Chapter 6 Test Review

question

What is the mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that bind the atoms together?
answer

Chemical bond
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Why do atoms bond together?
answer

To stabilize the valence shell and to decrease energy
question

What type of bond results from the electrical attraction between charged atoms?
answer

Ionic bond
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What will be the difference in electronegativiy between the atoms involved in an ionic bond?
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1.7 or greater
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What is the term given to the positive ion?
answer

Cation
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What is the term given to the negative ion?
answer

Anion
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What type of bond results from the sharing of electrons?
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Covalent
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What are the two types of covalent bonds?
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Polar and nonpolar
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What type of covalent bond shares the electrons equally?
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Nonpolar
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What type of covalent bond does not share the electrons equally?
answer

Polar
question

What is the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms involved in a nonpolar covalent bond?
answer

0-.3
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What is the difference in electronegativity between two atoms in a polar covalent bond?
answer

.3-1.7
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What is the term used to describe the ability of an atom to attract electrons?
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Electronegativity
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What is the neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds?
answer

Molecule
question

Describe the importance of a chemical formula
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Chemical formulas indicate the relative numbers of atoms in each chemical compound
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What types of atoms are bonding to form a molecule?
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Nonmetal and nonmetal
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How many diatomic atoms are there? What are the names of them?
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7- H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, and I2
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Describe the formation of a covalent bond
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Two nonmetals share electrons to fill both of their outermost energy levels
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As bond length decreases in covalent bond, what happens to the strength (bond energy)
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It increases because the shorter the bond length, the harder it is to break
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What is the octet rule?
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Chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom has an octet of electrons in their highest energy level
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Give 4 exceptions of the octet rule
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Beryllium-4 valence
Boron-6 valence
Phosphorus-10 valence
Sulfur-12 valence
Hydrogen-2 valence
question

What is the name given to the unshared pair of electrons in a lewis structure?
answer

Lone pair
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What is the difference between a lewis structure and a structural formula?
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Lewis structures show electron dot pairs while structural formulas show don’t show unshared pairs
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What type of covalent bond involves the sharing of 1 pair of electrons? 2 pairs? 3 pairs?
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Single. Double. Triple.
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What is a formula unit?
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The simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound’s formula can be established
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What is the relationship between ionic bond strength and lattice energy?
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Bond strength increases as lattice energy becomes more negative
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NaCl and Al2O3 are both examples of (ionic/covalent) bonds
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Ionic bonds
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(ionic/covalent) bonds have low melting and boiling points
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covalent
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(ionic/covalent) bonds are conductors in water
answer

ionic
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(ionic/covalent) bonds are a network of + and – ions
answer

ionic
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(ionic/covalent) bonds are hard and brittle solids
answer

ionic
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(ionic/covalent) bonds are non-conductors in water
answer

covalent
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H2O and CO2 are examples of (ionic/covalent) bonds
answer

covalent
question

What is a polyatomic ion?
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A charged group of covalently bonded atoms
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What is the term used to describe the electrons of metals?
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Delocalized
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What does “delocalized” mean?
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Electrons do not belong to any one atom
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Because they don’t belong to any one atom, what phrase describes a metal’s electrons?
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Sea of electrons
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What are some properties of metals?
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High electrical and thermal conductivity, luster, malleable, and ductile
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Why do metals have luster?
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Metals absorb light and re-radiate this light in a frequency similar to the absorbed frequency
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What is the relationship between enthalpy of vaporization and the bond strength of metals?
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The stronger the bond, the greater the enthalpy of vaporization
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Molecular shape: linear
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
answer

180 degrees, 2, 0.
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Molecular shape: trigonal planar
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
answer

120 degrees, 3, 0.
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Molecular shape bent or angular:
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
answer

<120 degrees, 2, 1.
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Molecular shape tetraheadral:
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
answer

109.5 degrees, 4, 0.
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Molecular shape trigonal pyramidal:
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
answer

107 degrees, 3, 1.
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Molecular shape bent or angular with 2 lone pairs:
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
answer

104.5 degrees, 2, 2.
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Molecular shape trigonal bipyramidal:
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
answer

90 and 120 degrees, 5, 0.
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Molecular shape octaheadral:
Name the bond angle, # of atoms bonded to central atom, and # of lone pairs of electrons
answer

90 degrees, 6, 0.
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What does V.S.E.P.R. stand for?
answer

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion
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What is a hybrid orbital?
answer

Orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atoms
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What are the three types of intermolecular forces?
answer

Dipole-dipole- two polar molecules
Hydrogen bonding-occurs between H and F, O, or N
London dispersion-two nonpolar molecules
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What is isomerism?
answer

Substances that have the same molecular formula as another substance but differ in structure
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Name four types of isomers
answer

Structural, geometric, positional, functional
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What happens in structural isomers?
answer

The carbon chain is altered
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What happens in geometric isomers?
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They differ in the arrangement around double bonds
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What happens in positional isomers?
answer

They differ in position of double bond or atom other than C or H
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What happens in functional isomers?
answer

An element other than C or H is bonded in a different way
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The hybrid sp:
Name the # of orbitals produced, bond angle, and basic shapes
answer

2, 180 degrees, linear
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The hybrid sp2:
Name the # of orbitals produced, bond angle, and basic shapes
answer

3, 120 degrees, trigonal planar.
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sp3 hybrid:
Name the # of orbitals produced, bond angle, and basic shapes
answer

4, 109.5 degrees, tetraheadral

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