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Chapter 5: Data and Knowledge Management

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Attribute
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Each characteristic or quality describing a particular entity
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Best Practices
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A most effective and efficient ways to do things
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Bit
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A binary digit; that is, a 0 or a 1
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Clickstream Data
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Date collected about user behavior and browsing patterns by monitoring users’ activities when they visit a Web site
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Database
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A group of logically related files that stores data and the associations among them
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Database Management System (DBMS)
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The software program (or group of programs) that provides access to a database
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Data Dictionary
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Collection of definitions of data elements, data characteristics that use the data elements, and the individuals, business functions, applications, and reports that use the data elements
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Data Governance
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An approach to managing information across an entire organization
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Data Mart
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A low-cost, scaled-down version of a data warehouse designed for the end-user needs in a small organization, or in a strategic business unit (SBU) or department in a large organization
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Data Model
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Definition of the way that data in a DBMS are conceptually structured
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Data Warehouse
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A repository of historical data that are organized by subject to support decision makers in the organization
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Entity
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A person, place, thing, or event about which information is maintained in a record
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Entity Class
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A grouping of entities of a given type
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Entity-Relationship (ER) Diagram
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Document that shows data entities and attributes and relationships among them
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Entity-Relationship (ER) Modeling
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The process of designing a database by organizing data entities to be used and identifying the relationships among them
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Explicit Knowledge
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The more objective, rational, and technical types of knowledge
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Field
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A grouping of logically related characters into a word, a small group of words, or a complete number
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File
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A grouping of logically related records
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Identifier
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An attribute that identifies an entity instance
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Instance
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A particular entity within an entity class
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Intellectual Capital (Intellectual Assets)
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Other terms for knowledge
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Knowledge Management (KM)
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A process that helps organizations identify, select, organized, disseminate, transfer, and apply information and expertise that are part of the organization’s memory and that typically reside within the organization in an unstructured manner
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Knowledge Management Systems (KMSs)
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Information technologies used to systematize, enhance, and expedite intra- and interfirm knowledge management
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Master Data
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A set of core data, such as customer, product, employee, vendor, geographic location, and so on that span the enterprise information systems
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Master Data Management
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A process that provides companies with the ability to store, maintain, exchange, and synchronize a consistent, accurate, and timely “single version of the truth” for the company’s core master data
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Metadata
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Data about data
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Multidimensional Structure
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The manner in which data are structured in a data warehouse so that they can be analyzed by different views or perspectives, which are called dimensions
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Normalization
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A method for analyzing and reducing a relational database to its most streamlined form for minimum redundancy, maximum data integrity, and best processing performance
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Primary Key
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The identifier field or attribute that uniquely identities a record
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Query By Example (QBE)
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Database language that enables the user to fill out a grid (form) to construct a sample or description of the data wanted
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Record
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A grouping of logically related fields
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Relational Database Model
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Data model based on the simple concept of tables in order to capitalize on characteristics of rows and columns of data
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Secondary Key
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An identifier field or attribute that has some identifying information, but typically does not identify the file with complete accuracy
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Structured Query Language (SQL)
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Popular relational database language that enables users to perform complicated searches with relatively simple instructions
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Table
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A grouping of logically related records
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Tacit Knowledge
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The cumulative store of subjective or experiential learning; it is highly personal and hard to formalize