Chapter 7: Deviance, Crime, and Social Control

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Anomie
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Durkheim’s term for the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.
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Anomie Theory of Evidence
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Robert Merton’s theory of deviance as an adaptation of socially prescribed goals or of the means of governing their attainment, or both.
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Conformity
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Going along with peers-individuals of our own status who have no special right to direct our behavior.
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Control Theory
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A view of conformity and deviance that suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society’s norms.
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Crime
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A violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies formal penalties.
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Cultural Transmission
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A school of criminology that argues that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions.
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Deviance
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Behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.
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Differential Association
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A theory of deviance proposed by Edwin Sutherland that holds that violation of rules results from exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts.
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Differential Justice
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Differences in the way social control is exercised over different groups.
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Formal Social Control
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Social control that is carried out by authorized agents, such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers.
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Hate Crime (Bias Crime)
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A criminal offense committed because of the offender’s bias against a race, religion, ethnic group, national origin, or sexual orientation.
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Index Crimes
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The eight types of crime tabulated each year by the FBI in Uniform Crime Reports: murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson.
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Informal Social Control
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Social control that is carried out casually by ordinary people through means such as laughter, smiles, and ridicule.
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Labeling Theory (Societal-Reaction Approach)
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An approach to deviance that attempts to explain why certain people are viewed as deviants while others engaged in the same behavior are not.
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Law
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Governmental social control.
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Obedience
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Compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure.
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Organized Crime
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The work of a group that regulates relations between criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities, including prostitution, gambling, and the smuggling and sale of illegal drugs.
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Professional Criminal
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A person who pursues crime as a day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals.
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Sanction
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A penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm.
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Social Constructionist Perspective
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An approach to deviance that emphasizes the role of culture in the creation of the deviant identity.
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Social Control
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The techniques and strategies fro preventing deviant human behavior in any society.
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Social Disorganization Theory
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The theory that crime and deviance are caused by the absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions.
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Stigma
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A label used to devalue members of certain social groups.
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Transitional Crime
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Crime that occurs across multiple national borders.
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Victimization Survey
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A questionnaire or interview given to a sample of the population to determine whether people have been victims of crime.
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Victimless Crime
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A term used by sociologists to describe the willing exchange among adults of widely desired but illegal goods and services.
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White-Collar Crime
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Illegal acts committed by affluent, \”respectable\” individuals in the course of business activities.

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