‘Chapter 5: Anxiety, Trauma and Stressor-Related, and Obsessive-Compulsive – Flashcards

question
Which of the following characterizes the mood-state known as anxiety?
answer
Apprehension about the future
question
Anxiety is closely related to which of the following psychological disorders?
answer
Depression
question
People tend to have their best performance on tasks when they are ___________.
answer
a little anxious
question
When people experience severe anxiety, they
answer
often know it's irrational, but can't help it.
question
Anxiety is thought to be a____________ state, while fear is more_______.
answer
future-oriented; immediate
question
Fear activates a
answer
surge of energy in the autonomic nervous system so we can flee.
question
Which of the following is an accurate statement about anxiety?
answer
An inherited tendency can make us tense or upright.
question
According to Jeffrey Gray, a British neuropsychologist, the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) is activated by danger signals ___________, resulting in the experience of anxiety.
answer
arising from the brain stem or descending from the cortex
question
Members of the Falcons High School senior class will have an increased risk of developing anxiety disorders if they
answer
smoke 20 or more cigarettes daily.
question
According to Gray and McNaughton (1996), the fight-or-flight system is partially activated by deficiencies in the neurotransmitter _______ in the brain.
answer
serotonin
question
Research suggests that we inherit a tendency to be tense, which is ____________.
answer
caused by multiple genes
question
The area of the brain most often associated with anxiety is the _____________.
answer
limbic system
question
"I've got to get out of here right now, or I may not make it!" This statement is most likely to be said by someone experiencing a(n)
answer
fear reaction
question
____________ is characterized by apprehension because of future unpredictability, whereas ____________ is characterized by strong escapist tendencies.
answer
anxiety; fear
question
Which of the following is NOT a basic type of panic attack?
answer
Situation inevitable
question
Mrs. Pan has an anxiety disorder in which she has occasional panic attacks when shopping at the mall. This type of panic attack is referred to as _______________.
answer
uncued
question
Which type of panic attack is most closely related to phobias?
answer
expected
question
Lawanda was walking down the street on a bright sunny day when, all of a sudden, she had an abrupt attack of intense fear that totally surprised her. This is what type of panic attack?
answer
Uncued
question
Hideki was attending his fifth baseball game at Condor Stadium, where he had previously had a panic attack. He did not know if he would have a panic attack today, but shortly after entering the stadium, he did. This type of panic attack is ____________.
answer
cued
question
According to the DSM-IV-TR criteria, the symptoms of a panic attack develop abruptly and reach a peak within _____ minute(s).
answer
10
question
Physiological assessments of panic attacks recorded in the laboratory indicate an increase in all of the following EXCEPT ______________.
answer
stomach contractions
question
The recent research by Johnson et al. (2000) on cigarette smoking by teenagers indicates the possibility that
answer
sensitivity of brain circuits can be affected by environmental factors.
question
Which of the following brain areas is NOT closely associated with anxiety?
answer
Hypothalamus (brain areas associated with anxiety: hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, amygdala)
question
The behavioral inhibition system is activated by signals from the _____________.
answer
brain stem
question
Research suggests that generalized anxiety disorder is five-times more likely to develop in adults if they
answer
smoked as a teen.
question
Studies suggest that parents can protect their child from anxiety if they
answer
let children explore the world and deal with the unexpected.
question
Stressful life events - such as marriage, divorce, familial death, or academic pressures - trigger our vulnerabilities to anxiety. These are examples of a ______________ contribution.
answer
social
question
A child who is afraid of dogs because her father was afraid of dogs is said to have a ________ vulnerability.
answer
specific psychological
question
Research suggests that anxiety and depression frequently
answer
co-occur.
question
Recent research by Barlow (2002) and others indicates that vulnerability to anxiety disorders is related to
answer
one's sense of control over environmental events.
question
At the time of assessment of an anxiety disorder, _________ of patients should have at least one other anxiety or depressive disorder.
answer
55%
question
Having an anxiety disorder increases the risk of ______________.
answer
all of the above (depression, migraines, suicidal ideation)
question
Which of the following statements is TRUE about anxiety disorders?
answer
Having an anxiety disorder might contribute to a physical disorder such as arthritis.
question
In what way is worry not useful?
answer
It ensures that we respond appropriately to fear-inducing events (useful: it helps us plan for the future, it makes sure we are prepared for a task, it makes us double check that we have thought of everything before leaving on a trip)
question
Which of the following terms is most associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
answer
Worry
question
All of the following are symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) EXCEPT
answer
hypersomnia
question
Research studies have found that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is most common among ______________.
answer
adults over 45 years of age
question
People with GAD
answer
have a 58% chance of recovery after having the disorder for 12 years.
question
People with GAD tend to worry about
answer
mostly minor things
question
Which of the following people living in the United States is most likely to develop GAD?
answer
Monica, a 50-year-old woman
question
Which physiological measure consistently distinguishes individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) from non-anxious normal subjects?
answer
increased muscle tension
question
For generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the pharmacological treatment of choice has been the category of drugs known as ___________.
answer
benzodiazepines
question
Research suggests that people with GAD worry
answer
without images but try to avoid the associated negative affect
question
Barlow and others (1992) developed a cognitive-behavioral treatment for GAD that helps the patient
answer
confront anxiety-provoking thoughts and images
question
Evidence now suggests that agoraphobic avoidance behavior is one component of
answer
severe, unexpected panic attack.
question
Agoraphobic avoidance behavior appears to be determined by
answer
the extent to which the person expects another panic attack to occur.
question
Which of the following is an accurate statement about panic disorder?
answer
Most individuals with panic disorder will also avoid internal sensations that produce physiological arousal.
question
Agoraphobia, which has come to mean "fear of going out," derives from the Greek word agora, meaning ____________.
answer
marketplace
question
A teenage girl had recently been having panic attacks while shopping at the mall. She was sitting in her room feeling very depressed. To cheer her up, a friend suggested that they both go to an exercise class. Shortly after the warm-up started, however, she had another panic attack. What is the best explanation for this occurrence?
answer
The physical sensations experienced during exercise had become an internal cue for panic to occur
question
An individual who suffers from panic disorder might become anxious about climbing stairs, exercising, or being in hot rooms because these activities produce sensations similar to those accompanying a panic attack. In psychological terms, the exercise and hot rooms have become __________.
answer
conditioned stimuli
question
Panic attack studies suggest that men
answer
consume alcohol to deal with panic attacks.
question
Panic attacks tend to occur most often
answer
during sleep between 1:30 and 3:30 a.m.
question
People with a psychological vulnerability to panic attacks tend to ________ normal physical sensations.
answer
catastrophize
question
Nocturnal panic attacks generally occur when an individual is ____________.
answer
deeply asleep
question
The phenomenon known as "isolated sleep paralysis" is most likely to occur in _________ who suffer from panic disorder.
answer
African Americans
question
Panic control treatment
answer
all of the above (was developed by the textbook authors, concentrates on exposing the patients to the cluster of physical sensations that remind them of their panic attacks, involves the therapist to create "mini" attacks in the office)
question
In treating panic disorder, all of the following types of medications are used EXCEPT ________.
answer
opiates
question
The purpose of creating mini panic attacks in panic control treatment therapy is to
answer
allow the patient to develop alternative attitudes about the feared situation.
question
What is one factor that distinguishes between traditional exposure-based treatments for panic disorder and the more recent panic control treatment (PCT) developed at one of Barlow's clinics?
answer
Exposure to the interceptive sensations associated with panic attacks
question
Which of the following procedures is NOT part of Barlow's panic control treatment (PCT)?
answer
Reducing agoraphobic avoidance by exposure to feared situations (part of PCT: cognitive therapy to modify conscious or unconscious perceptions about the "dangerousness" of feared situations, creation of mini panic attacks in the therapist's office, exercises to elevate the heart rate or spinning to make the patient dizzy)
question
A friend stated that when she went to a clinic, she had to spend several 30- to 60-second sessions shaking her head from side to side, spinning in a chair, tensing all her muscles, hyperventilating, or breathing through a narrow straw. She is surprised that you correctly guessed that she is receiving treatment for
answer
panic disorder.
question
A major double-blind research study sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health looked at the separate and combined effects of both psychological and drug treatments for patients suffering from panic disorder. Participants were randomized into five different treatment conditions, including all but which of the following?
answer
deep brain stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation
question
A relative of yours who suffers from panic disorder asks you what treatment would have the longest-lasting benefits. Since you have just read about the double-blind NIMH research study evaluating psychological treatments with and without medication, you tell your relative to first try
answer
psychological treatment that includes cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
question
D-cycloserine is a drug that seems to act to work in the
answer
amygdala to diminish anxiety.
question
All of the following are characteristics common to specific phobias EXCEPT
answer
decreased arousal of the autonomic nervous system (characteristics common to specific phobias: strong and persistent anxiety related to a specific object or situation, significant attempts by the anxious individual to avoid the phobic situation, recognition by the person with the phobia that the anxiety is excessive or unreasonable)
question
In the type of specific phobia called "blood-injury-injection," there is an inherited vasovagal response and a tendency to faint due to
answer
decrease in blood pressure.
question
Manuel had a fear of riding on buses, so his mother had to drive him to school every day. Manuel's phobia is a(n) _________ phobia.
answer
situational
question
The main difference between situational phobia and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) is
answer
people with situational phobia never experience panic attacks outside the context of the phobic situation.
question
You are told about a child who has shown behavior consistent with "separation anxiety." In order to determine if the child actually has a disorder or whether the behavior is normal, you would first need to know
answer
the child's age.
question
The median age of onset for a specific phobia is ____.
answer
7
question
A psychological disorder in children characterized by unrealistic and persistent worry that something will happen to their parents, which may result in refusal to leave home is called
answer
separation anxiety disorder
question
When diagnosing separation anxiety disorder in children, clinicians must
answer
be wary for psychotic episodes that often precipitate this condition.
question
In the general population, as many as ____ of people suffer from social anxiety disorder at some point in their lives.
answer
12.1%
question
According to your textbook, there are at least three ways of developing a phobia. Which is NOT one of these ways?
answer
Having a nightmare about a feared situation (ways to develop phobia: experiencing a panic attack in a specific situation, observing someone else experience severe fear, in certain conditions being told about danger)
question
According to your textbook, new techniques have made it possible to treat some phobias effectively in one _____.
answer
day
question
In regard to treatment of specific phobias, which of the following statements is correct?
answer
Exposure-based exercises actually change before
question
Which of the following would NOT be considered an example of social phobia?
answer
A student who is reluctant to speak up in a classroom due to fear of embarrassing herself.
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question
Which of the following characterizes the mood-state known as anxiety?
answer
Apprehension about the future
question
Anxiety is closely related to which of the following psychological disorders?
answer
Depression
question
People tend to have their best performance on tasks when they are ___________.
answer
a little anxious
question
When people experience severe anxiety, they
answer
often know it's irrational, but can't help it.
question
Anxiety is thought to be a____________ state, while fear is more_______.
answer
future-oriented; immediate
question
Fear activates a
answer
surge of energy in the autonomic nervous system so we can flee.
question
Which of the following is an accurate statement about anxiety?
answer
An inherited tendency can make us tense or upright.
question
According to Jeffrey Gray, a British neuropsychologist, the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) is activated by danger signals ___________, resulting in the experience of anxiety.
answer
arising from the brain stem or descending from the cortex
question
Members of the Falcons High School senior class will have an increased risk of developing anxiety disorders if they
answer
smoke 20 or more cigarettes daily.
question
According to Gray and McNaughton (1996), the fight-or-flight system is partially activated by deficiencies in the neurotransmitter _______ in the brain.
answer
serotonin
question
Research suggests that we inherit a tendency to be tense, which is ____________.
answer
caused by multiple genes
question
The area of the brain most often associated with anxiety is the _____________.
answer
limbic system
question
"I've got to get out of here right now, or I may not make it!" This statement is most likely to be said by someone experiencing a(n)
answer
fear reaction
question
____________ is characterized by apprehension because of future unpredictability, whereas ____________ is characterized by strong escapist tendencies.
answer
anxiety; fear
question
Which of the following is NOT a basic type of panic attack?
answer
Situation inevitable
question
Mrs. Pan has an anxiety disorder in which she has occasional panic attacks when shopping at the mall. This type of panic attack is referred to as _______________.
answer
uncued
question
Which type of panic attack is most closely related to phobias?
answer
expected
question
Lawanda was walking down the street on a bright sunny day when, all of a sudden, she had an abrupt attack of intense fear that totally surprised her. This is what type of panic attack?
answer
Uncued
question
Hideki was attending his fifth baseball game at Condor Stadium, where he had previously had a panic attack. He did not know if he would have a panic attack today, but shortly after entering the stadium, he did. This type of panic attack is ____________.
answer
cued
question
According to the DSM-IV-TR criteria, the symptoms of a panic attack develop abruptly and reach a peak within _____ minute(s).
answer
10
question
Physiological assessments of panic attacks recorded in the laboratory indicate an increase in all of the following EXCEPT ______________.
answer
stomach contractions
question
The recent research by Johnson et al. (2000) on cigarette smoking by teenagers indicates the possibility that
answer
sensitivity of brain circuits can be affected by environmental factors.
question
Which of the following brain areas is NOT closely associated with anxiety?
answer
Hypothalamus (brain areas associated with anxiety: hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, amygdala)
question
The behavioral inhibition system is activated by signals from the _____________.
answer
brain stem
question
Research suggests that generalized anxiety disorder is five-times more likely to develop in adults if they
answer
smoked as a teen.
question
Studies suggest that parents can protect their child from anxiety if they
answer
let children explore the world and deal with the unexpected.
question
Stressful life events - such as marriage, divorce, familial death, or academic pressures - trigger our vulnerabilities to anxiety. These are examples of a ______________ contribution.
answer
social
question
A child who is afraid of dogs because her father was afraid of dogs is said to have a ________ vulnerability.
answer
specific psychological
question
Research suggests that anxiety and depression frequently
answer
co-occur.
question
Recent research by Barlow (2002) and others indicates that vulnerability to anxiety disorders is related to
answer
one's sense of control over environmental events.
question
At the time of assessment of an anxiety disorder, _________ of patients should have at least one other anxiety or depressive disorder.
answer
55%
question
Having an anxiety disorder increases the risk of ______________.
answer
all of the above (depression, migraines, suicidal ideation)
question
Which of the following statements is TRUE about anxiety disorders?
answer
Having an anxiety disorder might contribute to a physical disorder such as arthritis.
question
In what way is worry not useful?
answer
It ensures that we respond appropriately to fear-inducing events (useful: it helps us plan for the future, it makes sure we are prepared for a task, it makes us double check that we have thought of everything before leaving on a trip)
question
Which of the following terms is most associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
answer
Worry
question
All of the following are symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) EXCEPT
answer
hypersomnia
question
Research studies have found that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is most common among ______________.
answer
adults over 45 years of age
question
People with GAD
answer
have a 58% chance of recovery after having the disorder for 12 years.
question
People with GAD tend to worry about
answer
mostly minor things
question
Which of the following people living in the United States is most likely to develop GAD?
answer
Monica, a 50-year-old woman
question
Which physiological measure consistently distinguishes individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) from non-anxious normal subjects?
answer
increased muscle tension
question
For generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the pharmacological treatment of choice has been the category of drugs known as ___________.
answer
benzodiazepines
question
Research suggests that people with GAD worry
answer
without images but try to avoid the associated negative affect
question
Barlow and others (1992) developed a cognitive-behavioral treatment for GAD that helps the patient
answer
confront anxiety-provoking thoughts and images
question
Evidence now suggests that agoraphobic avoidance behavior is one component of
answer
severe, unexpected panic attack.
question
Agoraphobic avoidance behavior appears to be determined by
answer
the extent to which the person expects another panic attack to occur.
question
Which of the following is an accurate statement about panic disorder?
answer
Most individuals with panic disorder will also avoid internal sensations that produce physiological arousal.
question
Agoraphobia, which has come to mean "fear of going out," derives from the Greek word agora, meaning ____________.
answer
marketplace
question
A teenage girl had recently been having panic attacks while shopping at the mall. She was sitting in her room feeling very depressed. To cheer her up, a friend suggested that they both go to an exercise class. Shortly after the warm-up started, however, she had another panic attack. What is the best explanation for this occurrence?
answer
The physical sensations experienced during exercise had become an internal cue for panic to occur
question
An individual who suffers from panic disorder might become anxious about climbing stairs, exercising, or being in hot rooms because these activities produce sensations similar to those accompanying a panic attack. In psychological terms, the exercise and hot rooms have become __________.
answer
conditioned stimuli
question
Panic attack studies suggest that men
answer
consume alcohol to deal with panic attacks.
question
Panic attacks tend to occur most often
answer
during sleep between 1:30 and 3:30 a.m.
question
People with a psychological vulnerability to panic attacks tend to ________ normal physical sensations.
answer
catastrophize
question
Nocturnal panic attacks generally occur when an individual is ____________.
answer
deeply asleep
question
The phenomenon known as "isolated sleep paralysis" is most likely to occur in _________ who suffer from panic disorder.
answer
African Americans
question
Panic control treatment
answer
all of the above (was developed by the textbook authors, concentrates on exposing the patients to the cluster of physical sensations that remind them of their panic attacks, involves the therapist to create "mini" attacks in the office)
question
In treating panic disorder, all of the following types of medications are used EXCEPT ________.
answer
opiates
question
The purpose of creating mini panic attacks in panic control treatment therapy is to
answer
allow the patient to develop alternative attitudes about the feared situation.
question
What is one factor that distinguishes between traditional exposure-based treatments for panic disorder and the more recent panic control treatment (PCT) developed at one of Barlow's clinics?
answer
Exposure to the interceptive sensations associated with panic attacks
question
Which of the following procedures is NOT part of Barlow's panic control treatment (PCT)?
answer
Reducing agoraphobic avoidance by exposure to feared situations (part of PCT: cognitive therapy to modify conscious or unconscious perceptions about the "dangerousness" of feared situations, creation of mini panic attacks in the therapist's office, exercises to elevate the heart rate or spinning to make the patient dizzy)
question
A friend stated that when she went to a clinic, she had to spend several 30- to 60-second sessions shaking her head from side to side, spinning in a chair, tensing all her muscles, hyperventilating, or breathing through a narrow straw. She is surprised that you correctly guessed that she is receiving treatment for
answer
panic disorder.
question
A major double-blind research study sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health looked at the separate and combined effects of both psychological and drug treatments for patients suffering from panic disorder. Participants were randomized into five different treatment conditions, including all but which of the following?
answer
deep brain stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation
question
A relative of yours who suffers from panic disorder asks you what treatment would have the longest-lasting benefits. Since you have just read about the double-blind NIMH research study evaluating psychological treatments with and without medication, you tell your relative to first try
answer
psychological treatment that includes cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
question
D-cycloserine is a drug that seems to act to work in the
answer
amygdala to diminish anxiety.
question
All of the following are characteristics common to specific phobias EXCEPT
answer
decreased arousal of the autonomic nervous system (characteristics common to specific phobias: strong and persistent anxiety related to a specific object or situation, significant attempts by the anxious individual to avoid the phobic situation, recognition by the person with the phobia that the anxiety is excessive or unreasonable)
question
In the type of specific phobia called "blood-injury-injection," there is an inherited vasovagal response and a tendency to faint due to
answer
decrease in blood pressure.
question
Manuel had a fear of riding on buses, so his mother had to drive him to school every day. Manuel's phobia is a(n) _________ phobia.
answer
situational
question
The main difference between situational phobia and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) is
answer
people with situational phobia never experience panic attacks outside the context of the phobic situation.
question
You are told about a child who has shown behavior consistent with "separation anxiety." In order to determine if the child actually has a disorder or whether the behavior is normal, you would first need to know
answer
the child's age.
question
The median age of onset for a specific phobia is ____.
answer
7
question
A psychological disorder in children characterized by unrealistic and persistent worry that something will happen to their parents, which may result in refusal to leave home is called
answer
separation anxiety disorder
question
When diagnosing separation anxiety disorder in children, clinicians must
answer
be wary for psychotic episodes that often precipitate this condition.
question
In the general population, as many as ____ of people suffer from social anxiety disorder at some point in their lives.
answer
12.1%
question
According to your textbook, there are at least three ways of developing a phobia. Which is NOT one of these ways?
answer
Having a nightmare about a feared situation (ways to develop phobia: experiencing a panic attack in a specific situation, observing someone else experience severe fear, in certain conditions being told about danger)
question
According to your textbook, new techniques have made it possible to treat some phobias effectively in one _____.
answer
day
question
In regard to treatment of specific phobias, which of the following statements is correct?
answer
Exposure-based exercises actually change before
question
Which of the following would NOT be considered an example of social phobia?
answer
A student who is reluctant to speak up in a classroom due to fear of embarrassing herself.