Chapter 7 Civics Test

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Electoral College
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A group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president.
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Elector
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Person appointed to vote in presidential elections for the major candidates.
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Executive order
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A rule or command that has the force of law.
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Pardon
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A declaration of forgiveness and freedom from punishment.
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Reprieve
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An order to delay a person’s punishment until a higher court can hear the case.
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Amnesty
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A pardon to a group of people.
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Foreign policy
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A nation’s overall plan for dealing with other nations.
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National security
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The ability to keep the country safe from attack or harm.
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Treaty
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A formal agreement between the governments of two or more countries.
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Executive agreement
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An agreement between the president and the leader of another country.
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Ambassador
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An official representative of a country’s government.
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Trade sanction
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An effort to punish another nation by imposing trade barriers.
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Embargo
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An agreement among a group of nations that prohibits them all from trading with a target nation.
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Cabinet
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A group of advisers to the president that includes the heads of 15 top-level executive departments.
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Federal bureaucracy
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Agencies and the employees of the executive branch of government.
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Independent agency
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Federal board or commission that is not part of any cabinet department.
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Government corporation
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A business owned and operated by the federal government.
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Political appointee
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A person appointed to a federal position by the president.
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Civil service worker
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Person hired into a government position.
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Civil service system
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The practice of hiring government workers on the basis of open, competitive examinations and merit.
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Spoils system
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Rewarding people with government jobs on the basis of their political support.
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Merit system
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Hiring people into government jobs on the basis of their qualifications.
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35 years old
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How old does a person have to be to run for the presidency?
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True
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True or False: To run for president, he/she has to be a native-born American citizen.
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14 years
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For how many years does a person have to be a resident of the US to run for president?
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John F. Kennedy
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Who was the first Catholic president in 1960?
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Geraldine Ferraro
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Who was the first woman vice-presidential candidate in 1984?
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Joseph Lieberman
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Who was the first Jewish candidate for vice president in 2000?
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4 years
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How long is a president’s term?
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2 terms
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How many terms can a president serve?
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538
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How many electors are in the Electoral College?
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270
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How many votes must a candidate receive to win the election?
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25th amendment
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Established the order of succession to the presidency and spelled out what happens when vice presidency becomes vacant. (1967)
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$400,000
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What is the president’s salary per year not including expenses and travel?
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Camp David
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An estate in the Catoctin Mountains of Maryland.
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Air Force One
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A specially equipped jet for the president’s use.
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Vice president
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Who presides over the Senate?
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Presidential Succession Act of 1947
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Indicates the line of succession after the vice president.
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To carry out the laws passed by Congress.
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What is the president’s main job?
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Chief Executive
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Main job: carry out laws. Example: Harry S. Truman made an executive order to racially integrate the armed forces. {Appoint Supreme Court justices, [pardons, reprieves, amnesties]}
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Chief Diplomat
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Main job: directs foreign policy – making key decisions about how the United States acts toward other countries in the world.
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Commander in Chief
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Main job: the ability to back up their foreign policy decisions with force, if necessary; In charge of the army, navy, air force, marines, and coast guard. {order American soldiers into battle
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War Powers Resolution of 1973
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The president must notify Congress within 48 hours when troops are sent into battle. These troops must be brought home after 60 days unless Congress gives its approval for them to remain longer or declares war.
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Legislative Leader
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Main job: makes speeches to build support; meets with key senators and representatives to try to persuade them to support the proposed laws.
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Head of State
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Main job: aids diplomacy by greeting kings and queens, prime ministers, and other foreign leaders. Also carries out ceremonial functions for Americans, such as lighting the national Christmas tree and giving medals to the country’s heroes.
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Economic Leader
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Main job: deals with unemployment, rising prices, and high taxes; plan the federal government’s budget.
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Party Leader
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Main job: gives speeches to help fellow party members who are running for office as members of Congress, governors, and mayors; helps party raise $
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National security, international trade, world peace, and promoting democracy around the world.
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What are the 4 main goals for our country?
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Foreign-Policy Bureaucracy
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State Department, Defense Department, Central Intelligence Agency, and the National Security Council
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North American Treaty Organization (NATO)
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A mutual defense treaty between the United States, Canada, and the nations of Europe.
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Marshall Plan
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A program created to help restore Western Europe after World War II
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Tariffs
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Taxes on imported goods
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North American Free Trade Agreement
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NAFTA
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World Trade Organization
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WTO
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Executive Office of the President (EOP)
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President’s administration – created by FDR in 1939
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The White House Office
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What is the core of the Executive Office of the President?
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Chief of staff and the press secretary
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Who is the most powerful of the White House Office?
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The Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
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Prepares the federal budget and monitors spending in hundreds of government agencies
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The National Security Council (NSC)
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Helps the president direct United States military and foreign policy; handles matters affecting the security of the country.
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The Office of Administration
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Provides administrative services to the executive offices of the president.
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The Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
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Helps the president carry out the role of economic leader
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Homeland Security Act of 2002
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This act was created to improve the nation’s defenses against terrorism and coordinate counter-terrorism intelligence.
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Vice president
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Joe Biden
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department of justice
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(1870) responsible for all aspects of law enforcement; leader: Eric H. Holder
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department of state
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(1789) plans and carries out the nation’s foreign policy; leader: Hillary Clinton
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department of treasury
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(1789) collects, borrows, spends, and prints money; leader: Timothy F. Geithner
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department of defense
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(1789) manages the armed forces; leader: Leon E. Panetta
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department of interior
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(1849) manages and protects nation’s public lands and natural resources
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department of agriculture
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(1889) assists farmers and consumers of farm products
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department of commerce
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(1903) supervises trade, promotes US business, tourism
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department of labor
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(1913) deals with working conditions, wages of US workers
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department of health and human services
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(1953) works for the well-being and health of all Americans
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department of housing and urban development
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(1965) deals with special needs and problems of cities
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department of transportation
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(1966) manages nation’s highways, railroads, airlines, and sea traffic
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department of energy
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(1977) directs overall energy plan for the nation
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department of education
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(1979) provides advice and funding for schools
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department of veterans affairs
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(1989) directs services for armed forces veterans
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department of homeland security
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(2002) oversees America’s defenses against terrorist attacks; leader: Janet A. Napolitano
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Theodore Roosevelt
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supported building of the Panama Canal; Monroe Doctrine
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William H. Taft
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Arizona and New Mexico becoming states; secretary of war; panama canal
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Woodrow Wilson
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Zimmerman telegram; World War I entry; 7,000 banks-no interest rates
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Calvin Coolidge
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lawyer; Mayor of Massachusetts; Roaring Twenties; end of World War II; believed that taxes shouldn’t be high
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Franklin D. Roosevelt
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a lot of government experience; social security (Social Security Act); 2nd bill of rights; Good Neighbor Policy (Latin America); New Deal in 1932 – close banks/secure banking; welfare program, elected 4 times
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Harry S. Truman
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judge in 1922; integrated military; expanded civil rights; World War II -> Europe was almost over but still with Japan (Manhattan Project); Fair Deal-economic control \”the buck stops here\”
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Dwight D. Eisenhower
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Highway Act of 1996; new expansion of social welfare; world peace \”atoms of peace\”; sent troops to Little Rock for integration; Korean War/Cold War; space program
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John F. Kennedy
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fought in WWII-Panama; Purple Heart and other awards; invaded Cuba (Bay of Pigs); affirmative action program; federal funding for education; medical care to elderly; ASSASSINATED; helped MLK
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Lyndon B. Johnson
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succeeded JFK; Civil Rights Bill 1964; anti-racism; end \”poverty war\”; 548,000 troops to Vietnam; invited MLK in the White House
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Richard Nixon
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resigned during the Watergate Scandal; sent soldiers to Cambodia during the Vietnam War; ended war with peace treaty in 1973; open trade with China; feminist movement; Title 9; abortion; Gold Standard in 1971
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Gerald R. Ford
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succeeded Nixon; economy-economic policy board; Equal Rights Amendment; Vietnam War-Paris Peace Accords
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Jimmy Carter
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big on environment; Nobel Peace Prize; 1979 energy crisis; prices increased; put solar panels on White House; Camp David accords, peace with Egypt and Israel; created Department of Energy and Education
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Ronald Reagan
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sports announcer; actor; was shot but survived; economic leader-cut taxes and government spending; Immigration Reform and Control Act; tried to end Cold War; Berlin Wall; \”Mr. Gorbaches, tear down this wall.\”; Nancy Reagan-\”Just Say No\” drug program; appointed first female judge to Supreme Court
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George HW Bush
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federal budget $2.8 trillion, reduce taxes; Disabilities Act of 1990; arrested Noreiga for drugs; invaded Kuwait; attacked Iraq in under 90 days; Saddam Hussein; very experienced
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Herbert Hoover
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head of food administration; Chinese mining company; stock market crash of 1929; reduce amount of foreclosures; Federal Homeland Bank Act; Young Plan
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Bill Clinton
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\”Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell\”-gay men and women in armed forces if they don’t say their sexual orientation; Omnibus Budget Reconciliation; NAFTA
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George W Bush
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president during 9/11; created Department of Homeland Security; invasion of Iraq
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Barack Obama
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first African-American president; blunts; national security policies; war in Iraq; Afghanistan prison closed; killed Osama Bin Laden
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Pendleton Act
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(Civil Service Reform Act of 1883) created the civil service system and placed limits on the number of jobs a new president could hand out to friends and backers

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