‘Chapter 5: Anxiety, Trauma and Stressor-Related, and Obsessive-Compulsive

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Which of the following characterizes the mood-state known as anxiety?
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Apprehension about the future
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Anxiety is closely related to which of the following psychological disorders?
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Depression
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People tend to have their best performance on tasks when they are ___________.
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a little anxious
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When people experience severe anxiety, they
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often know it’s irrational, but can’t help it.
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Anxiety is thought to be a____________ state, while fear is more_______.
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future-oriented; immediate
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Fear activates a
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surge of energy in the autonomic nervous system so we can flee.
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Which of the following is an accurate statement about anxiety?
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An inherited tendency can make us tense or upright.
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According to Jeffrey Gray, a British neuropsychologist, the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) is activated by danger signals ___________, resulting in the experience of anxiety.
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arising from the brain stem or descending from the cortex
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Members of the Falcons High School senior class will have an increased risk of developing anxiety disorders if they
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smoke 20 or more cigarettes daily.
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According to Gray and McNaughton (1996), the fight-or-flight system is partially activated by deficiencies in the neurotransmitter _______ in the brain.
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serotonin
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Research suggests that we inherit a tendency to be tense, which is ____________.
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caused by multiple genes
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The area of the brain most often associated with anxiety is the _____________.
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limbic system
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“I’ve got to get out of here right now, or I may not make it!” This statement is most likely to be said by someone experiencing a(n)
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fear reaction
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____________ is characterized by apprehension because of future unpredictability, whereas ____________ is characterized by strong escapist tendencies.
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anxiety; fear
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Which of the following is NOT a basic type of panic attack?
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Situation inevitable
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Mrs. Pan has an anxiety disorder in which she has occasional panic attacks when shopping at the mall. This type of panic attack is referred to as _______________.
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uncued
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Which type of panic attack is most closely related to phobias?
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expected
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Lawanda was walking down the street on a bright sunny day when, all of a sudden, she had an abrupt attack of intense fear that totally surprised her. This is what type of panic attack?
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Uncued
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Hideki was attending his fifth baseball game at Condor Stadium, where he had previously had a panic attack. He did not know if he would have a panic attack today, but shortly after entering the stadium, he did. This type of panic attack is ____________.
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cued
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According to the DSM-IV-TR criteria, the symptoms of a panic attack develop abruptly and reach a peak within _____ minute(s).
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10
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Physiological assessments of panic attacks recorded in the laboratory indicate an increase in all of the following EXCEPT ______________.
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stomach contractions
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The recent research by Johnson et al. (2000) on cigarette smoking by teenagers indicates the possibility that
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sensitivity of brain circuits can be affected by environmental factors.
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Which of the following brain areas is NOT closely associated with anxiety?
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Hypothalamus (brain areas associated with anxiety: hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, amygdala)
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The behavioral inhibition system is activated by signals from the _____________.
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brain stem
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Research suggests that generalized anxiety disorder is five-times more likely to develop in adults if they
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smoked as a teen.
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Studies suggest that parents can protect their child from anxiety if they
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let children explore the world and deal with the unexpected.
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Stressful life events – such as marriage, divorce, familial death, or academic pressures – trigger our vulnerabilities to anxiety. These are examples of a ______________ contribution.
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social
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A child who is afraid of dogs because her father was afraid of dogs is said to have a ________ vulnerability.
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specific psychological
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Research suggests that anxiety and depression frequently
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co-occur.
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Recent research by Barlow (2002) and others indicates that vulnerability to anxiety disorders is related to
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one’s sense of control over environmental events.
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At the time of assessment of an anxiety disorder, _________ of patients should have at least one other anxiety or depressive disorder.
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55%
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Having an anxiety disorder increases the risk of ______________.
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all of the above (depression, migraines, suicidal ideation)
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Which of the following statements is TRUE about anxiety disorders?
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Having an anxiety disorder might contribute to a physical disorder such as arthritis.
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In what way is worry not useful?
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It ensures that we respond appropriately to fear-inducing events (useful: it helps us plan for the future, it makes sure we are prepared for a task, it makes us double check that we have thought of everything before leaving on a trip)
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Which of the following terms is most associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
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Worry
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All of the following are symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) EXCEPT
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hypersomnia
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Research studies have found that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is most common among ______________.
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adults over 45 years of age
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People with GAD
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have a 58% chance of recovery after having the disorder for 12 years.
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People with GAD tend to worry about
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mostly minor things
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Which of the following people living in the United States is most likely to develop GAD?
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Monica, a 50-year-old woman
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Which physiological measure consistently distinguishes individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) from non-anxious normal subjects?
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increased muscle tension
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For generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), the pharmacological treatment of choice has been the category of drugs known as ___________.
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benzodiazepines
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Research suggests that people with GAD worry
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without images but try to avoid the associated negative affect
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Barlow and others (1992) developed a cognitive-behavioral treatment for GAD that helps the patient
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confront anxiety-provoking thoughts and images
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Evidence now suggests that agoraphobic avoidance behavior is one component of
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severe, unexpected panic attack.
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Agoraphobic avoidance behavior appears to be determined by
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the extent to which the person expects another panic attack to occur.
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Which of the following is an accurate statement about panic disorder?
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Most individuals with panic disorder will also avoid internal sensations that produce physiological arousal.
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Agoraphobia, which has come to mean “fear of going out,” derives from the Greek word agora, meaning ____________.
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marketplace
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A teenage girl had recently been having panic attacks while shopping at the mall. She was sitting in her room feeling very depressed. To cheer her up, a friend suggested that they both go to an exercise class. Shortly after the warm-up started, however, she had another panic attack. What is the best explanation for this occurrence?
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The physical sensations experienced during exercise had become an internal cue for panic to occur
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An individual who suffers from panic disorder might become anxious about climbing stairs, exercising, or being in hot rooms because these activities produce sensations similar to those accompanying a panic attack. In psychological terms, the exercise and hot rooms have become __________.
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conditioned stimuli
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Panic attack studies suggest that men
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consume alcohol to deal with panic attacks.
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Panic attacks tend to occur most often
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during sleep between 1:30 and 3:30 a.m.
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People with a psychological vulnerability to panic attacks tend to ________ normal physical sensations.
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catastrophize
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Nocturnal panic attacks generally occur when an individual is ____________.
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deeply asleep
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The phenomenon known as “isolated sleep paralysis” is most likely to occur in _________ who suffer from panic disorder.
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African Americans
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Panic control treatment
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all of the above (was developed by the textbook authors, concentrates on exposing the patients to the cluster of physical sensations that remind them of their panic attacks, involves the therapist to create “mini” attacks in the office)
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In treating panic disorder, all of the following types of medications are used EXCEPT ________.
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opiates
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The purpose of creating mini panic attacks in panic control treatment therapy is to
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allow the patient to develop alternative attitudes about the feared situation.
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What is one factor that distinguishes between traditional exposure-based treatments for panic disorder and the more recent panic control treatment (PCT) developed at one of Barlow’s clinics?
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Exposure to the interceptive sensations associated with panic attacks
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Which of the following procedures is NOT part of Barlow’s panic control treatment (PCT)?
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Reducing agoraphobic avoidance by exposure to feared situations (part of PCT: cognitive therapy to modify conscious or unconscious perceptions about the “dangerousness” of feared situations, creation of mini panic attacks in the therapist’s office, exercises to elevate the heart rate or spinning to make the patient dizzy)
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A friend stated that when she went to a clinic, she had to spend several 30- to 60-second sessions shaking her head from side to side, spinning in a chair, tensing all her muscles, hyperventilating, or breathing through a narrow straw. She is surprised that you correctly guessed that she is receiving treatment for
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panic disorder.
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A major double-blind research study sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health looked at the separate and combined effects of both psychological and drug treatments for patients suffering from panic disorder. Participants were randomized into five different treatment conditions, including all but which of the following?
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deep brain stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation
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A relative of yours who suffers from panic disorder asks you what treatment would have the longest-lasting benefits. Since you have just read about the double-blind NIMH research study evaluating psychological treatments with and without medication, you tell your relative to first try
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psychological treatment that includes cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
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D-cycloserine is a drug that seems to act to work in the
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amygdala to diminish anxiety.
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All of the following are characteristics common to specific phobias EXCEPT
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decreased arousal of the autonomic nervous system (characteristics common to specific phobias: strong and persistent anxiety related to a specific object or situation, significant attempts by the anxious individual to avoid the phobic situation, recognition by the person with the phobia that the anxiety is excessive or unreasonable)
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In the type of specific phobia called “blood-injury-injection,” there is an inherited vasovagal response and a tendency to faint due to
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decrease in blood pressure.
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Manuel had a fear of riding on buses, so his mother had to drive him to school every day. Manuel’s phobia is a(n) _________ phobia.
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situational
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The main difference between situational phobia and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) is
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people with situational phobia never experience panic attacks outside the context of the phobic situation.
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You are told about a child who has shown behavior consistent with “separation anxiety.” In order to determine if the child actually has a disorder or whether the behavior is normal, you would first need to know
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the child’s age.
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The median age of onset for a specific phobia is ____.
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7
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A psychological disorder in children characterized by unrealistic and persistent worry that something will happen to their parents, which may result in refusal to leave home is called
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separation anxiety disorder
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When diagnosing separation anxiety disorder in children, clinicians must
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be wary for psychotic episodes that often precipitate this condition.
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In the general population, as many as ____ of people suffer from social anxiety disorder at some point in their lives.
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12.1%
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According to your textbook, there are at least three ways of developing a phobia. Which is NOT one of these ways?
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Having a nightmare about a feared situation (ways to develop phobia: experiencing a panic attack in a specific situation, observing someone else experience severe fear, in certain conditions being told about danger)
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According to your textbook, new techniques have made it possible to treat some phobias effectively in one _____.
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day
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In regard to treatment of specific phobias, which of the following statements is correct?
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Exposure-based exercises actually change before
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Which of the following would NOT be considered an example of social phobia?
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A student who is reluctant to speak up in a classroom due to fear of embarrassing herself.

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