Chapter 5: Data and Knowledge Management

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
Attribute
Each characteristic or quality describing a particular entity
Best Practices
A most effective and efficient ways to do things
Bit
A binary digit; that is, a 0 or a 1
Clickstream Data
Date collected about user behavior and browsing patterns by monitoring users’ activities when they visit a Web site
Database
A group of logically related files that stores data and the associations among them
Database Management System (DBMS)
The software program (or group of programs) that provides access to a database
Data Dictionary
Collection of definitions of data elements, data characteristics that use the data elements, and the individuals, business functions, applications, and reports that use the data elements
Data Governance
An approach to managing information across an entire organization
Data Mart
A low-cost, scaled-down version of a data warehouse designed for the end-user needs in a small organization, or in a strategic business unit (SBU) or department in a large organization
Data Model
Definition of the way that data in a DBMS are conceptually structured
Data Warehouse
A repository of historical data that are organized by subject to support decision makers in the organization
Entity
A person, place, thing, or event about which information is maintained in a record
Entity Class
A grouping of entities of a given type
Entity-Relationship (ER) Diagram
Document that shows data entities and attributes and relationships among them
Entity-Relationship (ER) Modeling
The process of designing a database by organizing data entities to be used and identifying the relationships among them
Explicit Knowledge
The more objective, rational, and technical types of knowledge
Field
A grouping of logically related characters into a word, a small group of words, or a complete number
File
A grouping of logically related records
Identifier
An attribute that identifies an entity instance
Instance
A particular entity within an entity class
Intellectual Capital (Intellectual Assets)
Other terms for knowledge
Knowledge Management (KM)
A process that helps organizations identify, select, organized, disseminate, transfer, and apply information and expertise that are part of the organization’s memory and that typically reside within the organization in an unstructured manner
Knowledge Management Systems (KMSs)
Information technologies used to systematize, enhance, and expedite intra- and interfirm knowledge management
Master Data
A set of core data, such as customer, product, employee, vendor, geographic location, and so on that span the enterprise information systems
Master Data Management
A process that provides companies with the ability to store, maintain, exchange, and synchronize a consistent, accurate, and timely “single version of the truth” for the company’s core master data
Metadata
Data about data
Multidimensional Structure
The manner in which data are structured in a data warehouse so that they can be analyzed by different views or perspectives, which are called dimensions
Normalization
A method for analyzing and reducing a relational database to its most streamlined form for minimum redundancy, maximum data integrity, and best processing performance
Primary Key
The identifier field or attribute that uniquely identities a record
Query By Example (QBE)
Database language that enables the user to fill out a grid (form) to construct a sample or description of the data wanted
Record
A grouping of logically related fields
Relational Database Model
Data model based on the simple concept of tables in order to capitalize on characteristics of rows and columns of data
Secondary Key
An identifier field or attribute that has some identifying information, but typically does not identify the file with complete accuracy
Structured Query Language (SQL)
Popular relational database language that enables users to perform complicated searches with relatively simple instructions
Table
A grouping of logically related records
Tacit Knowledge
The cumulative store of subjective or experiential learning; it is highly personal and hard to formalize

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