problem-solving tasks.
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In children from 3 to 6 years of age, the most rapid growth takes place in the ____________ lobe areas involved in planning and organizing new actions and in maintaining attention to tasks.
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frontal
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Which of the following statements accurately describes the development of children’s theory of mind from toddlerhood into early childhood?
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All these apply: (1) Children begin to recognize and acknowledge that their desires can differ from another child’s desires. (2) Children begin to understand that what others see many not be the same as what they see. (3) Children begin to recognize and verbalize positive and negative emotions.
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What did Vygotsky emphasize and Piaget minimize as playing a role in shaping thought?
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(1) Education (2) Language (3) Sociocultural context
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Kiley is 3 years old. What type of artwork would you expect Kiley to create?
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fanciful and imaginative
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According to Lev Vygotsky, the range of tasks that are too difficult for a child to master alone but can be mastered with guidance is known as the zone of _______________ development.
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proximal
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According to Vygotsky, children who use a lot of private speech are more _____________________ that those who don’t.
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socially competent
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Around the age of five, children will do which of the following?
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all these apply: (1) Develop an interest in the ability to use reason (2) Use the “why” question to understand their environment (3) Inquire why things are they way they are
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A longitudinal study (Schattschneider & others, 2004) found that phonological awareness, letter name and sound knowledge, and naming speed in early childhood were linked to success in _______________________ in the first and second grades.
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literacy
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Between the ages of 18 months and 3 years, children experience all of the following changes “except”:
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understanding false beliefs (the realization that people can have false beliefs develops in most children by the time they are 5 years old.
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One of the most common nutritional problems in early childhood is _______________________, which results in chronic fatigue.
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iron deficiency anemia
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Autistic children tend to do poorly when reasoning about false-belief tasks but tend to do better on reasoning tasks requiring an understanding of _________________ causality.
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physical
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When preschoolers seem confident in their knowledge and understanding of the world, yet are not aware of how they know this information, Piaget states they are in the ________________________ thought substage.
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intuitive
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Which of the following occurred during the classic false-belief task with the Band-Aids box and contents?
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All these apply: (1) Young children were surprised to see pencils in the Band-Aids box. (2) When asking 5-year-olds what they thought a fellow 5-year-old would say was in the box, the 5-year-olds responded, “Band-Aids”. (3) When asking 3-year-olds what they thought another 3-year-old would say was in the box, the 3-year-olds responded, “Pencils”. (4) The 5-year-olds were able to recognize that another child who had not seen the box before would have a false belief about its contents.
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The percentage of U.S. children who are overweight has ____________________ in recent decades.
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increased dramatically
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A dramatic increase in a child’s cognitive abilities occurs when the child’s _________________________ speed increases.
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processing
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A child playing hide-and-seek thinks he can’t be seem just because he can’t see the person looking for him. This is an example of the thought limitation of:
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egocentrism
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Students who attended the Perry Preschool program, an alternative to the Head Start programs, were found to have which of the following long-term outcomes, when compared to a control group from the same background who did not attend Perry?
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All these apply: (1) Higher high school graduation rates (2) Fewer teen pregnancies (3) A greater likelihood of being n the workplace after age 40
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A national study found that ________________ of children’s meals exceeded recommendations for saturated and trans fats.
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45%
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The focusing of mental resources on select information is called _____________________.
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The focusing of mental resources on select information is called _______________________?
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attention
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According to _____________________ theory, failing the conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates centration and an inability to mentally reverse actions.
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Piaget’s
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Marta feels sorry for the white crayon because no one ever uses it and she thinks it must be sad. This is an example of Piaget’s theory of _______________________?
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animism
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Research has indicated links between children’s sleep problems and which of the following negative developmental issues?
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All these apply: (1) Attention problems into early adolescence (2) Alchohol-use problems in adolescence and early adulthood (3) Impaired brain development
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Which of Vygotsky’s concepts can be used in the classroom?
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All these apply: (1) Using peer teaching and encouraging children to practice their skills (2) Focusing lessons on the upper limit of a child’s zone of proximal development to teach advanced cognitive skills. (3) Using assessments to provide information on a child’s zone of proximal development.
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According to Vygotsky, in early childhood children use private ______________________ to help solve tasks.
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speech
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Some experts believe that early childhood education should focus on both cognitive development and _______________ development in order to meet all of a child’s needs.
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sociemotional
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According to Piaget’s preoperational stage, a child does not yet perform operations, which are defined as reversible ______________________ actions.
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mental
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Which of the following characteristics and variables tend to be related to greater height in U.S. children?
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All these apply: (1) firstborn (2) urban (3) African American
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A major environmental danger that increases the likelihood of childhood asthma and other respiratory conditions is parental ___________________________.
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smoking
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Early education programs for disadvantaged children positively affect the children’s social and ________________ (intellectual/cognitive) development.
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cognitive
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Which age group is the most susceptible to suggestion?
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Preschoolers
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Vygotsky’s theory of child development includes which of the following premises?
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All these apply: (1) Children’s cultural environment influences their thinking process. (2) Children actively construct their knowledge and understanding (3) Children develop cognitive skills through societal tools.
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Select all of the sleep problems that children can experience.
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All of these apply: (1) Narcolepsy (2) Insomnia (3) Nigthmares
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Young children learn early to place a wh- word at the beginning of a sentence when properly asking a question. This shows advances in:
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syntax
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Which of the following is NOT associate with UNUSUALLY short stature?
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Birth order (Although later-born children tend to be shorter than firstborn children, they are not unusually short in stature
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Kiley is very anxious and ready for kindergarten. She is advanced in her developmental functioning. Kiley’s readiness for school indicates advanced ________________ functioning.
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executive
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Which of the following describe strategies belonging to Vygotsky that have been used in the classroom setting?
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All these apply: (1) Providing more real-life learning experiences than abstract presentations in classroom instruction (2) Using more-skilled peers as “teachers” (3) Encouraging children to develop private speech in the classroom to aid in problem-solving tasks.
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Austin is 13 years of age. His grandmother is moving to a smaller home. Austin sees her being excited about the move but also sad to leave her family home. Austin think about his grandmother’s thoughts demonstrating ______________________________thinking.
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recursive

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